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AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION 

OF 

THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. 

Vol. l.—SUTRASTHANAM. 



AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION , 

OF 

THE' SUSHRUTA SAMHITA 

BASED ON ORIGINAL SANSKRIT TEXT. 



Wt 



EDITED AND PUBLISHED 
BY 

KAVIRAJ KUNJA LAL BHISHAGRATNA 

WITH A FULL AND COMPREHENSIVE INTRODUCTION, TRANSLATION 

OF DIFFERENT READINGS, NOTES, COMPARATIVE 

VIEWS, INDEX, GLOSSARY 

&. 

PLATES. 
( IN THREE VOL UMES. ) 

Vol. I.-SUTRASTHANAM. 

CALCUTTA : ^ 

No. lO, KASHI GHOSE'S LANE. ' 

1907. * -• 



. f' 







srf3 

Printed by J. N. Bose. 
' '^ / College Square, Calcutta. 




MW Riqhtx Rexd'ved) 



• 




WAHAMAIlUPAbHVAYA KAVIRAJ DVARKANAIH SEN, KAVIKATNA. 
( In Durbar dress ) 



II w^ff^ II 



PREFACE. 



--^^B' 



Xo special ^polcfgy is necessary for the publication 
of an English translation of the Sushruta Samhita. The 
vast medical literature of ancient India practically 
remains as yet unexplored, and any undertaking, which 
„has the obiect of making that terra incognita, known to 
thescientific world, is bound to be welcomedby the public. 
Spasmodic attempts have been made by several scholars 
and erudite bodies to bring out an English translation of 
the Sushruta Samhita, as the most representative work of 
the Ayurveda, but we regret to say that such efforts have 
hitherto proved abortive. In spite of incomplete infor- 
mation on the subject many drugs of the Ayurvedic 
?vlateria Medica have been adopted by different foreign 
systems of medicine, and this has afforded us a fresh 
impetus to issue an English translation of the book, which 
not only deals with the essentials of Indian Therapeutics 
but embraces the whole range of the science of A3airveda, 
as it was understood and practised by the Vedic sages. 

We sincerely hope that the English rendering of 
Sushruta, which we have undertaken, will, when 
completed, supply a long-felt want and help to start 
a fuller inquiry into the properties of the indige- 
nous drugs of India. Many institutions have been 
already started both in England and Germany with 
the sole object of studying the reti(^logy of tropical 
diseases, and of formulating an empirical system of 
their prevention and cure, and we, hope an I4nglish 
translation of the Sushruta Samhita, embracing as it 



^11 

does the results of researches made by our ancient 
Rishis ill the land of their origin(^ may contribute no 
small amount of useful information to those bodies. 
"We have many things to learn" observes Lt. Col. C. P. 
Lukis, M.b., F.R.C.S., I. M.S., Principal, Medical College, 
Calcutta, "from the people of this country in respect 
of medicine and medical science," and five doubt not 
that an accurate knowledge of the contents of this 
splendid monument of the Ayurveda in quarters where 
it has every chance of being utilised and improved 
upon will make the Inmian race better equipped too 
combat the ills of life. 

A few remarks on the method we have adopted in 
editing this work are necessarv by way of explana- 
tion. We have carefully collated all the available 
texts of the Sushruta Samhita, whether printed 
or otherwise, expunging from the body of our work 
all texts, which, though not proved to be wholly 
spurious, are of questionable authority, and putting 
them in foot-notes as "Different Readings" or "Additional 
Texts." In cases of doubt or discrepancy of opinion 
we have thought fit to abide by the decision of 
our revered preceptor, Mahamahopadhyaya Kaviraj 
Dvarkanath Sen, Kaviratna, and inserted within 
brackets explanatory clauses, where a strictly literal 
translation of texts would not convey their true meaning. 
In many instances it is impossible to find in the English 
language equivalent words for the technical terms of the 
A3'urveda. In such cases we have put approximate 
English words within brackets, after the original Sanskrit 
terms. For exapiple we have translated the term Ojah 
as albumen. Sut the Ojah of the Ayurveda is a disputed 
thing, t It may mean something like but not exactl)' 
albumen; glycogen, which contributes largely to 



Ill "^ , 

the reproductive activity of tlfe body in certaiR)*instances. 
would appear to be the more correct description. In 
cases like this we h'ave not put before our readers, 
any suggestions of our own, but left them free to 
draw their own inference. And for this purpose we 
further intend to Append to the last volume of this 
work an index a,nd a glossary illustrating the possible 
meanings of the Ayurvedic terms with English and 
Latin synonyms, wherever possible. The true meaning 
of the Ayurveda can be better explained or understood 
only with the light of moder.n science, and we leave it 
to our European colleagues to carry on the research on 
the lines we have suggested with regard to this ancient 
S3'stem of medicine, which a better knowledge of its 
principles and methods will enable them to do. 

By a lamentable oversight, the terms Vayu, Pittani, 
Kaphah and Dosha have been translated as wind, bile, 
phlegm and humour in the first few chapters. 

For the sake of convenience we have divided the 
entire work into three volumes, the first containing only 
the Sutrasthanam, the second Xidanam, Sharira and 
Chikitsa, and the third Kalpa and Uttara Tantram. 

We have adopted the diagrams of surgical instruments 
from that most valuable work of the Thakore Saheb of 
Gondal, called the History of the Aryan Medical 
Science, for which I am particularly indebted to His 
Highness. 

In conclusion, we beg to conve\' our sincerest thanks 
to our preceptor's son Kaviraj Jogendranath Sen Vidya- 
bhusana M. A., Dr. U. D. Banerji L. R. C. P., M. R. C. S. 
(Lond), and Lt. Col. K. P. Gupta M. A., M. D., I. ^l. S., 
Professor Janakinath Bhattacharya M.A. B?L., P.R.S. 
for having kindly examined the different portions 
of the manuscript. I am grateful to Dr. Surendranath 



<■ IV 

t 

f # 

(josvaini B^A., L. M. S. teo, for the kind interest he 
has all 'along taken in the publicittion of this work and 
/>i"or various intelhgent suggestions, which haxc been of 
consfderable help to me. 

My thanks are also due to numerous learned authors, 
ancient and modern 'from whose writings, I ha\e found 
it necessary to make frequent quotcition^. 



10, Kashi Ghose's Laxe. ] KUNJA LAL BIIISHAGKATNA. 

i.-^t TJeceiiiher, igoy. \ 

CALCUTTA. J Kaviraj. 



TNTRODTK^TION. 



^^ 



Sushruta :— His age and personality :— A few 

preliminary observations regarding the technique of the 
Ayurvedic system of medicine are necessary at the 
outset to correctly understand thp aim and scope of the 
Sushruta Samhita. Who was Sushruta ? When and 
where did he live and flourish ? These are questions 
that would naturally suggest themselves to the readers of 
the following pages ; but the}^ can only be imperfectly 
answered like all similar questions respecting the lives 
of our ancient worthies. In a country like India 
where life itself was simply regarded as an illusion, the 
lives of kings or commoners were deemed matters of little 
moment to the vital economy of the race ; and all histories 
and biographies were looked upon as the embodiment 
of thLe flimsy vanities of life. Lives of saints and canonised 
kings had been made use of in certain instances as themes 
of national epics. But they were intended more to elucidate 
or enunciate the doctrines of certain schools of Ethics or 
Metaphysics than to record any historical fact or event. 
Authentic history we have none beyond chronicles of state 
events and royal names in some instances ; and those which 
are usually found in the Sanskrit Puranas are strange com- 
binations of myths and legends, which often contradict 
each other. Hence the utter futility of attempts to explain 
a historical fact by the light of a votive npdal or tablet 
unearthed perhaps frorri the ruins of one of sur ancient 
cities. Such an endeavour serves, in most cases, only to 
make the " darkness visible, " • and the confusion more 
confounded. 



ii 'iNTROniTCTIOX. 

Identity of Sushruta and Divodasa :— It is only safe 
to assert that Sushruta was of tl>e raceof Vishvamitra. The 
Mahabharatam f i) represents him as a son of that roval sage. 
This coincides with the description given of him in the present 
recension of the Samhita. The Garuda Puranam (2) places 
Divodasa as fourth in descent from Dhanvantari, the first 
propounder of medical science on earti}, whereas the 
Sushruta Samhita describes the two as identical persons. But 
this apparent anomaly in the Samhita can be accounted 
for, if we consider that in some parts of India the custom 
still prevails of appending, for the purposes of better identi- 
fication, the name of one's father, or of a glorious ancestor 
to one's name, and it is therefore not surprising that 
Divodasa (the preceptor of Sushruta), who was a firm 
believer in the doctrine of psychic transmigration, should 
represent himself as an incarnation of Dhanvantari, and 
a=.sume his name and style in the usual wav. Revond this 
meagre genealogy we possess no trustworthy information 
regarding the life and personalitv of Sushruta, the father of 
Indian Surgery. 

Age of the Sushruta Samhita:— We have no means of 
ascertaining what the Samhita was like as originally written 
hv Sushruta, the present being only a recension, or rather a 

Mahahhiralam — Anushasan Parva, Ch. W 

(2} f^-^rf*T^TC^T<T Tnf^E^T^?i: %<^v. 1 

^T5?I^T3I»??T'Pr*T^r: f^Tr??T^»^^3: II 

Garuda PuranAm, Chap. 139, \'s. 8- 11, 



INTRODUCTION* lil 

>■> 

recension of recensions, made oy N^garjuna (i)? All opinions 
concur in identifying hifn ^with the celebrated founder of 
the Madhyamika school of Buddhistic philosophy — a fac| 
which materially assists us in fixing the age of the present 
Samhita. A few quotations from the Vriddha (old) Sushruta 
are all that are preserved of the oViginal Sainhitu. But 
their genuineness is ot a problematic character, and we are 
not sure whether the}- are the productions of lesser lights, 
or of ancient though less renowned commentators, attri- 
buted to the master to invest thciU with a greater sanctity 
;ind authority— a practice which was quite common 
amongst the bibliographers of Ancient India. 

Date of Nagarjuna :— At all events Nagarjuna who 
redacted the Sushruta Samhita lived about the latter part of 
the fourth century before the__Chris£ian era ;(2) and the 

Dallanas Commentary, Sulrasth^nam, Ch. I. i. 

Dallana mentions the names of Jejjada, Gayadasa etc., as the redactors 
of the original Samhita, and rejects as spurious or of questionable authority 
the texts which cannot be found in their editions of the work. Must 
probably the authoritative verses are quotations from the Vriddha Sushruta. 

Recension or Pratisamsk^ra consists in curtaiUng statements that have 
been made inordinately elaborate, and in dilating upon truths lliat have 
been very succinctly dealt with in the original book. A Redactor or 
Pralisamaskarta makes an old book new again. 

A Samhita, on the other hand, deals with aphorisms coniained in the 

Vedas. ^ 

t^T^f^lfST?! #f%m'TTT: H^lf^cTT: I 

(2) rT^T VUT^Jf!: SIT^nFff^ qif*!/^: ! 

Rijatarangini I. Taranga. Vs. 172-173. 



IV wtroAj 



CTION. 



original or V^rtddha Sus|jruta 'must have been wriUen at 
least two centuries earlier in order 'to acquire that hoary 
aythority and prescription of age,* which alone could 
have given its right to a recension at the time. Several 
scholars on the authority of a very vague and general 
statement concerning* the recension of the Samhita 
in Dallana's commentary, ascribe th'e authorship of the 
Uttaratantram (latter portion of '.the Sushruta Samhita) to 
Nagarjuna. We, on the other hand, hold the Uttaratantram 
to be neither an interpolation, nor a subsequent addition, 

• but that it forms an integral portion of the book as it was 
originally written, though not planned by the Rishi. 
In the first Chapter of Sutrasthanani Divodasa formally 
divides the Science of Ayurveda into eight subdivisions, 
such as, the Shalya (surgery), Sh^iakya (portion treating of 
diseases restricted to super-clavicular regions such as the 
eyes, etc.), Kaya-Chikitsa (general diseases such as, fever, 
etc.), but does not speak anything about them in the first five 
Sthcinas or subdivisions of the book. It is only once in 
the 25th chapter of the Sutrasthanani that he mentions 
the name of Netravartma (diseases of the eyelids) in con- 
nection with the classification of surgical operations. It is 
inxpossible that Divodasa would fall short of his duties 
by omitting to give instructions on all the subdivisions of 
the Ayurveda as he promises at the outset, or that Sushruta 
would leave his Samhita, which is pre-eminently a work 
on surgery, incomplete by banishiiT g_^ophthal mic ^ surgery, 

\ laryngotomy or fever-therapeutics from his work. From 
I the general plan of the book we can safely assert that 
Sushruta dealt with easier or more elementary topics in 
the first five subdivisions of his Samhita in the manner of 
our modern progressive readers, reserving the discussion 
of those re^uirmg a more advanced knowledge and skill 
for the Uttaratantram. The Uttara*^^antram has not been 
incluued within the five original subdivisions of the Samhita 
inasmuch as it embraces and more elaborately discusses 



INTRODUCl'ION. J V 

>■> 

lupics which legitimately beloi^g to, ^or are but»incidentairy 
mentioned in those subdivisions. Hence it is more ot 
the nature of an appendix or supplement, arising out of the^ 
exigencies of the original subdivisions. It is probable that 
Nagarjuna might have redacted this part of the Samhita 
in common with its other portions. (i} 

Western opipions* on the subject :— The consensus 
of western opinions is to place Nagarjuna in the first 
quarter of the third Century B. C. (2), and for fixing 
Sushruta as a contemporary of Sakya Sinha Buddha. It 
i^ contended that the age immediately preceding Sakya 
Muni was a period of decadence in Hindu thought ; and 
the Sushruta Samhita must have been the fruit of a revived 
intellectual activity which usually follows the advent of a 
new creed^an assumption which is in favour of the 
hypothesis of Greek influence on the Hindu system of 
medicine. But great men there had been in India before 
Buddha. The age which immediately preceded the age 
of Buddha was by no means an age of decadence properly 
speaking, the age which followed the downfall of Buddliisin 
shows, on the contrar}', signs of true decadence. India had 
had eminent philosophers and scientists almost contempo- 
raneously with the great Buddha. The chronological facts 
collected above from the Mahabharatam, and the Garuda 
Puranam could have been construed to prove that the 
age of Sushruta was prior to that of the Mahabharatam 
but for the internal evidence furnished by the Samhitn 
itself as to the probable date of its composition which we 
shall have occasion to deal with later on. ♦> 

Extraneous Evidence :— Sushruta is mentioned in the 



(i) MaMmahopadhyaya Kaviraj Dvaiaka N^lh .^en Kaviialna of 
Calcutta subscribes to this opinion — Tr. ■, 

(2) Bael's Buddhistic Records of the Western World. \'ol. II. P. 212. 
Stein's Rdjatarant^uai. > 

(3) Lalita-Vistarain — Raja R. L. Mitter's Edition, Chaptef I. 



VI * INTRODUCTION. ^- 

V^rtikas oP'(i) Katyayana ^4 Century B. C.) and we have 

no hesitation in saying thatP'^Iie* original Sarnhita was 

^vritten at least two centuries before the birth of Buddha. 

'■f 
We are equally ready to admit, on the other hand, that 

the tinal recension of the Sarnhita by Nagarjuna, at least the 

form in which we have it, was made about the second 

Century B. C. ' ^ 

Two Nagarjunas :— Several scholars, on the authority 
of Dallana (the celebrated commentator of the Sushruta 
Samhita) endeavour to establish the identity of Nagarjuna 
(the redactor of this Samhita) with his namesake, the 
celebrated alchemist of the tenth Century (2). But their 
contentions fall to the ground when we know that many 
verses of the Sushruta Samhita occur in the works of 
Bagbhat (Ashtangahridayam) and Madhava (Nidanam), 
which are two of the works which were translated by the 
order of the Kaliph (3) in the eighth century. The internal 
evidences of the book do not supply us with any authentic 
material to compose anything like a biography of this 
father of Hindu Surgery. • 

Internal Evidence :— The line in the Samhita, which 
has formed the veritable bone of contention amongst 
scholars of all shades of opinion as throwing a light upon 
the probable date of its composition, occurs ni the Sharira — 
Sthanam, in connection with the development of the foetal 
body and reads as "Subhuti Gautama said that it is the 
trunk that tirst developed." 

Conflicting testimonies and the uncertain indication 
of materiaSs at our disposal : — It is a matter of historic 

(l) f^^ffll^^^tf" 

K;5 lyayana'si V^rlikas lo Panini's Grammar. 

"' Chakra Dutta — Rash^yandhikara. 
(3) P. C. Roy— Hindu Chcmislry p. X\'1II. (1902), 



INTRODtTrTIOX. ' VU 

■>•) 

certainty that Subhuti was o^e of, the personal disciples 
of Sakya Sinha Buddha, and that it was customary 
amongst the contemporaVy Buddliists to append the appela- , 
tion of their (i) lord fGautama or Rodhisattva) to the "name 
of a proselyte to accentuate his wisdom and sanctity in the 
world. A certain section of scholars is'never tired of setting 
up this line as a conclusive evidence of the fact that the 
Samhita was, at best, a contemporary production of early 
Buddhism. But they shut their eyes to opinions of 
Shaunaka and others on the subject quoted exactl)' in the 
same portion of the book, which places the date of its 
composition at least several centuries earlier. Shaunaka, 
who was the si.vth in remove from the immortal Vyasa in 
direct line of discipleship, was the author of the renowned 
Shaunaka Samhita of the Atharvan. These facts lend a 
very plausible colour to our hypothesis that the original 
Sushruta Samhita which, was first composed perhaps con- 
temporaneously with the latter portions of the Atharvan, 
naturally discussed the opinions of Shaunaka and other 
Vedic embryologists, while Nagarjuna, at the time of 
redacting that book, quoted the opinion of his contemporar}' 
Subhuti for the purpose of giving him an equal status with 
the Vedic Rishis, if for nothing else. 

Greek Influence : — As regards Hellenic influence on the 
Hindu system of medicine and on the Sushruta Samhita in 
special, we must disabuse our mind of all sentiments of 
racial vanity and proceed to investigate the case in a 
scientific and unprejudiced spirit before giving a more 
detailed account of the contents of the SushrutaiSamhita. 

(i) Nagarjuna Bodhisattva was well practised in the art of compound- 
ing medicine. N^gSrjuna Bodhisattva by moistening all the great stones 
with a divine and superior decoction changed them into gold. — Bael's 
Buddhistic Records of the western world Vol. II. 

AnuvSk 19, 45. 46. 5. 



iNTRonurrioN. 



Su^hrufa and Hippocrates -.—From the very apparent 
similarity which exists between jhe contents of this Samhita 
•and tjie aphorisms of Hippocrates, many western scholars 
are apt ,to conclude too hastily that the ancient Indians 
drew their inspiration in the healing art from the medical 
works of the Greeks. But the reverse may be said of 
the Greeks as well with the greater confidence because such 
an assertion is supported by historic facts, and confirmed by 
the researches of the scholars of the west (i). According 
to all accounts Pythagoras was the founder of the healing 
art amongst the Greeks and the Hellenic peoples in general 
(2). This great philosopher imbibed his mysteries and 
metaphysics from the Brahmanas of India. Mr. Pocock 
in his Jnt^ia in Greece identifies him with Buddhagurus or 
Buddha, and it is but an easy inference to suppose that 
he carried many recipes and aphorisms of his master's 
Ayurveda with him. The sacred bean of Pythagoras is 
thought to have been the (3) Indian Nelumbium (Utpalam). 
We know thai simnllaneously with the birth of Buddhism, 
Buddhist Sramanas were sent out to Greece, Asia minor. 
Egypt and ether distant countries to preach their new 
religion. They were known to the Greeks and 
there is good reason to believe that the Greek Simnoi 
(venerable) were no other than the Buddhist Sramanas (4). 
Now a missionary usually teaches the sciences of his 
country in addition to the preaching of his gospel. The 
distant mission stations or monasteries of Buddhism were 

(1) There*1s no ground whatever to suppose that Sushruta borrowed 
his system of medicine from the Greeks. On the contrary, there is much 
to tell against such an idea— Weber's History of Indian Literature. 

(2) The Origin and Growth of the Healing Art — Bedroe P. 162. 

(3) Pratt's FloNiering Plants. Vol. I P. 57. 

(4) These *Simoi (venerable) whom Clemeni of Alexandria has 
narraleil to have rendered worship to a pjTamid originally dedicated to 
tiie relics of a god, were the Buddhi!»t Arhals (venerables) Sramanas. 

Lalita-Vistaram— T\:iia R^jendra I.ala Milter's Edition. Ch. I. 



INTRODUGTION. , IX 

the principal centres for disseaiinating Brahm^»nic culture 
in distant lands, and Hippocrates, though he did his' utmost 
to liberate medical sciertce iVom the thraldom of speculative 
philosophy, yet might have thought it necessary tG>tetain 
only those truths of the Ayurveda which Pythagoras and 
the Buddhistic brotherhood might have imported into his 
country, and which do not exactly appertain to the domain 
of pure metaphysics. Of course, it is quite possible for men 
of different nationalities to arrive at the same truth cr 
conclusion independently. There are coincidences i'l science 
as in art and philosophy, (i) Gravitation and circulation 
of blood (2) were known ta tfite Indians long before 
the births of Newton and Harvey in Europe. The cele- 
brated atomic theory was preached in the Gangetic valley 
some five hundred years before the birth of Christ (3). 
But well may we ask those, who still adhere to this Hellenic 
hobby, to look at the reverse side of the picture as well. 
It may be stated without the least fear of contradiction 
that the Charaka and Sushruta, through the Channel of 
Arabic, Persian and Latin translations still form the 

Siddhanla Shiromani (Bhaskaracharyaya) GolodhyAya. 

iT^^TR ^R ^fq II ???Tg lifqcT' ^^ %-^^ ^^^i t%Tr:, cI^t^ f^q^r 

^JTT T\\^^ T.w^^m: I VTT^fl^TaiiT | (BhavaprakasUa). 

The Hdrita Samhitd, which according to certain scholars, is older than 
the Sushruta SamhitS, refers to the circulation of blood in describing 
I'induroga (Anemia). The disease, he observes, is caused by eating clay 
which thus blocks the lumen of veins and obstructs the circulation of blood, 
Bhcivamisra, the celebrated author of Bh^vaprakdsham, and who is a 
century older than Harvey, has the above couplets bearing on the sufcject. 

(3) Vaiseshika Darshana by Kandda. 



X Introduction. 

»«• 

basis of all sj-stems of s^ienti^c medicines in the world (i). 
Of these, the Sushruta Samhit^ is the most representative 
;vork of the Hindu system of medicine. It embraces all 
that can possibly appertain to the science of medicine (2). 

Sushruta prior to Charaka :— The general consensus 
of expert opinion is to place Charaka prior to Sushruta in 
respect of time. But the Puninas unat^mously describe 
Sushruta as a disciple of Dhanvantari, the first-propounder 
of medical science. The long compounds (samasas) used 
by him, the prose and metrical portions of the Sushruta 
after the models of Jaimini, Patanjali, and other philosophi,r 
cal writers who had adopted prose or metre according to 
the e.xegetic or rationalistic tenor of the subjects in their 
works, have all been cited to prove Sushruta a contemporary 
of the Darshanas, or of Buddha. But these may serve, at 
least, to fix the date of the recension by Nagarjuna, i.e., the 
Sushruta Samhita as we have it, but can never help to 
determine the chronology of Sushruta, the disciple of Dhan- 
vantari "who was churned out of the primordial ocean in 
the golden age (Satya Yuga) (3). On the other hand, if 

(l) A, "The great works of Charaka and Sushruta were translated into 

Arabic, under the patronage of Kaliph Almansur, in the seventh century. 

The Arabic version of Sushruta is known by the name of " Kelale- 
Shawshoore-al-Hindi." These translations in their turn were rendered into 
Latin. The Latin versions formed the basis of European medicine, which 
remained indebted to the Eastern science of medicine down to the 
seventeenth century."— History of the Aryan Medical science (Th^kore 
Saheb of Gondal) P. 196. 

B, For tljc indebtedness of Arabic school of Medicine to the works of 
Indian masters, see Puschmann P. 162. 

C. BednVe. Book IV. Ch. IL 286—299. 
(2) Dr. Wise (Hindu system of medicine). 

f^>?fT ^?5^^' ^'n?T^T 5B5f5TfT: II 

Garuda PurSnam. Chip. 142, Vs. 5-6. 



INTROniTC?ION. , xi 

the testimonies of the Puninas -♦have anj- histor^6al worth, 
we ca!i safely place him somewhere in the Satya Yuga, (age) 
at least in those dim centuries which immediate})' succeeded 
the composition of the Atharvan. Charaka, too. in coi^nec- 
tion with his discourse on the development of the foetal body 
has cited the opinion of Dhanvantaii (ij on the subject 
(tiie same as promulgated in the Sushruta S'amhita) & 
referred his disciples to the Dhanvantari school of surgeons 
(meaning Sushruta and his school) in cases where surgical 
aid and knowledge are necessary ; this proves that Sushruta 
was before Charaka. 

Sushruta as a Surgeon : — Stishr'uta was emphatically a 
'•'igeon, and the Sushruta Samhiti is the only complete 
'ok we have which deals with the problems of practi- 
)cal surgery and midwifer}'. Almost all the other Samhitas 
written by Sushruta's fellow students are either lost to us, 
lor are but imperfectly preserved. To Sushruta may be attri- 
buted the glory of elevating the art of handling a lancet 
or forceps to the status of a practical science, and it maj' 
not be out of place here to give a short history of the 
Ayurveda as it was practised and understood in Pre-^uhsrutic 
times if only to accentuate the improvements which he 
introduced in every branch of medical science. 

Commentators of the Sushruta Samhita : — We would 
be guilty of ingratitude if we closed this portion of our 
dissertation without expressing a deep sense of our obliga- 
tion to Jejjada Achiirya, Gayadasa, Bhaskara, Madhava, 
Brahmadeva, Dallana and Chakrapani Datta, the celebrated 
commentators and scholiasts of the Samhitd, 'ji'lio have 
laboured much to make the book a repository of priceless 

(i) ^^i'f*T?fTiaTqKfH ^^^f^: I 

Charaka, .Shariraslhiinam. Chap. \'. 

I^Tt EfTcT^T^Tt ssit^'^^'I^^ II ' "> 

Charaka, ChikitshSsth^nam. Chap. V. 



xn • INTRODUCTION. 

wisdom ancf experienge. D'allana has made use of all the 
commentaries in revising and collating the texts of 
.Sushruta Samhita. 

Origin and History of the A yurveda : —In the science 
of medicine, as in all other branches of study, the ancient 
Aryans claim to have derived their knowledge from the 
gods through direct revelation. Su*shruta in his Samhita 
has described the Ayurveda as a subdivision (Upanga) of the 
Atharvan (i), while according to others the science of the 
Ayurveda has its origin in the verses of the Rik Samhita 
(2). Indeed the origin of the science is lost in dim anti- 
quity. Death and disease there had been in the world since 
the advent of man ; it was by following the examples of 
lower animals in disease, that our primitive ancestors 
acquired by chance the knowledge about the properties of 
many valuable medicinal drugs. There is a verse in the 
Rigveda which shows that the lower animals were the 
preceptors of man in matters of selecting food stuffs and 
medicinal simples (3K Individual experiences in the realms 
of cure and hygiene were collected, and codified, and thus 
formed the bases of the present Ayurveda. The verses in 
the Vedas clearly mark each step in the progress of medical 
knowledge. The properties of a new drug were always 
hymned in a Vedic verse with a regularity which enables us 
to put our finger upon the very time when a particular 
drug of our Materia Medica first came to be of service of 
man (4). 

(i) Sushruta Samhita, Sutrasthanam. Ch. I. 3. 

(2) ^jrC^^T^^i? ^qt?: 

Charana ^^•uha by \^y5sa. 

(3) jitfwT^* ^w(f[ I ^?^^ «i» I ^^ I ^a. 

(4) A. ipc: wii: ^gfi'?Tt^5Tifn It^r'^q^rd'T^ 1 



Atharvan SamhitS 
U. Sec also Ibid I 2 II. 4. 7. 9. 25, 27 and 36. 



INTRODUCTION. , Xlil 

Discrepancies accounted' for : — Verses q\i medicine, 
hygiene, and surgery, etc. lie scattered throughout the four 
Vedas. Those having bearing on Medicine proper occur 
most in the Rigveda, and perhaps it was for this reasoT^i that 
Agnivesha, who was a physician, has ascribed the^origin of 
the Ayurveda to revelations in the Rik Samhitd. Precepts" 
relating to the art anu practice of surgery are found most in 
the Atharvan (i), which amply accounts for the fact of 
Sushruta's opinion of holding the Ayurveda as a subdivision 
of the Atharvan, as he was pre-eminentl}' a surgeon himself. 
Different kinds of physicians :— Vedic India, like 
Ancient Egypt, recognised the principle of the division of 
labour among the followers of the healing art. There were 
Shalya Vaidyas (surgeons), Bhisaks (physicians) and Bhisag- 
atharvans (magic doctors), and we find that at the time of 

{ the Mahabharatam, which nearly approaches the age of our 
author, the number of the sects had increased to five which 

J were named as Rogaharas (physicians^ Shalyaharas (sur- 
geons), Vishaharas (poison curers), . Krityaharas (demon- 
doctors) and Bhisag-Atharvans (2). 

In the Vedic age (before the age of Sushruta) physicians 
had to go out into the open streets, calling out for patients 
(3^ They lived in houses surrounded by gardens of 
medicinal herbs. The Rigveda mentions the names of a 
thousand and one medicinal drugs (4). Verses eulogising 
the virtues of water as an all-healer, and of certain trees and 
herbs as purifiers of the atmosphere are not uncommon in the 
Vedas. Indeed the rudiments of Embryology, Midwifery, 
child management (pediatrics) and sanitation were foimu- 

(i) ciwT?^Tre5nf^=^=^ '^]'^T\^ ?^Tf*ni5iTW^M 1 

Rik Samhitfi I M. 1 16-16. 
(2) MahAbhdratam. Shantiparva. Rajadharmanu^hashan Parv5dhydya. 

(3) ^cT' f^^^^ I 

Rigveda. IX M» 112. ■> 

(4) sifT* % ^m^ fm^ ^^'^g^f^TT. Rik. 



XIV INTROgDUCTION. 

lated in thecage of the Vedas i^nd Brahmanas, and we shall 
present^' see how from* these scanty- and confused materials 
Sushruta created a science and a Sanjhita which inv'ice the 
ddmirs^.ion of the world even after thousands of years of 
human prc*gress. 

Origin of A'yurvedic Surgery : — In India, as in all 
other countries, curative spells and hewing mantras preceded 
medicine (i) ; and the first man of medicirte in India was 
a priest, a Bhisag Atharvan, who held a superior position to 
a surgeon in society. The first Aryan setLlements in the 
Punjab were often assailed by the dark aborigines of the 
country, and in the wars .that ensued surgeons had fre-' 
quently to attend to the Aryaa chiefs and soldiery. So in 
the Rigveda (2) we find that legs were amputated and 
replaced by iron substitutes, injured eyes were plucked out, 
and arrow shafts were extracted from the limbs of the 
Aryan warriors. Nay we have reasons to believe that 
many difficult surgical operations were successfully per- 
formed, thougli some of them sound almost incredible. 
But although the aid of surgery was constantly sought 
for, surgeons were not often allowed to mix in the 
Brahmanic society of Vedic India. This is hinted at by 
our author when he says that it was during the wars be 
tween the gods and demons that the Ashvins, the surgeons 
of heaven, did not become entitled to any sacrificial oblation 
till they had made themselves eligible for it by uniting the 
head of the god of sacrifice to his decapitated body. The 
story of the progress of Ayurvedic surgery is long and inter- 
esting, but it must suffice here to mention that with the 

(1) Bedroe"s Origin of the Healing Art, and Sir John Lubbock's 
Prehistoric times, 

(2) ^^ 5igi^i^?5l f^aj^i^^ait V% f|fIWfT% flsi^"*f' II 

t 

• « » * » 

Rik Samhita I A. 8 Ad. 186 S. 116. 5. 



INTRODUCTION. ' XV 

' ' > ' 

return of peace, the small Aiynn settlements grew in number 
and prosperit}-. And the rich Ar3'an nobles now travelled in 
stately carriages, and as there were constant accidents ihere ■ 
arose a class of surgeons who exclusively devoted tlfemselves 
to the treatment of injured animals. The surgeons, now no 
longer required in camps and on battle fields, had to attend 
on the rich ladies at baronial castles during parturition, the 
magic doctor (Bhisag Atharvan) who could assuage fever and 
concoct lo\e potions (i) being held as the greatest of them 
all. But the Vedic Aryans had a regular armoury against pain 
and suffering, which is in no way inferior to our present 
day Materia Medica. But of that we shall speak later on 
in connection with the therapeutics of Sushruta. 

The scope and nature of Sushruta's Surgery :- So 

rnuch for the history of Vedic Surgery. It is in the Su- 

(shruta Samhita that we first come across a systematic 
method of arranging the surgical experiences of the older 
surgeons, and of collecting the scattered facts of the science 
^fom the vast range of Vedic literature. Sushruta had no 
desire of abandoning the Vedas in the darkness and pushing 
en an independent voyage of discovery. The crude methods 
and the still cruder implements of incision such as, bits of 
glass, bamboo skins etc., laid down and described in the 
Samhita, may bj the relics of a primitive instrumentalogy 
which tiiund favour vviih our ancestors long before the 
hymnisation of any Rik verse. Practical surgery requires 
a good knowledge of practical anatomy. The quartered 
animals at the Vedic sacriiices afforded excellent materials 
for the framing of a comparative anatomy (2)'. Sushruta 
devoted his whole life to the pursuit of surgery proper, to 

Rik Samhit5. X M. 145 S. i. 
(2) Vide .^itareya Br^hmana I, 2. II, i±. Ill, 37, 



XVI • INTRODUCTION. 

which he b/'ought a niyid stored with luminous analogies 
from the lower animals. It was he who first classified all 
♦.surgical operations into five differe'nt kinds, and grouped 
them under heads such as Aharya (extractions of solid 
bodies), Bhedya (excising), Chhedya (incising), Eshya (prob- 
ing), Lekhya (scarifying), Sivya (suturing), Vedhya (punc- 
turing) and Visravaniya (evacuating fluids). The surgery 
of Sushruta recognises a hundred and twenty-five different 
instruments, constructed after the shape of beasts and 
birds, and authorises the surgeon to devise new instruments 
according to the exigencies of each case. The qualifications 
and equipments of a surgeon are practically the sam*^ as 
are recommended at the present time. A light refresh- 
ment is enjoined to be given to the patient before a surgical 
operation, while abdominal operations, and operations m 
the mouth are advised to be performed while the patient is 
fasting. Sushruta enjoins the sick room to be fumigated 
with the vapours of white mustard, bdellium, Nimva ' 
leaves, and resinous gums of Shala trees, etc., which fore- 
shadows the antiseptic ^bacilli) theory of modern times. The 
number of surgical implements described in the Samhita is 
decidedly small in comparison with the almost inexhaustible 
resources of western surgery, and one may be naturally led 
to suspect the au' henticity of the glorious achievements 
claimed to have been performed by the surgeons of yore ; 
but then their kno vledge of the properties and virtues of 
drugs were so great that cases, which are reckoned as 
surgical nowadays, were cured with the help of medicines 
internally^pplied. "Surgery," says Tantram, is mutilation 
not doctoring (i). It should only be employed when the 

(l) Aif^s^qfq* f^5n tf^ si«3f^^ ifT<qi^T I 



].\TKOI)lf?TIO.\,, xvii 

alTected vital energy is not strcnig enough to al^lie effect the 
cure that the surgeon is justified to handle his kniYe. We 
find in the Samhita that ophthalmic, obstetric and other 
operations were performed with the utmost skill and 
caution. ' 

Plastic and Rhinoplastic Operations :- Doctor 
Hirschberg of Berlin ^ys — "the whole plastic surgery in 
Europe took a new flight when these cunning devices 
of Indian workmen became known to us." The transplan- 
ting of sensible skin-flaps is also an entirely. Indian method 
(Sushruta, Sutrasthanam, Ch. XV'I). It is Sushruta who 
first successfully demonstrated tlie feasibility of mending a 
dipt earlobe with a patch of sensible skin-flap scraped from 
the neck or the adjoining part. 

To Sushruta is attributed the glory of discovering the 
art of cataract-crouching which was unknown to the sur- 
' geons of ancient Greece and Egypt. Limbs were amputated, 
abdominal sections were performed, fractures were set, 
dislocations, hernia and ruptures were reduced, hcemorrhoids 
rind fistula were removed, and we take pride in saying that 
the methods recommended in the Sushruta Samhita some- 
times prove more successful than those adopted by the 
surgeons of modern Europe, as we shall have occasion to 
observe later on. In tho case where the intestines are injured, 
Sushruta advises that "the protruded part should be gently 
replaced by following with the fingevP A surgeon should 
enlarge the wound in it, if necessary, by means of a knife. 

"m^^ ^ffT fTf%T^^ fm^-^ f^^ftg^ II 

Mahanilatanlram, Patola X. \'~.. 72-74. 

B. See the Article on "Ileredily and some of its Surgical Aspects," 
By F. C. Til/ell, m. d. The ^fediL»al Advance Vd. LXIV. June iqo6. 
Page 357. 

\ 



X 



xviii j\TkMfnnrT[o\, 

•• 
In the cas% where the intestine is severed, the severed 
parts s'hoLild be held together by applying living black 
ants to • their ends. Then their bodies should be cut off 
Teaviifg only the heads to serve the same purpose which 
in moderrt improved European surgery an animal tissue like 
catgut is expected to 4'ulfill. After this the intestine should 
be fairly replaced in the abdominal Ct^-ity and the external 
opening stitched and properly dressed. We abstain here 
from a lengthy description of the different methods recom- 
mended by the Sushruta in cases of abdominal and 
peritoneal wounds. We only ask our readers to compare 
this Chapter (II Chikitsa^thaTiam) of the Sushruta Samhita 
with the Chapter in anv work on European chirurgery 
whicli deals with the same subject. Certain medicinal 
plasters were used to be applied to localise the shafts of arrows 
embedded in the limbs of wounded soldiers and their exact 
locations were ascertained from the inflammation caused 
bv the application of such a plaster with a precision which 
would be sometimes welcome even in these days of Rontgen 
rays. 

Lithotomic Operations : -In these cases, elaborate 
instructions have been given for making the perineal 
incision, as well as about the care and general management 
of the patient after the operation. In a case of Shukra- 
shmari (seminal or spermatic concretion) the forma- 
tion and existence of which have been verv recentlv 
discovered bv English pathologists, Sushruta enjoins that 
the stone, if in the urethra, should be removed with the 
help of Anyvdsanam and urethral enematas, failing which 
the penis should be cut open and the concretion extracted 
with the help of a hook. Kavinij I'mesii Chandra (Jupla 
in the introduction to his Vaidyaka Shavda-Sindhu remarks, 
that he and !>, Durgddasa Gupta M. B. translated the 
Chapters on lithotomic operations and instrumental parturi- 
tion «f the Susbrufa Samhita for the perusal of Dr Charles, 
the then Principal of the Medical College, Calcutta. 



rNTRODUCTlON. XIX 

t > 

■-» 

''Dr. Charles highly praised the pvocess ot clelivt^ry in 
difficult ca^es and even coijfessed I hat with all his great 
experience in midwifery and surgery he never hdi} any 
idea of the like heing found in all the medical \\;orks that 
came under his observation." 

Amputation : — Amputation^ were freely made and 
medicated wines, were given to the patients as anccsthe- 
tics (i). These conclusivelv show thai the surgery of 
Sushruta does not rest content with the mere bursting or 
opening of an abscess, and the healing of the incidental 
wound, but lays down processes for major operations as well. 
The removal of the cicatrix until it becomes of the same 
colour with the surrounding skin and the growth of hair 
thereon are suggestions which we find nowhere else. 

Ophthalmic Surgery : — Of the seventy six varieties of 
ophthalmic diseases. Sushruta holds that fifty-one are surgical 
OP*-" Tra Tantram Ch. Vlllu The mode of operation which 
is tV' be performed in each case has been elaborately de- 
scribed in the Samhita, and does not unfavourably compare 
in most instances with modern methods of ophthalmic 
surgery. Sushruta was aware of the fact that the angle of 
veHection is equal to the angle of incidence, and that the 
same ray which impinges upon the retina serves the double 
purpose of illumining the eye and the external world, and 
is in itself converted into the sensation of light. 

Midwifery : — It is in the region of practical midwifery 

that one becomes so much impressed with the greatness of 

Sushruta. The different turning, flexing, gliding movements, 

the application of the forceps in cases of difficult la1:)our and 

other obstetric operations in\uiving the deslructioJi and 

mutilation of the child, such as craniotomy, were iirsl 

systematically described in the Subhiuta Sauihitd lung 

before fillets and forceps were dreamt of in Europe, and 

thousands of years before the birth uf Christ. Sushruta, who 

< } 

(i) For llie use of .Sanmohinis (an,Teslheiics) for surgical purposes, sec 

Hhoia Prabandlia \>v I'.allAla T'andil. 



XX » INTKOnUCTION. 

advocates Clesarean se^nion iri hopeless cases of obslruclion, 
lays down that the instrument should be employed only in 
♦those cases where the proportion between the child and the 
maternal passage is so defective that medicated plasters, 
fumigations, etc.. are not sufficient to effect a natural delivery. 
His directions regarding the management of the puerperal 
state, lactation and management of the chijd and the choice 
of a wet-nurse are substantial!}- the same as are found in 
modern scientific works of European authors. A feeling of 
pride and joy moves our heart when we contrast these 
glorious achievements of our ancestors with the meanness of 
results which modern Europe has gained in this department 
of midwifer}-. In those old days perhaps there were no 
hospitals to huddle patients together in the same room and 
therebv to create artificiallv septicemic poisons which are 
now so common and so fatal in lying-in rooms. A ne^-'^' 
built Iving-in room in an open space abunduntly suf^s-ea J 
with the rays of the sun and heat of the burning f^ie for 
each individual case, the recommendation of a fresh 
bamboo-chip for the section of the cord are suggestions 
the value of which the west has yet to learn from 
the east. 

Dissection :--Sushruta, himself a practical surgeon, was 
the first to advocate dissection of dead bodies as indispen- 
sable for a successful student of Surgery. The Paritschittas of 
ancient Egypt perhaps learnt their art from the Purusachettas 
(Dissector) of ancient India. With a candour less common 
among western scholars Dr. Wise observes that, ''the 
Hindu philosophers undoubtedly deserve the credit of having, 
though opposed bv strong preiudire, entertained sound and 
philosophical views respecting the uses of the dead to the 
living, and were the first scientific and successful cultivator? 
of the most important and essential of all the departments of 
medical knowledge, practical anatomy". A bungling burgeon 
is a public danger and Sushiuta savs iliat, "theorv without 
practice is like a onc-wingetl bird that is incapable of flight". 



lNTK01)UCT!(ON. XXI 

■» 

> > 

Study of Practical Surgery :— To give effii-iency in 
surgical operations, the pupils of Dhan^antari(Sushruta etc.) 
were asked to try their knives repeatedly first on natural 
and artificial objects resembling the diseased parts ofv> the 
body before undertaking an actual operation. Incision, for 
example, was practised on Pushpafala /cucerbeta maxima), 
Alavu (Longenaris Vulgaris) or Trapusha (cucmis pubescuas), 
evacuating on leatfier bags full of water and on the urinary 
bladders of dead animals, scarification on the hides of 
animals on which the hair was allowed to remain. Venesec- 
tion was practised on the vessels of dead animals and on the 
stalks of the water-lily : the art .of stuffing and probing on 
bamboo reeds etc. : extraction of solid bodies on Panasa 
(Artocarpus Integrifolia) and such like fruit, scraping on 
wax spread on a Shalmali (Bombox Malabaricum) plank, 
and suturing on pieces of cloth, skin or hide. Ligaturing 
and bandaging were practised on dummies, cauterisation 
(both actual and potential ) on pieces of flesh, and cathe- 
terisation on unbaked earthen vessels filled with water. 
It is almost with a feeling of wonder we hear him talk of 
extirpation of uterine excrescences and discourse on the 
necessity of observing caution in surgically operating upon 
uterine tumours (Raktarvudai. These facts should be 
borne in mind as thev would help us a good deal in account- 
ing for the numerous anomalies that are to be found in 
the anatomical portions of the Samhita. 

Study of Practical Anatomy :— We have stated be- 
fore that tb.e quartered sacrificial animals afforded 
excellent materials for the framing of comparative anatomy. 
The Aitareya Brahmana contains special injunction for the 
quartering of such animals (i) and we are told that the 
preceptors availed themselves of the religious meetings to 



(i) The Ailaicya Firaliniana describes a )iaitirular wav of tlividini; 
the orgaas and viscera of the sirriticjjil animals 'wliich was kepi 'secret 
among the priesls. Aitareya Brahmana VIII. i. 



XXII INIROniJCTIOX. 

< 

deinonslrjiLe the lessons ou^ practical anatomy. We come 

I. 
acrosj; such terms as the heart, stomach, brain, intestines, 

anus, liver, spleen, uterus etc', iv the Rigveda, and the 
*' Aitaj-e3'a Brdhmana (i). There is an entire h\inn (Rik) 
devoted* to the subject and treatment of Phthisis ( Knja 
Yakshma) which becomes utterly unintelligible in the 
absence of an accurate knowledge about the structure of 
lungs, and mechanism of the human heart. The Vtdic 
Arya fully understood the resultant nature of the human 
organism. The Rik Mantra, which to this day is recited on 
the occasion of a funeral ceremony, ampl}' testifies to the fact 
that he used to look upon his mortal frame as the product 
of the combination of the five physical elements (2). 
He understood the effects of different drugs upon diges- 
tion and the office which the tendons, muscles, flesh 
and nerves, etc. respectively serve in the economy. It is 
in the Sushruta Samhita that we find a systematic attempt 
at arranging together the facts of anatomical observation. 
The age of Sushruta, the Acharyic age of the Ayurveda, 
was a period of scientific investigation. The sturd}- Aryan 
colonists exchanged their simple mode of living for luxuiy 
and ease. The number of general diseases was great. Jn 

( 1 ) A. fT^T ^^^ f ?gjnri:«3 f^fsffTTiRii 

Rik Samhita \'. \'II, I, -'3, 538. 

H. \ide also .Ailareya BrShmana I 2. II 12. Ill 37. 

(2) The iialuie of the huiiiaii body as tile resulting efi'ect of tlie C(im- 
hinatidii dftlu' live elementals havcheen clearly described in the verse. 

^Tqt'TTiI^ qf? era n f%rT?ft^y'l«I^ wfaf^VTTSlf 1»: I 

* Rik Samhita X M. 16 S. 3. 

Which l)eing translated reads :— Let his eye go t(j the sun, let his breath- 
wind nVx with the wind'of the atmosphere, and to the sky. earth and the 
cereals the parts which ha\e spriint; out of them. Cvc. 



ixTR'onurTioN. » XX 111 

vain did the holy Narada (i) ^reacl] the gospd of plain 
living and high thinking, and exhort them, like Cato, 
to return to their simpl'e mode of life. The long peace 
brought opulence in its train and wealth begot indolence 
and disease. Men like Bharadvaja, Angira, Yamadagni, 
Atreya, Gautama, Agastya, Vdmadeva', Kapisthala, Asa- 
marthya, Bhargava, Kusliika, Kdpya, Kashyapa, Sharkara- 
ksha, Shaunaka, Manmathayani, Agnivesha, Charaka, 
Sushruta, Narada, Pulastya, Asita, Chyavana, Paingi and 
Dhaumya etc. began to write Samhitas. Each hermitage was 
a College of Ayurveda, and the empirical method of investi- 
gation was introduced into each department of the science 
of cure. 

Anatomical Anomalies in the Samhita :— Having 
got so far in our analysis, before passing on to the study of 
the Anatomical portion of the Sushruta Samhita, we must 
try to account for the many anomalies and discrepancies 
that have crept into or have been suffered to remain in the 
present recension of the book. Take, for example, the line 
in which Dhanvantari is made to speak of three hundred 
bones in the human organism. It is impossible that the 
human frame, in so short a time, has got rid of so many of 
of its skeletal accessories simply through disuse, or because 
of their becoming superfluous in the altered condition of its 
environments. More absurd is it to think that Sushruta, 
who discards all authority except the testimony of positive 
knowledge, would write a thing which none but the blind 
would believe in a dissecting room. The spirit of the a^re 
ill which he flouri:>lied piecliided the possibility oT^ such an 
crrnr. 

Anomalies accounted for : -In ancient India, subjects 
chosen for the demonstration of practical anatomy were 
always children (2), and naturally those bones, which are 
(i) Vide Aitann'a Br5hmana VII. 13. 

(2) The injunction of ihe Hindu Sllasiras is ihat '-corpse of persons 
more than 2 years old should he burned." Cremation of dead bodies bein" 



xxi\- f (\'^Roi)rc~Ti().\. 

fused or''«'inaslon"iised inlo'one whole durine: adult life, have 
been' separately enumerated — a circumstance which may, 
to some extent, account for th'e excess in the number of 
bon'es described in this Samhita (i). Likewise the theory that 
Sushrula might have included the teeth and the cartilages 
within the list of s'iveletal bones comes very near the truth, 
but It does not reflect the whole trtith either. The fact is 
that the orignial Sushruta Samhita has passed through 
several recensions ; and we have reasons to believe that the 
present one by Nagarjuna is neither the only nor the 
last one made. The redactors, according to their own light, 
have made man\- in'terpbLitions in the text, and when 
Brahmanas, thev have tried to come to a sort of compromise 
at points of disagieement with the teachings of the Vedas 12). 
Therefore it is that we come across such statements in the 
Samhita as ''there are 360 bones in the human body, ;-|0 
it is in the Vedas, but the science of surgery recognises three 
hundred skeletal bones." What lends a greater colour to the 
hypothesis is that Sushruta, who, in the Chapter on Marma 
Shariram, has so accurately described the unions of bones 
and ligaments, anastomoses of nerves, veins and arteries etc., 

obligatory on Government, ;is well as on private individuals, it was almost 
impossible to secure a full-grown anatomical subject in I'auranic India, 
the more so when we consider that the Hindus look upon the non-crema- 
tion and mutilation oi a corpse vvilii a peculiar horror as it prevents the 
spirit from purging off its uncleanness in the funeral fire, and bars ilf 
access to a higher spiritual life. Naturally in later and more cere- 
moniil times the interred corpses of infants, less than 2 \ears old, had 
to be unearthed and dissected for anatomical purposes ; and these portions 
of the Sushruta SamliitS might have been modified by the subsequent 
commentators in order to conform them to occular proofs.— T. R. 

(i) See Tiray's Anatomy {1897) p. 2S8 and 301 Figs. 248 and 262. 

(2) "'?f^T*fgtw; vi?i': ^^rfij^: ^T^?nf" 1" 

\ishnu Smriti. Ch, 96. 55. 
(,'haraka. Shfiriraslli^nani. 



INTRODUCMON. , XXV 

must have described their courszs and locations, a,L? otherwise 
it would have been quite impossible for practical suigeons, 
for whom it was intended, to conform to the directions of the 
Samhita in surgically operating on their patients' limbs^, and 
to avoid those vulnerable unions or anastomoses as"'enjo'ned 
therein. These Marmas have been 'divided into three 
classes such as, the Sadya-prana-hara : Kala-pnina-hara, 
and Vaikalya-kara, according as an injur}' to any of them 
proves instantaneously fatal, or fatal in course of time, or 
is followed b}-^ a maimed condition of the limb concerned. 
The fact is that the study of practical Anatomy was in a 
manner forbidden in the reig>n of Ashoka Pij-adarshi 
inasmuch as ail religious sacrifices were prohibited by a 
royal edict (i), and the subsequent commentators (who 
were also redactors on a small scale) of the Sushruta 
■jSamhita, in the absence of any positive knowledge on the 
subject, had to grope their way out in darkness as best 
they could ; hence, this wanton mutilation of texts and 
hopeless confusion of verses in the Sharira Sthanam of the 
present day Sushruta Samhita, which should be re-arranged 
and restored to their proper chapters before any definite 
opinion can be pronounced on the anatomical knowledge 
of the holy Sushruta. 

Sushruta as a Biologist •. — h^ the tirst chapter 
of his Sh.irira Sthanani, Sushruta discusses the question. 
what is man, wherein lies his individualit v, why does 
he come into being, why does he die at all ? Like 
all Indian philosophers, Sushruta argues the question 
down from the universe to man. The factors or laws, 
that govern the evolution of the universe in its phy- 
sical aspect, are extended to cover the evolution of the 
physical aspect of man (organic evolution). There is but 
one law and one force which run through -the three plains 
of mind, matter and spirit. Physiology, that fails to loc^k 

(l) fournal of ihe .\siiiUc Society i.f CulciUla \'n\. \'U. P. 26f. 



XXvi INTRODUCTION. 

<• 

into the iKiLure of life and iU background and tries to ex- 
plain t-.iway thib intelligent, living force as the product of 
chemiQal action of the organ'ic cells, is no Physiology at 
all. '.Cell is not life, but there is life in a cell. Cells may be 
called the true bearers of li-fe. Dr. Weismann insists that it 
is more correct to sppak of the continuity of the general 
protoplasm than of "the germ ceils." Professors Geddes 
and Thomson observe that, "the bodies are but the torches 
which burn out, while the living flame has passed through- 
out the organic series unextinguished. The bodies are the 
leaves which fall in dying from the continuously growing 
branch. Thus although deafh take inexorable grasp of the 
individual, the continuance of the life is still in a deep sense 
unaffected ; the reproductive elements (cells) have already 
claimed their protozoan immortality, are already recreating 
a new body.'" But to invest these reproductive cells with 
immortality, and to deny the same to the individual self, 
which directs and controls these protoplasms, and is before 
and behind them, is like the statement of Prof. Huxlev 
when he admits the chance of the physical transmigration 
of the organic constituents of the human body, and yet 
denies the possibility of an individual self continuing in any 
other form. "It is sensibility," observes Sushruta, "that 
precedes the senses ; and self, the sensibility proceeds from 
the self to which all such conditions are referred as mine." 

Sushruta's Theory of Cosmogony is based on the 

old S;inkhya Duality of Prakriti (Objective) and Purusha 
(Subjective). The two are coeval and co-extensive realities. 
Out of the Avyakta (unmanifest) or Prakriti has evolved 
the Mahai, the (inimatcd cosmic matter. Out of this 
cosmic matter has evolved Ahamk;ira (the sense of indivi- 
dualit\- or more correctly egoism) which is divided 
into thrt-e kinjs such as the Vaikarika (phenomenal, 
ihought-fornii, Taijasa (kinetic), and Bhut;idi (pertaining 
In il^e first form of matter). This \'"aik;irika Ahamkara 
in combination with the Taijasa Ahamkara has fathered 



iNTRonurfioN. > xxvii 

1.1 

the eleven sense organs, whith. in combinatiqii with the 
Bnutadi, have produced the five Tanmatras or {iroper 
sensibles of touch, sight, ^ hearing, etc. The material 
principles of sound, light, taste, smell, etc., are biJ't the 
modifications of these five Tanmatras, of which'* Akisha 
(ethereon), Vayu (ether), light, and soui-^d, etc. are the grosser 
forms. In other wordfl, these Tanmatras may he defined 
as the atomic essences of the material principles of sound, 
light, ether, etc. In addition to these, Sushruta, Hke 
Kapila, admits the existence of a kind of atom-like units 
of consciousness, which he calls Purusha. The combination 
of' the sixteen aforesaid categories and the Purusha is 
for the expansion and liberation of the latter. A human 
being (individual), who is the fit subject for medical 
treatment, is the product of the combination of Purusha 
with the five primordial material principles (iMahabhutas). 
The Purushas, real selves of beings, the sources of 
their vital energy, and the controllers and directors of 
all organic or mental actions, are extremely subtile in their 
essence, and manifest themselves onlv through the 
combination of the seed (paternal element) or ovum 
(maternal element). It is the Karma (dynamics of acts 
done by a person in a prior existence) which deterinines 
the nature of the body it will be clothed with, as 
wcii cts che nat'Te of the womb it shall be conceived in, 
in its next incarnation. 

Nature of Self : — v^; elf is a simple substance, and, as 
such, is immaterial. Force is substance and substance, is 
force. It is endued with constructive intelligepce, and, 
like gravitation or cohesion, can permeate a material body, 
without, in any way, disturbing h. It is adaptative or 
elective, or, in other words, elects that kind of selves for 
its parents as are best suited to the purposes* of its being. 
Man is the outcome of an influx of a se.f, a force, a dynamis 
with its path determined by the dynamics of the d^jeds 
of its prior existence. To think that vitality starts from 



xxviii , iNTifoniTCTioN. 

•• 
protoplastfv is insanity. Cimemically examined protoplasm 
is but', C, O, H, N anci S. But no amount of C, O, H, N 
afid S put together will constit<ite life. The idea that 
life 'iias nothing prior to it, that the force which controls 
the co-ordination of man's economy perished with the death 
of his organism, is'quite puerile. Life is expansion and 
not creation, and, as such, is linked to those unseen 
realities which constitute its prior and future selves. We 
see only the middle link in the chain of existence which 
we call life, but take no notice of the preceding or succeeding 
ones which are invisible (i). The grosser material body 
is linked to a finer, imma<;erial one, in as much as nothing 
can exist vvithout being attached to its antecedent. So 
at each conception there is the influx of a new self, for 
the lifeless constituents of a human body can not create 
a man, no matter how many chemical or physiological 
actions may be postulated to run to their rescue. 

Ayurvedic Embryology : — Before entering into the 
discussion of Sushruta's tiieory of conception, we shall take 
a little more trouble to enunciate fully the Vedic theories 
on the subject. "The child is the fruit of the combination 
of sperm and ovum" (2'. It lies with its head downward 
inside the uterus, a fact which facilitates its passage out of, 
and protects its form from the effects of anv injur}' done to 
that viscus. (3) The eyes of the child a-y ..n^finrtltTi'', 

Bhagavat Gita II. 28. 

(2) ^f ^wic^t ^ra: ';^»j]3R^5i'^^f^: 1 

Astanga llridayam (Vagbhat) 
c ShArira SthSnam. Ch, I. i. 

« * * ^ r\^Tf[ ^'^^Vh ?clT 1 

' * Aiteriya Brahmana \'I. ic g(^ 



introduct?oa. i xxix 

1.1 

as the cephalic portion of the feJal body is tirst ,».1eveloped. 
The factors, which are essential to the developme'nt of 
the fetal hody, from the time of fecundation to the 
'ippearance of the characteristic sense-organs, have '^een 
described in a verse of the Rig Veda (i). In thfe Vedic 
mythology each organic function is 'consecrated to the 
tutelage of a presiding^' deity, and a Vedic Aryan loves 
to call a thing oftener by the name of its divine custodian 
than by that of its own. Rightly translated, the verse 
would read as follows : — "May Vishnu (the presiding 
deity of ether and nerve force) expand thy uterus, may 
Tvashta (the presiding deity 'of heat and metabolism) 
bring about the full differentiation of the limbs and the 
sex of the foetus, may Prajapati (the presiding deity of 
the ovum) sprinkle thy uterus, and mayst thou conceive 
through the blessing of the lortl of human destiny. May 
Snrasvati (goddess of intellect) and the Ashvins, the 
surgeons f>1' the gods (the |iresiding deity of fission, etc.) 
help thee in taking the seed." Now, the development of 
the fetal body takes place after the pattern of its father's 
species, and this conformity to the pattern of its species 
represents an act of intellection. Hence, the aid of the 
goddess of intellect has been invoked with that of the 
celestial surgeons, who preside over the process of 
cell-division, so essential to the formation of the fetal 
limbs. Divested of its allegory, the verse would mean 

(i) f^^?itf^ ^^?tg, ^^T^qTt% f^sig I 

JTwf ^f% f^5?t^T#, w ^f? T?:«^frr I 

rf Tf 5fIW ^WlH'i ^^fT *?Tffl fl^f?^ II 

' Rik Samhila X, M. 184, S. 



XXX t INTfionUCTION. 

that the •§perm led into a healthy and well-developed 
uteru5 through the agency of the Vayu (increased activity 
of the-^ local nerves) meets the 'maternal element (ovum) 
in tViat viscus. Then the impregnated matter undergoes 
a process of fission, and takes shape after the pattern of 
its father's species. • When we think of so many idle 
speculations as regards the proces% of fertilisation, which 
obtained credence so late as the beginning of the i8th 
century in Europe, and the controversies that arose 
between the Ovists, Performists and Animalculists (i), we 
cannot help regretting that the Ayurvedic Embryology, 
which started under such h'appy auspices, could not fully 
solve the problem of fertilisation even before the advent 
of the Tantrik age. The fundamental principles with 
which the Embryology of the Acharyayas (Sushruta, 
Dhanvantari, etc.) was started are substaritially the same 
as have now been discovered by the researches of the 
Western workers. Sushruta in his dissertation on the 
subject showed the illegitimacy which lay at the root of his 
predecessor's theory ( Sharirasthanam Chap. II. ) and took 
up research exactlv where the Vedic Rishis had left off. 
He clearly demonstrated the fact thai "by a physiological 
process known as Rasapika (metabolism) the hmph chyle 
is metamorphosed into sperm in men, or into ovum in 
women, in the course of a month. The catamenial fluid 
is carried down into the uterus through its proper ducts. 
The sperm or ovum is thus the quintessence of a man's 
or a woman's body. The sperm meets the ovum (Artavam) 
in the ute;-us, which resembles a lotus-bud in shape, and 
whose aperture is shut up with a mucous deposit as 
soon as fecundation takes place. The most favourable 
time for fecundation is between the fourth and twelfth 
day after the af)pearance of the flow (Garbhakala)" as has 

(») For a short history of tlie Theories of Fertilisation, Vide Evolution 
of Sex (Prof. P. Geddes and J. A. Thompson) Chap. XII. pp. 169— 171. 



JNTRODUCT?0\. > XXXI 

I' I 

been lately demonstrated by 'the researches ''of Prof. 
Von Ott. (I). 

Sexual Diamorphism :— Some light is thrown on the 
relative preponderance of the sperm and ovum in the Birth 
of a female child. "When the maternal element prepon- 
derates the child is female ; when the 'fraternal element is 
stronger the child is malfe. When both the elements are 
equal, the child is of no sex.'" In theory at least Sushruta 
admits the possibility of the birth of many children at a 
single conception. "When the seed is divided into two by 
its inherent force (Vayu), twins are born in the womb" — a 
statement which points to the 'irresistible conclusion that 
multiplicity of birth is the outcome of the multifarious 
fission of the seed in the womb under certain abnormal 
conditions. Sushruta gives a reason for believing that, in 
exceptional circumstances, and without sexual union, the 
unfertilised ovum may give rise to perfect oflTspring, thus 
giving a prevision of the modern theory of parthenogenesis. 
Pathological parthenogenesis has occasionally been noticed 
in higher animals. Oellacher has noted this in respect 
of hen's eggs, and Janosik has observed it in the ovarian ova 
of many mammals such as the guinea-pig, etc. (2) Sushruta 
extends the probability to the human ova under certain 
conditions. He admits the possibility of conception 
without the admixture of the male germinal element, 
though he observes that like all asexual genesis" the 
development dots not proceed far in the case." From 
such a hypothesis it is but one step to the theory which 
enunciates the possibility of conception withou? proper 
sexual union. 

But to understand his theory of sexual diamorphism, it 

(1) Vide ihe chari of menstrual wave prepared by V*n Ou given in 
ilan and Woman '(Havelock and Ellis) Chap. XL 

(2) The Evolution of Sc.k Ch. XIII. P. 1S5. , 

rn>/. p. r,eihlclfn,(} J. A, Thnmps.m. 



XXxii «- INI^RODUCTION. 

t • 

is necessary thai on^shouFd fully compreliend the meaning 
of such Ayuryedic terms on the subject as Ichchha Shakli 
(will-force). Shukra-Vahulyam (\) (preponderance of the 
male reproductive element) and Shonita-Vahulyam (prepon- 
derance of the female reproductive element) etc. Sushruta, 
in common with 'the Brahmanic philosophers of Ind, 
believed that distinction of sex h'as evolved from a pri- 
mordial hermaijhroditism. Manu in his Institutes has 
emphasised the fact (2), though in a highly poetic style. 
He observes that "the Purusha (Logos), by a stroke of Will, 
divided its body (animated cosmic matter) into two, one 
of which was male, and the other female." The Tantra 
says that, ''the male part was endued with an energy 
(force) of its own, which is called Pitrika Shaktl ; and the 
corresponding female part, with the one, which is called 
Matrika Shakti. Pitrika Shakti is a disruptive force ; 
•Matrika Shakti is a constructive energy. Though the 
conception of force in Sanskrit sciences is but partially 
physical, the nearest approach to the connotations of the 
Pitrika and Matrika Shakti is made by the terms Ana- 
bolism and KatabolisiU of the Western physiologists. 
Sanskrit physiology recognises the two opposite poles of 
vital force in a living organism, and has not taken 
inconsiderate pains to determine their exact locations in mau 
and woman. Matrika Shakti, it observes, predominates in 
the left half of a woman's organism, which is negative as 
regards vital magnetism. {3) Now, Sushruta says that, in 
cases where female offspring is desired, the enceinte should 

(l) Shdiiia-sth^iiani Ch. II. 

(2) f^ifi^n«r*^ ^^»TiT 3«i«iT5«^fT 
'^i^ sfrff r\f^i ^ f^?;T5w^5TrT nij- 11 

Manu .Samhili Ch. I. J2. 
(■2.) ^f^^irtar; *JI fi: ijt^ sfmwnflf^S'T'RT; 1 

SfiradS Tilak Tanlrani. 



INTRODbCTVJN. XXXIU 

snufF through her left nostril (thq expressed juice Qf certain 
herbals), while the same should be administered through 
her right nostril where njale* issue would be the object. In 
other words, the anabolic (Mairika) or katabolic (Piti;}ka) 
forces of a mother's organism can be so adjusted with the 
help of drug-dynamics, as to determine, the sex of the child 
in the womb. The b',rth of a male child is usually pre- 
saged by the appearance of the milk (which according to 
Sushruta is metamorphised menstraal blood) in the right 
breast of the enceinte ; and where that has been effected 
with the help of suitable medicines, it must be presumed 
that the Katabolic pole of her glife-force has been acted 
upon, as desired. 

The original hermaphroditism, which forms the anterior 
condition of all subsequent sex distinctions, and the character 
of the two opposite poles of vital energy, have been very 
clearly set forth in the Pauranik allegory of Ardha- 
Narishvara(i). The figure, observes the Pauranik rhapsodist, 
is half male, half female ; half life, half death (since, death, 
in fact, is the father of Hfe) (2) ; half anabolism, half 
katabolism ; with the crescent moon, the premise, the 
s3'mbol of progressive evolution on its brow, is made to sit 
on the eternal bull, the representative of the inmiutable 
law of the universe (lit : — the four-footed order). The Rishis 
and Rasasiddhas of ancient India were fully aware of 
the fact that, conception is effected only at an enormous 
sacrifice on the part of the mother ; that the Matrika 
Shakti is the real manufacturer of life, and that the Pitrika 
Shakti (paternal element) evokes, or calls it into play only 
through its disintegrating or disruptive effect by separating 
the two opposite life-poles, that lie neutralised through 
contact. It is love that governs these two complementary 
(i) Vishnu PurSnam Ch. 7. Vs. lo-ii. * 

(2) mm: F?^n ^^^^^ ^t^ «TTJrfff ^^v. 1 

Mahdbhaialam. 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

forces of .life and death (i), (though in' fact they represent 
the two different aspects of the same energy) and controls 
its evolutionary rhythms through the desire of seeing 
itself many though one in reality. Does not modern biology 
endorse the same view when it says that the reproductive 
cells, as protozoons,.are immortal, and that bodies are the 
natural appendages which blossom.forth and fall off round 
these cells for the fructification of their innate purposes 
of being (2)? 

A little more investigation into the biological thesis 
of the Rishis would be necessary for the clear comprehen- 
sion of "Shukra-Vahulyani" and '"Shonita-Vahulyam" ' of 
Sushruta and other Tantras (3). iMan is both animal and 
spirit ; and the Ayurvedic physiology recognises two distinct 
sets of apparatus in his organism answering to the different 
phases of his existence. The one helps him in performing 
the organic functions, which are so essential to his animal 
existence, and keeps intact the co-ordination of those inter- 
nal functions with the incidents of his environments. The 
other is attuned to the finer forces of nature, and responds 

(I) The Evolution of Sex. Ch. XVIII. 

Prof. P. Gedde/i and J, A. Thomson. 
(2) "The body or soma'\ Weismann says, "thus appears to a certain 
extent as a subsidiary appendage of the true bearers of the life,— the repro- 
ductive cells". Ray Lankester has again well expressed this :— "Among the 
multicellular animals, certain cells are separated from the rest of the consti- 
tuent units of the body, as egg-cells and sperm-cells ; these conjugate and 
continue to live, whilst the remaining cells, the mere carriers as it were of 
the immortal reproductive cells, die and disintegrate. The bodies of the 
higher aniivals which die, may from this point of view be regarded as 
something temporary and non-essential, destined merely to carry for a time, 
to nurse, and to nourish the mure important and deathless fission -products 
of the unicellular egg."— Quoted in the Evelution of Sex (P. Geddes 
and J, A. Thompton) 1901. Chap. XVIII. 

(3) (a) ^liTf^^T wtwrf^ ^f<f^ry^: HiTi^ 1 

Sarada Tilak Tantram. 
(15) Sushrula SamhilA (ShSrira Sthdnam Ch. Ill ) 



INTRODUCTION. ' XXXV 

to the call of his higher or psychiq self. Tli'e one is 
organic, the other is psyC^ic The one chains him down 
to the phenomenal, and is" governed by the laws of growth 
and decay ; the other opens on the region of absolute 
realities where growth and decay have no room to be. 
Growth is not the only condition of life. Man may exist 
without food (i)or respiration, only if he can manage to dive 
deep into the realities within himself. Between these two sets 
of apparatus there is the Jivatma, which, by its own peculiar 
energy (the will-force), can operate in phenomenal or organic 
pl?,in, or recede from thence into the psychic one, thus 
being in contact with the world of the senses' and the one 
that is beyond the darkness of death. Death, in fact, is 
the grand usherer to life, which is only the rise of the 
curtain over the life's drama, all equipments for which are 
made in the green room of death. 

A man can not propagate at will. No amount of willing 
on the part of the parent-animal can help him in creating 
progeny. The self of the child, who is about to come into 
life, chooses its own parents, according to the dynamics of 
its own acts or Karma, from the region of the lunar Pitris 
or quiescent life, if it be warrantable to use such an expres- 
sion (2). The self of the would-be child mixes with the self 
of its human father, and hovers over the reproductive cells 
of the latter's organism, and regulates the intensity of its 
father's sexual desire, according to the nature of the sex, 
determined necessary for the fruition of the purposes of 
its advent into the world. A greater intensity of its 
father's desires ensures the preponderance of tile Pitrika 
Shakti (katabolism) in the impregnated ovum, which 

Skanda PurSnam quoted by Shridhara SvSmi in his commentaries 
on the Vishnu Purdnam. Ch. VI. V. i6. , 

(2) ^^^m ^7m\^m 1 

Shruti. 



XXXVl ' INTRODUCTION. 

determiiies the male^sex of the child, while such a thing, 
on the part of the mother at the time, is followed by the 
relative preponderance of the Afatrika Shakti (anabolism) 
which accounts for the femininity of the issue. Equal in- 
tensity of sexual desires in both the parents, creating an 
absence of the relative preponderance of the Pitrika and 
Matrika Shaktis in the impregnated ovum, leaves the sex 
of the child practically undetermined. The relative prepon- 
derance of the Pitrikd or Matrika Shakti, as evidenced by 
the greater or less intensity of the sexual desire of either 
of the parents, which results in the speedier emission of the 
paternal or maternal element (sperm or ovum) during an act 
of successful fecundation, is contemplated by the term 
''Shukra-Vahulyam," or "Shonita-Vahulyam," by the framer 
of the Samhita, as ma}- be fully substantiated by a couplet 
by the venerable Daruvahi (i). 

So far Sushruta is at one with the modern Western 
theory of preponderant katabolism or anabolism in the 
ovum as the determining factor of the sexual diamorphism 
to the extent that seeds or reproductive cells are the bearers 
and not the manufacturers of life, only containing those 
categories which foster life, and help its evolution into an 
organic being. To deny this would be to admit the chemi- 
cal, or physiological basis of life, which, as a theory, was 
never acceptable to the biologists of ancient India. 
The number of reproductive cells may be increased bv 
suitable dietary, and to say that the immortal reproductive 
cells, as the creators of life, come out of the mortal, organic 
food stufll* is to say that darkness is the father of light. The 
question of the immortality of the seed (germ plasm) has 

(I) ^a«g^: q^q^ft qgr?^ Uw^r[ ^^T^_^ \ 

fl^^qif^flT ^'qi'Sn?!^ l^fl^cTT II 
D5rub5hi (Quoted by Arunadatla in his commentaries on Viigbhat). 



INTRODUCTION. XXXVii 

been elaborately discussed in the Gommentaries on the 
Sankhya Darshanam(i). The, Pjah Vindus (germ cells) pulsate 
with the vibrations (rhythmic movements), which are^the 
relics of the primordial ethereal vibrations, which ,ushered 
in the birth-throes of the universe. ^ As such, they are 
essential to the evolution of life ; and man, as an offspring 
of the universe, still retains them in his reproductive cells 
as the best condition for calling out the life in his offspring, 
when its seK enters into the impregnated ovum in the 
mother's womb. Life is the essence of self, and not the 
prjoduct of any chemical or physiological process. It is an 
influx ; and microscopes and spectroscopes mav not 
expose to view the hinterlands of birth and genesis. 
Perhaps it was this theorv of will-force and intensity of 
parental desire as determining the sex in the child, together 
with the facts of parthenogenesis observed in lower animals, 
from which Sushruta was disposed to extend the analogy 
to the human species, and believed that conception without 
sexual union is possible in women. 

^j. The conception of the nature of these Matrika and 
J '.rika Shaktis is more clearly set forth in the Pauranika 
n jth regarding the origin (etiology) of fever ; Sushruta 
relates the story as follows : — Daksha, the father of the 
universal mother, (or constructive metabolism in man) 
insulted the divine father, her consort (destructive meta- 
bolism), by witholding his quota of sacrificial oblations. 
The wrath of the insulted deity broke out in the shape of 
a morbific heat (hyperpyrexia) which is fever. The process 
of digestion in man has been often compared 'to an act 

(l) (a) qRHTSTtftS'C^I^T ^"Wl,^^ I 

Sankhya Sutra Ch. I. 122. 

(b) fT^5TT<T ^^fh ' 

Ibid. Ch. III. 3. 

(c) *r% f% ^^^^^m^^mfn^]^'^^wf^^Tff x?m^i ^^i* 

Sankhya Prabachana Vashya (Vijn^n Bhikshu) Ch. I. S. I. 



XXXVni INTRODUCTION. 

< f 

• < 

of Homa sacrifice (i) in the Ayurveda. Stripped of its 
allegory the myth may be exp^iined quite in a pathological 
lin^ It means that when the t*itrika Shakti, the process 
of destructive metabolism (Pita, father or Shiva in Hindu 
mythology being the god of destruction or disintegration) of 
the body is not properly served by the factors, which 
noun'sh its constructive metabolism (Father of the Matrika 
Shakti), the excrements and excretory process of the body 
are arrested (b^r the wrathful deity), and the heat generated 
in consequence is fever. Fever, then, is a disease of defective 
digestion and excretion. Whenever this Pit rika Shakti,. is 
disturbed or not properly served there is fever, and heat 
is one of its essential effects. 

With a precision and love of details, which mark the 
best days of Brahmanic literature, Sushruta lays down rules 
of diet and conduct to be observed by the enceinte, from 
month to month, during the whole period of gestation, 
and gives medicinal recipes for the development of a 
partiall}^ atrophied child in the womb. 

A perusal of the Chapter on Marma Shiriram world 
leave no doubt for the conclusion that anatomical kt\psP/, 
ledge was cultivated by surgeons and soldiers alike, la jr.. 
knowledge about the locations of the vulnerable joints, iir 
nerves, or vein anastomoses where a blow or a little 
pressure may enable him to make short work of his man 
could not but be dearly prized by the soldiery at a 
time when the fate of a war was often decided by 
the success of a single champion, and we have reasons 
to belieVe that a scientific system of wrestling was 
formulated in the light of the Sushruta Samhita, and 
practised by the gentry of ancient India much like 

c 

( I) ^ffcTTTT «?r q'5fi'q=?T^^flfcT ^: I 

Charaka SamhitS. 



INTRODUCTION. XXXIX 

• > 

the Jiujitsu (Skr. Yuyutsu, t,he intending fighter) of 
modern Japan, (i). ' 

Sushnita's Physiolo^ ."— But if Sushruta is ad- 
mired so much for his practical and scientific jt!ast 
of mind, it is his writings on Physiologv, ''which is 
practicalh- the same as the one adopted by all schools of 
the Ayurveda) which , have appeared as a stumbling 
block to the intelligence of many a Western and 
and Eastern scholar. European Sanskritists have thought 
fit to translate "Vayu," "Pittam'' and "Kapham" (the three 
main physiological functions) as air, bile and phlegm. 
B\l\ nothing could be more misleading, or erroneous than 
that. A right understanding of the science of the Ayur- 
vedic medicine, in all its branches, hinges on a right concep- 
tion of the Vayu. Pittam and Kapham, so we should like 
to clear up the nature of these three physiological factors 
before proceeding farther in our enquiry. 

Antiquity of the division:— A reference to these 

three physiological factors of Vayu, Pittam and Kapham, 

under the name of Tridhatu. is first met with in the 

Rikveda, (3). Sayana explains the term as a synonvm for 

Vayu, Pittam and Kapham. The Vedic physicians possessed 

at least a considerable knowledge of the process of diges- 

tionf4), the circulation of gas in the human organism, and of 

(i) It is anions that the phonetic and etymological resemblance 
between Sanskrit "Juyutsu" and Japanese ''Jiujitsu" (would be fighter) 
should be so close. Perhaps it was the Buddhist missionaries (and they 
were not always peaceful hermits) who had carried with them a system 
of scientific wrestling from India, which was subsequently developed in 
Japan. Compare with the complete Kano, Jiu-jitsu (Jeudo) by H. Irving 
Hancock and Katsukuma Higashi. Chart I and III. 

(3) * * * f^^rg vm w^ct' :crw^^ 11 

Rik. Samhita. I. 3, 6. 
Sayana explains it as 

(4) ^rm: if!?n^^T f^^ 1 tmrr w. wf^^v^r^'^j^ w^Ict. 
5|1»ni5^ 'fiWtf^fT, ^sfT^: ^: unu: 1 ^^sc. ^^ ! w^^'.-^m ^sf^Ti 

Chhandagya Brihmana. 



Xl ^ INTCiODUCTlON. 

the properties and functioiv> of flesh, fat, muscles, tendons, 
ligaments and cartilages. But to the Acharyas of the 
Ayurveda belongs the glor\' of "nrs^. formulating a systematic 
physiological science, to which end Sushruta as a surgeon 
did con<;ribute no mean a quo'.a. In the light of Western 
science the actionsr of living matter, varied as they are, 
may be reduced to three categorief, viz. (a) Sustentative, 
{d) Generative, and (c) Correlative functions. The second 
is not co-extensive with the entire existence of a living 
organism, Sushruta observes some such distinction among 
the functions of a living organism when he denominates 
the living body as the "three supported one" (Tristhunam), 
and describes the normal Vayu, Pittam and Kapham as 
its three supports. We wonder how the term Vayu, 
meaning nerve force, can be confounded with the same 
term meaning air, since Sushruta derives the former 
from the root "Va," to move, to spread. Vayu, according 
to Sushruta, is so called from the fact of its sensory and 
motor functions such as, smelling, &c. But the Vayu in 
the Ayurveda is not wholly a physical or organic force, it 
has its spiritual aspect as well which does not legitimately 
fall within the scope of our enquiry. It is safe to aver 
however, that the Ayurvedic physiology, like its 
sister science in modern Europe, is concerned more 
with the invisible molecular components of the human 
organism, than with the workings of its gross members. 
The holy Agnivesha warns the students of physiology 
against the danger of regarding the human system as some- 
thing other than the aggregate of molecules (i). 

* Charaka Saniliit^ ShArirasthAnam, Chap. VII. 



INTRODUCTI9N. xli 

The three fundamental principles of Vayu,,Pittam 
and Kaphah: — The actions of living matter vary and 
so may be reduced to^ three categories. They are 
either— (i), functions which affect the material conipositJDn 
of the body and determine its mass, which is the baUnce of 
the processes of waste on one hand and t^hose of assimilation 
on the other. Or (2), they are functions which subserve the 
process of reproduction which is essentially the detach- 
ment of a part endowed with the powers of developing 
into an independent whole, or (3), they are functions in 
virtues of which one part of the body is able to exert a 
direct influence on another, and^ the body, by its parts as 
a whole, becomes a source of molar motion. The first 
may be termed Sustentative, the second Generative, and 
the third Correlative functions. The above is the sum and 
substance of the works which a living matter has to perform. 
But setting apart the processes of reproduction as a 
subject for future discussion, we shall now try to 
examine what the other two functions are as understood 
by Oriental thinkers. In the Mahfibhiratam the Prdna 
vayu is described as a force, akin to electricity. It is some- 
what like a flash of lightning (1). This fact aHonce shows 
the errors of confounding Prana vdyzi with an effete material 
— with gases generated during the processes of digestion. 
Shushruta describes it as a force, (2) which sets the whole 
organism into motion. Self-evolved, it acts as the principal 

(i) HTOSIT^^^ JJcTRt Mm ?sifvf^?j^ I 

MahSbMratam. ShAnti Pa^va S. 39. 

(2) Fo'ce may be defined as ihat which tends to produce motion in 
a body at lesi, or to produce change of motion in a body which is movjng. 
— Daschanel, 

6 



xlii INJRODUCTION. 

factor that deLerinines the genesis, continuance and disin- 
tegration of the livir-g body. It is the primary cause — an 
all-in-all that governs our organic as well as our cognitive 
faQulties. Its special feature is that the vibration, that is 
produqed in it, instead of travelling like light in a transverse 
direction, takes a course as the controller of the correlative 
functions of the system. It maintains an equilibrium between 
the Pittam and Shleshma which are said to be inert, (i) But 
for this adjustment the living body would stand in imminent 
danger of being consumed like fuel by its internal heat 
or fire. Taking into consideration the various functions the 
living body has to perform, Sushruta attempts a classif.ca- 

tion of Vdyu into Prana, Udana, Samana, Vyana and 

Apana, which, in detail, correspond to the divisions of 
functions performed by the Cerebro-spinal and Sympathe- 
tic nerves of the Western physiology. Tintric literature 
abounds in the descriptions of the Nadichakras (nerve 
plexuses) and contains a more detailed account of the motor, 
sensory, and mixed nerves according to their differences in 
their functions and relations. In short, the term Vayu may 
not only be rightly interpreted to mean the nerve force, but 
is often extended to include any kind of electro-motor or 
molecular force (as when we speak of the V^yu of the soil), 
though the term is loosely applied now to signify gas or 
air. The Rishis of yore gave the name of V;iyu to the 
bodily force in the absence of any suitable nomenclature, 
little suspecting that it might be confounded with the 
atmospheric air by the foreign translators of their works. 

Charaka, Sutraslh4nam. Chap. XII. 

Inert i.s Pittam, inert is Kaphah, inert are the Malas & 'Jh^lus Like 
clouds, they go wherever they arc!- carried by the V5yu, 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

Pittam : — The function of the »Pittam consists in 
metamorphosing the chyle, .through a graduated series 
of organic principles, to a protoplasmic substance like 
sperm in men, and the ovum in women. Thus we see that 
the Pittam of the Ayurveda corresponds to metabolism 
of Western physiology. But b}? a confounding carelessness 
of terms the excreted portion of Rasa and blood though 
ultimately connected with those normal physiological 
processes has been respectively styled as the Doshas or 
defiling principles of Kaphah and Pittam. Again, as in the 
case, of soil, the terms V^yu, Pittam and Kaphah are extend- 
ed to denote magnetism, kinetic energy and humidity of its 
molecules. The circulation of blood is connected with the 
Pittam, while the circulation of lymph chyle fRasa) is 
related to Shleshmi the two combinedly forming what 
is called the sustentative function of the Western 
Physiology. 

The term Pittam, which, by its etymology, signifies 
the agent of metabolism, has been loosely used by our 
Ayurvedic physiolgists to denote two different organic 
principles from an observed similarity in their nature and 
functions. Pittam in Sanskrit means both bile and meta- 
bolism of tissues as well as the bodily heat which is the 
product of the latter. 

Hence a few commentators lean towards the view 
that Pittam is the heat incarcerated in the bile, and 
the principal agent in performing digestion (i). The 
real import of the term may be gathered from the 
five sub-divisions of the Pittam, made by our ' Rishis 
according to their functions and locations, and which are 

called the Pachaka, Ranjaka, Sadhaka, A'lochaka and 

(l) 5^^: ^g^Rim^^lfq fqfl^ ^^WT^Sf'af?;f?I '* 

Madhukosha. 



Xliv ' INTRODUCTION. 

Bhr^jaka. All metabolic processes in the organism, 
whether constructive or dj^structive, are called Pittam, 
wljich is said to be in the products of those processes 
whether serum, bile, blood, albumen, etc., which are either 
essential to the substance of the body, or to the proper 
performance of any organic function. Hence we learn that 
Pittam is latent in Lasika (Serum), blood, lymph chyle, 
albumen etc., and in the organs of touch and sight. In 
other words, metabolism goes on in those principles and 
regions of the human organism (i) either as a sustentative 
or as a cognetic physiological process. First, we have ,,the 
Pachakagni or the heat of digestion, which is situated in 
the region between the stomach and the intestines ; (2) and 
being a liquid fire or fluid heat incarcerated in the secre- 
tions of the liver (bile), it is primarily concerned in digesting 
the four kinds of food (as they meet it in the abdomen). 
Thus we see that the Pachakagni of our Ayurveda is the 
same as the bile of Western physiology, its other function 
being to differentiate (precipitate) the nutritive essence of 
the food from its unutilisable portion, and to act as an 
excrementitious matter. It is this Pittam, which makes 
metabolism in other parts of the bodv possible, (3) b)' 
helping the organism in acquiring fresh energy. 

(1) iTfv(?:i9f?j: ^^ft^^t^T^'PfT' Tw. I 

l^rsjafil" ^ fqtrw TlfHT^ f^^r\ II 

Bdgbhat (Sutra Sihinam ch. XII.) 
(2) The bile assists in emulsifying the fats of the foods, and thus 
rendering them capable of passing into the lacteals by absorption *. The 
bile has b*een considered as a natural purgative * * * The bile appears 
to have the power of precipitating the gastric proteoses and peptones, 
together with the pepsin, which is mixed up with them. * * * As an 
excrementitious substance, the bile may serve as a medicine for the separa- 
tion of certain highly carbonaceous substances from the blood. 

Kirk's Physiology Ch. XIII. pp 377-378. 

^ (3) tT«f^iR^fqrTrr^t ^EfjiiTfitgg^T^'T 1 

^i'lfh ^sT?T%ii ^\'^'^ siTfl rTfTnr.fTfl; 11 

Bagbhat Sutra ch. XII. 



INTRODUCTION. ' xlv 

» 

The second kind of Pittam i^'called RanjakaoV pigment 
Pittam from the circumstance of its imparting the 
characteristic colour to th'e lymph chyle as it is transformed 
into blood by coursing through the liver and spleen, u^here 
it is located (i). 

The third kind r.f Pittair. (Sadhak'a) is situated in the 
heart, and indirectly a5s*\sts in the performance of cognitive 
functions in man by keeping up the rhythmic cardiac 
contractions (2). Perhaps it is this view of the heart's 
contraction that predisposed many of our ancient physio- 

* (l) A. The colouring matter of the Ijilc is derived from and is closely 
related to that of blood, since the qualities of the bile pigment secreted 
are markedly increased by the injection of substances into the veins which 
are capable of setting free haemoglobin 

Kirk's Physiology — (Metabolism in the liver.) Ch. XII. p. 505. 

B. There seems to be a close relationship between the colouring 
matters of the blood and of the bile, and ' ' between these and that of 
urine (urobilin) and of the feces— Ibid Ch. \ III. p. 376. 

c. It seems probable that the spleen, like the lymphatic glands, is 
engaged in the formation of blood corpuscles. For it is quite certain, 
tl at the blood of the splenic vein contains an unusually large number of 
white corpuscles, t t i" In Kottikor's opinion, the development of colour- 
less and .also coloured corpuscles of the l)lood, is one of the essential 
functions of the spleen, into the veins of which the new formed corpuscles 
pass, and are conveved into the general current of the circulations. 

Ibid. Ch. XII. 

(2) A. The contraction (of the heart) can not be long maintained 
without a due supply of blood or of a similar nutritive fluid. * * * The 
view that is at present taken of the action of the heart is * * that in heart 
muscle, as in protoplasm generally, the metabolic processes are those of 
anabolism or building up. which takes place during diastole of the heart 
* * * and the katabolism or discharge which is manifested in the contrac- 
tion of the heart. Kirk's Physiology (metabolism of the heart). Ch. VI. 

*1T^ f ??t" ffTffl II , •» 

BSgbhat Sutra. Ch. XII. 13. 



xlvi ' INTRODUCTION. 

logists to hold it ^ as iWe seat of cognition ( Viiddhi 
Sthanam). (l) 

The- fourth, which is the Albchaka or the Pittam of 
sight; indicates the metabolic process in the substance of 
the retina (Drishti) which gives rise to visual sensation. (2; 

The fifth is the Bhrajakagni or the Pittam in the skin 
which produces perspiration or hefps exudations from the 
skin by evaporation. In short it is the Pittam which keeps 
active, under certain circumstances, the secretions from the 
sweat and sebaceous glands of the human skin. 

Kaphah :— Sushruta is oie in holding with Foster thgj 
"the animal body dies daily, in the sense that at every 
moment some part of its substance is suffering decay, 
is undergoing combustion."' The etymological significance 
of the term Shariam vSkr. Shri, to wither up) testifies to 
his knowledge of the combustion that goes on within the 
human system. Three kinds of fire are detected in the bod}', 
which are sure to feed upon its constituent principles in 
the absence of proper fuel in the shape of food and air. 
It is food and the fundamental brdily principle of Shleshma, 
which is cooling or watery in its essence, that fly to the 
rescue of the organism, the latter (Sleshma) surcharging ii 
with its own essential humidity and keeping intact the 
integration of its component molecules. 

The Rasa, or lymph chyle which is formed out of the 
ingested food, prevents the internal bodily fire- from 

(i) The seat of the moon is at the root of the palate ami thai of the 
sun is at the root of the navel ; the place of the air (or breath) is above 
the sun, and mind dwells above the moon, Chittam (or the passage 
between the mind and the spiritual soul) dwells above the sun. and life 
dwells above the moon. 

Jn4na Sankallni Tantrani, International Journal of 
Tdntrik order (New York) Vol. V'. No. 5 p. 109. 

(2) It is supposed that the change effected by the light, which falls 
upon the retina, is in fact a chemical alteration in the protoplasm, and that 
this stimulates the optic nerve-endings. Kirk's Physiology Ch, XVII, 



INTRODUCT.PN. xlvii 

preying upon the vitals by coursing freely th;'Ough the 
whole organism. The Rasa, thus g^enerated, undergoes 
a sort of purification, the » purified portion being called 
Prasddabhuta, and the excreted portion Malabhttta, suc^>9 as 
are found as effete products deposited in certain pores of 
the body. Kaphah or Sleshmd is that pprtion of Rasa which 
fills all the intercellular^ spaces of the body, thus holding 
them together in a kind of cooling embrace (Skr. Slish to 
embrace) and prevents (il the dreadful combustion which 
would otherwise have been caused by organic heat. 
Our Acharjas have classified the Kaphah into five diflFerent 
kinds such as the Kledaka, Avalanwaka, Vodhaka and 
Shlcsmaka according to their different functions and 
locations in the economy. 

Dosha : — The lymph chyle, born of the digested food, 
and which courses through the body, potentially contains 
the elements which build the diflferent tissues of the 
human organism. Under the influence of metabolic heat 
it is progressively transformed into blood, flesh, fat, bone, 
marrow, semen and OJah. In other words, under the 
process of physiological metamorphosis, the lymph chyle 
sets free that part of its constituents (2) which possess blood- 

(i) A ^wftl*lK*!: — Bagbhat. 

Charaka Chikitshasth,<.nam. Chap. 15. 
(2) A. %^Ttg ?}^Tli^T: TJ^f^rf f^f^«(*ft; I 

fi^^^n: ^Tg^^ ^f^T*i ^t^^ K^: II 

Bh^va Mishra. 

Chakra Datta's commentary on the Charaka Samhit^. SutrasthSrjani. 
Cr. XXVIIl. 



xlviii int;roduction. 

making properties, and are ultimately transformed into 
blood — (its unuiilised^or excreted portion being eliminated 
through the natural apertures of the body), and so on, 
thrqugh the progressive series of metabolism to Oj'a/i 
Dhd.iu.> Thus with ihc derangement f)f the bodily Vayu 
which causes the fr^e coursing oi the lymph ch3'le through 
its vessels, the Pittam imetabolismj,of tissues), in any parti- 
cular part of the body, is also affected by reason of its 
incarceration, and thus causes an increase or diminu- 
tion in the excreted portion of the Rasa, which is another 
name for Kapham during the progressive metabolism. Thus 
we see that Vayu, Pitta^i, and Kaphah, which, in their 
normal state, are the three supporting principles of the body 
are transformed into morbific diathesis by increasing or 
diminishing the bodily heat, secretions, or excretions. t 

Thus congestion and inanition (atony) are the two 
main forms of disease recognised by the Ayurvedic Patholo- 
gists, the former being held amenable to resolution or 
elimination, and the latter to local feeding or nourishment. 

Agni and Dh^tvagnis : — We can not better conclude 
this portion of our dissertation than by speaking a word or 
two about Agni. Sushruta raises the question whether there 
is any kind of fire in the human organism other than the 
Pittam ; or are they identical ? Sushruta holds that the Pittam 
is the only fire present in the system, in as much as all acts 
from the digestion of food to the disintegration of tissues are 
performed with the help of the Pittam, which includes 
within its signification what is connoted by Anabolism and 
Katabolism of Western Physiologists. But Agnivesha and 
certain sections of the Ayurvedic Acharyayas hold that there 

^fTf^=5WWri^ «?^ ftqi 5f?T «I,?TI: II 

Bh^vaprakeisha Part I. 

Charaka Sutrasthinam Chap. I. 

/' 

,/ 
/ 



rxTRODrcTfoN. , xlix 

are five Anjali-fuls of Agni (i)' in the human t)rganism. 
This discrepancy is best explained away by including one 
Yava measure of Agni - (enzymes, ferment) in the five 
Anjali-measures of Pittam. •' 

The A'yurvedic Physiology recognises the exist'ence of 
another kind of Agni, which is called Dhatvagni (proto- 
plasm) and which it cL\ssifies into seven different kinds, 
Arunadatta, the celebrated commentator of the Ashtanga- 
hridayam, holds that there are as many Dhatvagnis as the 
constituents of the body. (2) 

'(i) q'g fiiTT^— Charaka Samhita. 
(2) A q^ qT^vftffi^i '5Bra?f:— v^ ^^^ift?:. ^'^tt^^^I ^rg<fl[inr 

flfq qigi?rfcT^(9rn fT(?Tfq qTf?f^T3I^r«Io|: 1 ^g qif^^Till'flirw 3»r: 
qi^: I Arundatta. 

q^g ?Tt€q3?^ 5I?Tq -^ q'^rfusrcrr^ffT II Ibid. 

r. ^ T^TTf ■^^^^\ ^ig^TTit 'g^=^% 1 

fqrnWl!; ^ \W^ '^m T^R^^^f^^ffT II 
fm'^'e^ HM *Tf« ^TfT ^"^^1 q^^^fl?T II 

l^a T?^f|c5J^ 5fT?r^Sf^ f^^t?^T*T I 
^frf?T fT^ ^Tf^^T^j TW ^kli: II 

ii^ffTOifir 1^55^ #^ f\-n\ riff: w,?t: i 
cHJiTri f{'^m, f\\ #f 5[r^' fr5iTg?T fT?f: 11 

^iaT^T9?lf^fvwiq : 9^fq^' ^qHsf^g I 

Charaka SamhiiS, ChikitsSsthSnam^ Chapter X\'. 

I). ^f«f¥ mJTTft >^?Tfr f^f^^ ^: I 

q^T»^*Tf^f«: qi^ gif'Tf ff ? q^l^rf: I! " 

Vid lljid Chap. XX. 



1 intr6duction. 

The tommeniator of the Chhandagya Bhasyani has 
emphasised the identity of the Pittani and the solar heat. 
In fact it was a doctrine of faith among the Rishis that 
the solar heat pent up in the solids is transformed into 
organic heat (Bhutagni) which, becoming liberated in the 
stomach, produces the heat of digestion, (i) All these 
are but different forms of solar "^ heat. The Dhatvagni 
and Udaragni lie inert in the organism. It is the Vayu 
that sets them free and makes them operative. 

The Dhatvagnis (protoplasm) of the muscle are not of 

the same kind as that of the arteries. We cannot resist' 

<■ 

the temptation of quoting a few lines from Foster's 
physiology on the subject.* 

(I) A. flra: ^«< ^^\ M^m-^^ ^%^^\ « ^f ^* ^q?")^r?T ^.^ 

ChhAndogya Upanisliad. 

Chh^ndogya Bh^syam. 

" These facts and other considenitions, which might be brought 
forward, lead to tl\e tentative conception of protoplasm as being a 
substance (if we may use the word in somewhat loose sense) not only 
unstable in nature but subject to incessant change, existing indeed as 
the expression of incessant molecular, i. i. chemical and physical 
cliange, ver3' much as a fountain is the expression of incessant 
replacement of water. We may picture to ourselves the total 
<:'hange. which we denote by the term "metabolism," as consisting 
on the one hand, of a downward series of i,Katabolic changes) a stair 
of many steps in which the more complex bodies are broken down 
with the setting free of energy into simpler waste bodies, and, 
on the other hand, of an upward series of changes (anabolic changes) 
also a stair of _ many steps, by which ihe dead food of varying 
simplicity or complexity is with further assumption of energ}- 
built up into more and more complex bodies. The summit of the 
do'uble stair we call ''protoplosm" whether we have right to speak 
of it as a single hodv .'in the chemical sense of that word or as a 



INTRODUCTION. , ll 

From whal has now been sUted regarding ihe func- 
tions and significations of the Vayu, l*ittam and Kaphah, 
it will appear that the Achai*yayas of the Ayurveda contem- 
plated three different sets of principles in the domains of 
Biology and Pathology. Vayu, Pittam, and Kaphah are 

mixture in some way of several bodies. Whether we should regard 
it as tlie very summit of the double stair, or as embracing as well 
as the topmost steps in either side, we can not at present tell. 
Even if this be a simple substance forming the topmost summit, 
its existence is absolutely temporary, at one instance it is made, at 
the next it is unmade matter, which is passing through the phase 
of life, rolls up the ascending step t«5 the top and forthwith rolls 
down on the other side * o o 

Further the dead food itself fairly, but far from being wholly 
stable in character, becomes more and more complex living material. 
It becomes more and more explosive and when it reaches the sum- 
mit its equilibrium is over-thrown and it actually explodes. The whole 
downward stair of events seems in fact to be a series of explosives 
by means of which the energy latent in the dead food and augmented 
by the touches through which the dead food becomes living 
protoplasm, is set free. Some of those freed energy is used up 
again by the material itself, in order to carry on tliis same vivification 
of dead food, the rest leaves the body as heat or motion. 

If this be admitted it almost inevitably follows, that what we 
have called protoplasm, can not be alwnys the sumo thing : that 
tliere must be many varieties of protoplasm witli dilVcrcnt qualities 
and with corresponding different molecular strncturL' and composition. 
Using the word '"protoplasm'' in this sense, it is oi'vious that the 
varieties of protoplasm are numerous indeed, almost innumerable. 
The molecular protoplasm, whicli brings forth a contractile kata- 
state must difEer in nature, in composition, that is in construction 
from glandular protoplasm wliere kata-state is a mother of 
ferment. Fur* her the protoplaspi of a swiftly contracting striped 
muscular fibre must differ from that of the torpid, smooth, unstriatcd 
fibre, the protoplasm of a human muscle must differ from that of 
a sheep or a frog, the protoplasm of one muscle must differ from 
that of another muscle, in the aaine kind of animal, and the pro- 
toplasm of Smith's biceps must differ from that of Jone's— Foster. 



Hi ,, INTRODUCTION. 

Called D/iaius or fundaraental principles of the economy, 
when in virtue of their correlative and sustentative func- 
tions, or with the help of their subservient processes of 
metabolism and lymphatic circulation, they ensure an equi- 
poise among the diflferent vital and physiological processes 
in the u'hole economy which is essential to its perfect 
health. Biologically considered they are but the primary 
subtle djniamics of organic life, or as Sayana expresses it, 
the three fundamental principles of the body.* But when 
this healthy equilibrium is disturbed either through the 
agency of any extrinsic or idiopathic factor, when any one 
of them is abnormally augmented or dominates the other 
two, thus altering their mutual relation in the economy, 
naturally certain pathological conditions arise which form 
the esse of a disease ; t or in the parlance of the Ayurveda 
they are said to have been transformed into Doshas or 
morbific diathesis. Even blood, which, according to our 
Acharyayas, forms one of the fundamental principles (Dhatu) 
of the organism, may be designated as a Dosha (morbific 
diathesis), when owing to its congestion in any particular 
organ or member of the body, it brings about a disturbance 
in its general vascular system and produces pathological 
conditions which are offshoots of its own deficient or 
disturbed circulation. They are denominated as MalaS, \ 
when observed still in grosser or superficial principles of 
the organism producing those excretions, or organic 
lesions which appertain to the sphere of morbid Anatomy. 
Thus we see that the Ayurvedic principles of Vayu, Pittam 
and Kaphah embrace both the biological and pathologi- 

.Sayanas Commentary Rig ^^ 1 A. 
Chanika. 



INTRODUCTION. . Hli 

» 

cal principles of the organism ;» or in other wOrds, the 
Ayurvedic physiology elucidates and investigates the 
causes through which the 'same principles, which sustain 
life and the organism, are transformed into the dynari\*ics 
of disease, lastly pointing out the grosser excretory changes 
and organic lesions in the external or "superficial plane of 
existence, which form thi subject of morbid anatomy and 
are sometimes confounded with the disease itself. In the 
Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah of the Acharyayas we have at 
once a complete picture of the finer sustentative forces of 
the human economy as well as their antithesis, the construc- 
tive as well as the expulsive forces* of the inner man, to- 
gether with an exhaustive analysis of their grosser products 
which legitimately fall within the sphere of morbid ana- 
tomy. A real knowledge of the nature and functions of 
the Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah may be useful in giving a 
deeper and clearer insight into the principles of true biology 
or pathology. It is incorrect to translate Vayu, Pittam and 
Kaphah as air, bile and phlegm, except under certain cir- 
cumstances. Viyu, Pittam and Kaphah are air, bile and 
phlegm only when they are transformed into Malas or 
grosser organic excretions which are supposed to be 
so very intimately connected with factors, pathogenetic 
or pathological, but they are not air, bile and phlegm in 
those planes of their functions which determine the genesis, 
growth and continuance of the organism, as w-ell as its 
death, decay and disinteg ation. -The knowledge of a 
region without that of its antipodes is but a half knowledge, 
and the principle of Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah is the only 
one of its kind that tries to embrace the whole sphere of 
organic existence. 

Ojah-Dh^tU : — From what has been stated before 
it will appear that during the process of tissu'e-formation, 
the Ivmph or chyle, under the influence of Pittam, or 
metabolic heat, is transformed in^o the same, the refuse 
or un-utilisable portion of it being passed off through the 



liv . IN*rRODUCTION. 

f 

apertures of ihe body, is excretions. The Ojah-Dhatu is 
present in the reproductive energy that lies latent in every 
organic principle, viz. lymph, blood, muscles, bone (synovia), 
ma"Vro\v, and in the *male & female reproductive elements. 
Hence it is not a matter of si.irprise when we find in Ayur- 
vedic works this Sbma, or Ojah-Dhatu mentioned as lying 
diffused in the human organism aiVd described as the essence 
of the lymph chyle, blood, &c. (i). The terms Rasagata 
Ojah, Raktagata Ojah are therefore used perhaps in the 
sense of modern serum-albumen, blood-albumen, &c. The 
male & female reproductive elements, according to this 
view, form the essence of 'the body as a whole, and the Ojah, 
which is abundantly found in these protoplasmic cells, is 
the quintessence of a quintessence. The muscle of the 
heart alone, according to Charaka, is chiefly associated with 
this energetic substance, which is of a bloody yellowish 
colour &. possesses both cooling & heat-making virtues. (2) 

In diseases caused by defective assimilation it is said to 
be ejected through the kidne\'s and to pass off with the urine 
(as in certain types of Prameha) (3), whereby the patient 
gradually loses strength, flesh, and healthy glow of complex- 
ion inasmuch as these are but the accompaniments of its 

(l) ^T\^ ^Wt^Tfprt ^^JflTlt RT'^^fW I 

Vagbhal . 

=^3f: aift? ^wm' tT^mrar ftfjpfw n 

Charaka (Sutra StMnam) Ch. XVII. 
(3) A. ^?:mfJ?ll7T^ft^ ^I^T?I JI^ff?f I 

^] -^fm' tT^ §f^ ^^^%: ffWn II 
•^ Charaka (Sutra Sthinam) Ch, XVII. 

Charaka (ShSrira SthSnam) Ch. IV. 



INTRODUCTieN. , Iv 

healthy continuance in the humi^n organism. "Health and 
strength," observes our Rishi," reside latent in the Ojah- 
dhatu, as butter (Ghritam)4ies latent in milk, (i) 

Dallana Mishra, the celebrated commentator of the 
Sushruta Samhita, has defined Ojah as a fatty su6stance 
completely combustible in its character. Thus in the 
course of tissue combustion its excess quantity is deposited 
especially in the female body as f.it which produces that 
peculiar softness and elegance. (2) The presence of Ojah 
in urine is said to induce Madhumeha (3). Taking this fact 
alone into consideration one is inclined to the belief 
that Ojah must be something "of the nature of sugar. 
As a consequence of these diflFerent interpretations of 
Ojah the question arises whether there is present in the 
human organism any such common element that produces 
either of these two important oxidising materials, viz. fat 
and sugar. 

It is a demonstrated fact in modern Physiology that 
glycogen is found in other tissues and organs besides 
in the liver. Tissues of embryos and of young animals 
as well as newly formed pathological growths may be said 
to contain glycogen. The activity of the heart, as well as 
the development of the fetal body (4) is largely dependent 

(i) A. '^]w. 'FT^at^T'??' %^ aftct* f^T f^ciH I 

Bh^VaprakSsha. Part I. 
BhSvaprakSsha. 

Dallana Mishra. 
(3) See Note 3 (B) Page iiv. » 

(4) ^r\ ^TTmfl "wsf ^Tr^'Tff^m?^: 1 

^TFr^TT-ffT'T' ^?^' ?1HlTr^^rrf m ^X\ II 

Charaka SutrasthSnam, Chap. XXX. 



Ivi , IN-TRODUCTION. 

upon this Ojah-dhatu which may be best translated as 
glycogen in- the parlance of Western physiology. In fact, 
our Acharyayas have used tke term ''ojah" to denote that 
xitzl principle in the organism which is essential to the 
maintenance of a healthy combustion in its tissues and to the 
due performance of their normal functions and activities, no 
matter whether that principle is patent in the form of proto- 
plasm, protoplasmic albumen, glycogen or mucosin (Prakrita 
shleshma)* in accordance with the difference of their func- 
tions, geneses, and conditions of protoplasmic metabolism. 
In short, the}- were cognisant of the fact that fat and sugar 
are evolved out of a common basic principle in the organism 
as has been very eruditely demonstrated by Dr. S. N. 
Goswami, B. A., L. M. S. in his treatise on Pumsavanam t 
It is far from our intention to thrust this opinion on an^' 
one ; we have simply stated our conclusion in the matter 
and will welcome the result of fresh enquiries on this subject. 

Charaka SamhitS Sutrasth^nain, Chap. XVII. 

Chakiadattas Commentary S. Samhit^, Sutrasthanam Chap. XV. 

1^ "From these extracts ii appears to us still more vividly that our 
countrymen did also discover, like Dr. Pavy, the importance of 
fat and sugar in the animal economy, as well as the mode in which they 
can be elaborated from one common principle. (76-78). A comparative 
study of the two systems of medical science, Indian and European, 
has led us to arrive at this conclusion ; if we, therefore are not inclined 
to identify Ojah with albumen, as it has been done by some modern 
Indian commentators, we have reasons to believe that the aforesaid 
extracts have not as yet received sufficient consideration from them, as 
forming the nutri'ive basis of the procreative elements ; in short the subject 
has hitherto been neglected or, at least, been placed in the back-ground, 
rom want of attention on the part of those whose business it was to investi- 
gate into the truths of Science. To hold that Ojah is kept in deposit in 
the heart, as a reserved food material, for the maintenance of its own work 



INTRODUCTld^'. » Ivii 

Space does not permit us to giVe here even something 
like a satisfactory synopsis of the physiology of Sushruta. 
It is enough for our purpose if we can create for our readers 
an interest in the various physiological problems discuss'ed 
by our author in this part of his work, or in his description 
of the various physiological processes, which are essential 
to the healthy continuance of human economy. But if 
Hindu physiology is startling in its demonstration of the 

as well as for the production of germinal seed, is to admit that efficiency of 
reproduction depends entirely upon the efficiency of this important sub- 
stantt in the body."J 

(76) ^?5%7>JT^SigTUT'?rf?T*TT^' Tfl^tTmj 

(77) ?fT' 21^ fifW€tT#^: 

(78) ^??tSt2IT^?l' '^^W. q^TRTTRTW 

—Ibid. 

76. Those who partake of heavy and cooling food abounding in acids and 
salts, of new rice, and beverages, or constantly enjoy sleep and luxuries, or 
neglect the exercise of body and mind, or who hal)itually abstain from the 
use of corrective medicines, help to accumulate in their bodiej phlegm, 
bile, fat and flesh ; and these interfere with the functions of the \'Ay\i, 
which causes the Ojah to be displaced from its proper place down in the 
bladder and produces glycosuria, 

77. As Ghee pervades the whole of milk, so Teja (f^yah) permeates 
all the tissues of the body. 

78. Teja (Ojah) too is combustible : in course of tissue-combustion, the 
excess quantity of it gets deposited especially in the female body as fat 
which produces softness and elegance. 



Iviii ifiTRonucTioN. 

c 

fact tha'L growth is not the only condition of Ufe, that vitali- 
ty is somewhat independent of the physiological processes, 
that the inner man, with the he4p of Yoga, can long survive 
even without food and respiration,* and that death and 
decay" may be arrested to a considerable degree by com- 
pletely stopping nfany of those physiological processes in 
the body,t which are considered ^j very essential to living 
by the savants of the West, then Hindu pathology is unique 
in its conception of the nature of disease. 

Sushruta's Pathology : — What is it in a man, asks Sush- 
ruta, that falls sick ? What is that that we treat medicinally ? 
The body or the mind ? 'Sushruta says that, "anything that 
afflicts the nmer man (self or Purusha) is disease! and 
that disease has its primary seat in the inner spring of 
vitality from which it flows out to the surface, the external 
body". In man, as in everything else in the universe, 
the direction of the inherent force is from the centre to 
the circumference. The shock is felt first at the centre of 
vitality, whence it is transmitted outwards and thus affects 
the energy which holds the molecules together, Dvyanuks and 
Tryanuks (Binary and teriiary atoms) of which the gross 
body is composed, and further opposes the dissolution of 
those molecules into their elemental constituents in the living 
organism. Even in cases of external injuries such as snake- 
bite, etc. the potency of the virus is carried at once to that 
centre from whence it is almost instantaneously transmitted 
through the external channels of the body to its surface, 

ff^TTUr *^^« 1 

Palanjala Uarshanani X^ibhudpAda 29 — 30 A. 

Pcitanjala Daishanam. Vibhutipada. 21. A. 

Sushruta samhitA. Sulra. Chap. 1. 



INTRODUCTION. , lix' 

> 

Otherwise what purpose does the \iyu (nerve force),5erve in 
the human economy ? What do those myriads of Chaitanya- 
vahini Nadis (sensory ne,ivt^s) exist for in the human 
system ? In all diseases the subjective sensations are I'he 
first to be experienced. "I am ill," "I feel hot," etc. are the 
voices of sensations, which form the "esse" of the disease. 
Disease then is a force ar^d not matter.* 

Pathology of Tridosha :— Sushmta, though adopting 
the Vedic pathological dictum of Tridhatu, has expressed 
a very clear opinion on the subject. He observes that the 
relation between a disease and the deranged Vayu (nerve 
force), Pittam (metabolism) and Kapham (unutilised product 
of the system), and the pathogenic factors which lie at the 
root of that disease, is not real but contingent. These 
morbific principles may permeate the whole organism 
without creating any discomfort, and it is only when they 
find a distinct lodgment, and are centred in some distinct 
part or tissue of the body, that they become the exciting 
factors of disease. 

Drug Potency :— The next question which naturally 
arises in connection with such a theory of pathogeny, is 
what is medicine, or in other words, what is it in the drug 
that cures ! Sushruta, after closely investigating all the 
theories on the subject, inclines towards the opinion that it 
is the potency of the drug that is curative, though he observes 
that inasmuch as potency cannot exist independently of a 
drug, a drug is of primary interest for p11 practical purposes 
in therapy. 

Drug-Dynamisation :-"It is the potency of a drug 
that cures a disease". The potency is administered best 

* That Hahnemann's theory of disea.se was long before fore- 
.shadowed by Sushruta, will appear from the above extracts from his 
works. Hahnemann observes that, when a person falls ill, it is only 
this spiritual self-acting vital force, everywhere present in the organism, 
that is primarily deranged by the dynamic influence of a morbific 
agent inimical to life — Orgenon. 



Ix INiTRODUCTIOK. 

c 

when the physical or chqjmical properties of a drug are 
annihilated. This "is best performed by subjecting it to 
heat or pressure. In the n^edicated Ghritas or oils of 
ouv.pharmacopoea, which are prepared by successively boiling 
or cocking them with drug-decoctions, we cannot even 
detect the trace of /Miy of its component drugs, but still 
we know how potent and efficacious they prove in the 
hands of our Vaidyas. When Sushruta formulated the 
process of preparing mediciual oils and Ghritas, and laid 
down the use of Shatadhautam Ghritam (clarified butter, 
a hundred times washed with water in succession), 
Sahasrapak Tailam (medicinal oil, successively codked a 
thousand times), or Kumbha-Ghritam (clarified butter, 
a hundred years old) it may be fairly said that he was in 
sight of the principle of drug-dynamisation. 

Principles of A yurvedic Treatment:— Ayurvedic phy- 
sicians piacticallv recognise two dififerent sets of principles 
in the domain of practical therapeutics, which may be stated 
in the terms of ::heir western colleagues as Laws of Similars 
and Contraries.* This apparent contradiction has been 
fully accounted for and explained in the writings of 
the latter day commentators, but it does not fall within 
our province to enter into these disquisitions. In addition 
to those, Sushruta, in common with the Acharyayas of his 
time, never fails to emphasise the value of psycopathy in 

* Similar in ch.iracter to the exciting factors of a disease — Similar in 
character to the £sse of a disease — Similar in character both to the exciting 
actors and £i>\se of a disease. 

Contrary in character to the exciting factors of a disease. 

Contrary in character to the £sse of a disease. 

Contrary in character both to the exciting factors and Esse of a disease. 

M^dhava NidSnam Ch I. V, 8. 



INTRODUCTION. ^ 1X1 

those forms of mental or nerv;ous distempers fgr which 
Mesmer rightly now receives so n\uch honor. Since 
the creation of man, the tput'h of the "Saintly" has been 
credited with the virtue of curing the sick ; and Av^feha 
(auto-hypnotism) and Samadhi (higher phases of ciairvoy- 
ance) have achieved many miracles in . the art of healing 
in India, which was the, first country where it was first 
successfully practised for the welfare of man. 

Samshodhanam and Samshamanam :— All kinds of 
treatment may be grouped under two heads such as Sam- 
shodhanam and Samshamanam, i.e. either the body should 
be cleansed (Samshodhitam) of the morbific diathesis with 
the help of emetics or purgatives, or steps should be taken 
to restore the deranged Vayu, Pittam and Kapham to their 
normal condition with the help of proper medicinal drugs 
without resorting to any eliminating process. But in cases 
of inflammation, Sushruta enjoins that, instead of any Sam- 
shamanam remedies, diaphoresis should be first resorted to. 
In cases where counter-irritants are indicated and in parts 
which are directly accessible, leeching and cauterisation 
should be practised with a due regard to the season of the 
year and the requirements of the case. We find in his 
Samhita a detailed account of the several species of leeches 
with their habits and habitats. 

Forms of medicine: — Powders, lambatives, decoctions 
as well as medicated oils, Ghritas, confection and wines are 
the forms in "-hich, according to Sushruta, medicines 
should be given. The different di ugs such as roots, leaves, 
etc. should be culled in the seasons proper to each. 
Reclassified the soil into five different kinds for the purpose 
of growing drugs of different therapeutic properties. 
Even the virtues of different flavours and colours were 
ascertained with regard to their respective actions on the 
deranged morbific principles of the body. 

Rasayanam : — The Ayurveda being the science of life 
and health, the holy Agnivesha, at the very commencement 



Ixii , INTRODUCTION. 

ot the th-erapeutical porticMi of his work, * has described 
several medicinal compounds, which improve general health 
and arrest the ravages of time. ' Theoretically speaking the 
sciehrce of the A3'urveda recognises no preordained limit to 
human fexistence. Life can be prolonged with the help 
of suitable medicines. By dint of observation and patient 
researches our Rishis devised maay such adjuncts which 
can rejuvenate an old man, and supply those vital elements 
to an old and exhausted human body, which ebb away 
with the progress of years. Hence, we find many 
rejuvenating medicines to have been prescribed for men in 
health which would arrest decay and guard against the 
approach of senility b}' increasing the fundamental vital 
principles of the body and preventing Vayu, Pittam and 
Kapham from being transformed into morbific diatheses. 

Diet — "A good and proper diet in disease is worth 
a hundred medicines and no amount of medication can do 
good to a patient who does not observe a strict regimen of 
diet.'' Our A'jairveda, instead of being content with specify- 
ing the nature of diet in diseases in general, mentions the 
names of articles, which should, or should not be taken in 
■^J any specific malady, judged by the light of their properties 
of aggravating Vayu, Pittam or Kapham. The dietic or 
therapeutic properties of a large number of articles of 
human consumption, as well as the chemical changes they 
undergo in the digestive apparatus of diflferent mammals, 
have been studied and analysed, and so we find in our 
physique, medical Samhitas, such injunctions that barley- 
corns passed undigested with _ the fceces of a cow or 

flwi^ii' J?^t[z^^^' ^^^n ^^' ^x w 

Chaiaka Sanihit^t Chikitsrt Slli4nam Ch I, 



)NTKuDUC'?ioN. > Ixiii 

> 

horse, should foiiu the diet of 'a Prameha patielit * that 
the milk of a she-camel should be given to a patient 
suffering from a cutaneous aflFection, and that the flesh 
of any carnivorous beast or bird should be given to 'one 
suffering from pulmonary consumption and so ' on. It 
was a cardinal doctrine with Ayurvedic dietisls that the 
longing of a patieni for any particular kind of food 
in a certain disease, emphatically shows that his organism 
is in want of those elements which enter into the 
composition of the article offered. Hence elaborate 
dietetics were formulated, which cannot but be acceptable 
to the most fastidious patient. ' 

Therapeutics:— The exclusiont of salt and water from 
the food of an ascites or anasarca patient as laid down in 
our Samhitas shows that our Rishi possessed a higher 
chemical knowledge regarding the effects of organic matter 
on the human system than many of us are ready to 
accord to these pioneers in medical science. 

Medical Botany;— After therapeutics comes the subject 
of Medical Botany. Sushruta divides the whole vegetable 

Charaka Samhiti, Chikiisa Sthanam, Ch. \'I. 23. 
t The efficacy of such exclusion has been lately demonsU-ated by the 
researches of Dr. Benjamin Horniman (Lectures, Sanitarium, Park si. 
London.) 

Charaka Chikitsha Sthanam Ch, XIIL 
^bid Chap. 13. 

Charaka Chikitsha Sthanam Chap, 1 2. 



Ixiv ■ f INTRODUCTION. 

kingdom into Vriksha, Gultlia, Vanaspati and Virudha. This 
classification has been minutely worked out in works on 
Hindu Botany where we find si!ich nice subdivisions as 
r Agravija (whose toplings are only planted), Mulaja (whose 
roots only are planted), Parnayoni, Skandaja, Vijaruha (ger- 
minated from seeds) ^nd Sannurudhaja. But the botany of 
/ Sushrnta is more of the nature of a" Materia Medica than 

/ a work on Botany proper, though sometimes he mentions 
the habitat and describes the foliage of certain plants so 
that they may be distinguished from others of a cognate 
species. 
, ^ The uses of metals and 'minerals for therapeutical pur- 
poses in India are as old as the Rigveda * itself. Sush- 
ruta describes the methods of preparing oxides, sulphates 
or chlorides of the six metals as the case may be. Mercury 
has been only once mentioned in the Samhita and then very 
vaguely too. Processes for the preparation of alkalis and 
the lixiviation of ashes are very elaborately described. 
Beyond these the chemical knowledge of Sushruta scarcely 
extends. 

Hygiene and Public Health:— A? a writer of Hygiene 
and public health, Sushruta emphasises the importance 
of cleanliness of both sririt and body. Water whose 
disinfecting virtues have so often been hymnised in the 
Vedas t forms the subject of discussion of an entire 
chapter of the Samhita. Outbreaks of epidemic have been 
attributed to contrary seasons, to the floating of minute 

^/\ particles of poisonous flower pollen in the air, and to the 
sin or unrighteous conduct of the community. Earthquakes, 
famines, and physical phenomena, which are at present attri- 
buted to magnetic disturbances of the earth, have been 

* Lead crystal (including diamond) gold and mineral poisons arc men- 
tioned in the I. i6. I. 29. I 55. and IV 10. of the Atharva SamhitA. 

Rik Samhiti I. 23 s. 19, 



INTRODUCTION. ' IxV 

described by Sushi ut a as the usual precursors of devastating 
epidemics sucli as jilague etc. Mortality among birds and an 
unusual death among rats and other burrowing rodents hav^ 
been iricluded aiuo.ig other presaging indications of a visi- 
tation by Providence. Interrogated as to the cause of such 
outbreaks, Dhanvautari observes that, the Viyu (molecular 
energy) of the soi' is disturoed or affected by earthquakes, 
and seasons of unnatural drought or deluge, deranging their 
Pittam (kinetic energy) and Shleshma (humidity) which 
produce morbific factors that affect a whole community. 
Sushyuta, as a true physician, has elaborately dealt with the 
regimen of diet and conduct during the different seasons 
of the year (Ch. 24 -U. T. 64) which, strictly followed, should 
act as a good prophylaxis against attacks of many epidemic 
diseases, being framed with a most careful regard to the 
conditions of life which obtain in it, and ward off those sad 
breakdowns in health, which are, in many instances, the 
result of an unsuitable mode of living in this country. 

Twofold division of Time &C :— It is a fundamental 
dictum of Sushruta that in a case of medical treatment the 
then prevailing season of the year should be taken into 
account. In his Samhita we find two distinct classifications 
of seasons, one based on the peculiar physical pheno- 
mena which distinguish the different seasons of the year, a fact 
which emphaticall}' proves that Sushruta was an inhabitant 
of the sub-Himalayan Gangetic Doab, the other is for the 
purpose of showing the respective accumulation, aggrava- 
tion and subsidence of morbific diatheses (Doshas). In 
the same manner the different quarters of the day and 
night have been minutely charted or set down to show the 
spontaneous aggravation and subsidence of the deranged 
Vayu, Pittam and Kaphah during the 24 l^ours. The! , 
influence of planets as to the production of certain diseases 
such as small-pox, measles, scarlet fever, &c. is almost a 
proved fact. As it governs the' prevalence and non- 
prevalence of certain maladies, the aggravation and 

9 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION. 

non-aggravation of certain existing disorders as well owe 
much of tb.eir origin to this potent factor. The vegetable 
kingdom from which we glean our daily food is also subject 
to thi? influence, and hence the discrimination we exercise 
in selecting our food on certain davs of the lunar month. 

Countries have been divided into Jangala or A'nr.pa ac- 
cording as their physical features partake of the character 
of a dry plateau or of a swamp or marsh, a Sadharana 
one possessing features, which are common to both. Diseases, 
which are natural or are spontaneously relieved in each of 
these kinds of countr}- have been treated with that scienti- 
fic insight which marks modern medical works on sea-side 
or spring sanitariums. The virtues of the waters of different 
rivers of India were ascertained for the purposes of practical 
therapeutics. The therapeutic properties of the milk of 
a she-goat, she-buflFalo, mare, cow-elephant, or woman, as 
well as of any of their modifications such as curd, whey &c. 
together with the properties of the flesh and urine of the 
several groups of she-animals, which are indigenous to 
the land, were studied and analysed, thus placing at the 
disposal of a practical physician a list of dietarv in 
different diseases to soothe the taste of the most 
fastidious patient, and which is at the same time potent 
enough to cure the distemper he is suffering from without 
the help of anj?^ special medicine. Thus it is that we find our 
Vaid\'as prescribing" the flesh of many carnivorous animals 
as a diet in consumption, goat's meat in phthisis, goat's 
milk in colitis and Tittira's flesh in fever &c. 

Diseases of the Kidneys and Bladder: — In treating 
of the diseases of the kidneys, blatlder and the urethra, 
Sushruta has described the symptoms and the colour of 
the urine irii each specific variety without laying down any 
mode of testing the urine. But we know that Sn^hruta has 
enjoined his readers at the ver}- outset of his work to refer 
to other allied branches of the science for information 
which is not contained in his book. In the same manrier 



INTRODUCTION'. Ixvii 

we can account for the absence of.^ any instiuctions as 
regards the feeling of the p'j'>se as an important auxiliary 
in making a correct diagnosis. We need but repeat -.the 
statement that the readers of this Samhita must look for 
this information in the Kanada's Nadi Vijnanam, which has 
made our Vaidyas such expert sphygmologists. 

Kalpa: — In the Kalpasth:inam of his Samhita, Sushruta 
has described the symptoms of hydrophobia and snake bites, 
etc as well as those developed in cases of vegetable poisoning, 
together with their therapeutical treatment and remedies, 
wkich, if rightly studied and investigated, may yet throw a 
new liglit upon the subject. 

Sushruta as an Observer :— It has been lately dis- 
covered by a German physiologist that tubercular bacilli do 
not thrive in goat's blood. The importance of goat's milk 
in colitis as an efficient agent in checking ferment in the 
intestines, or of the close contact of a goat as a powerful 
auxiliary in curing tuberculous phthisis was first demonstrated 
by Sushruta. Not onl}' this — but the inhalation of the 
air of a cattle-shed and especially the fact that exhalations 
of goats, bodies tend to destroy the phthisis germs did 
not fail to attract the attention of the Indian Rishis ; the 
fumigation of tlie sick-room with antiseptic preparations 
such as isT^T^wq (Asthanga dhupas) is purely Indian 
in its origin and in no way inferior to the modern introduction 
of Cogghill's respirators. The microscopic germs that are said 
to propagate septic fever otherwise called ^^^crrfvf q^'lsj f^^^j^ 
are found very often to disappear under this Indian 
device where no medicines produce any impression. Thus 
many a wonderful discovery like the above hails from the 
dimness of a bygone age. Manj' truths lie embedded 
in the vast medical literature of the Brajimanas which 
claimed close attention and devout study, even by the 
western savants. We have not laboured in vain if these 
pages can help a little to reviVe the old genius of the 
Ayurveda, or help the progress of human Science one step 
onward towards the attainment of its goal. 



PLATE No. I, 




1. An^uli yantra. 



i '^ 3 . Ashmaryaharna yantra 





S-Bhrin^amuklia yantra. 



Z.Arsho yantra. 



M^HP^^PKf^^P^^H^ 



4. Basti yantra. 






6 . Darvyakritislialaka. 



7. Garbhashanlcu yantra. 



8. Jalodar yantra. 




9 . Kakamuklia yantra. 




10 . Kankamukha yantra. 



ILMuclititi yantra. 



^ 



12. Nadi yantra. 







13 . Riksliaraukha- yantra. 




14-. Sadansha yantra. 



SEE CHAPTER VII. 



PLATE No. II. 



15 . Shamipatra yautra. 




16. Shalaka vanira. 



17. Sliarapunka ixmkha. 




19. Shvanaraukha y antra. 




18. Sinliainiiklia yantra. 




20. Shanku yantra. 



21. Snuhi yantra. 



22. Tila yantra. 




23 .Tarakshumukha. 





24.Vrikaiimkha yantra. 




25 . Vrinapraksii.alana yantra, 26 . Yya^hramukha yantra 




27. Yugmaslianku yantra. - %k ,,^M Yofljaveksliana yantra. 



SEE CHAPTER VII. 



PLATE No. III. 




l.Ardhadhara shastra. 



S.Ara sliastra. 



Z.Atimukha shastra. 
4. Badisha. shastra. 



^ 



S.Dantaslianku shastra. 



7. Karapatra shastra. 



^ ' 




<!>- 




6. Eshani shastra. 





8. Antarmukha kartarika. 



J^aSKrJsniKU 



SEE CHAPTER VIII. 



I 



PLATE No. IV. 




9.Kritharika sTiastra. 



1E^&£ 



lO.Kushapatra shastra. 



ll.Manda.la^ra shastra. ♦ 



12.Mudrika shastra. 



13.Na.kiia shastra. 



. <5' -^ 






14. Sliaianmuklia shastra. 




15. Suchi shastra. 



'^— J= 



iS.Trikurchaka shastra. 




17. Utpalapatra shastra. J'j| 



18. Vetaspatra shastra. 




19 . Yrihimukha shastra. 



ZO.Vndhipatra shaslra. 



SEE CHAPTER VIII. 



CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER I. 

Origin of the Ayurveda : — The eight divisions of the Ayurveda 
and the characteristic features of each of them — History of Surgery 
and its primary importance — Gradual exteiisi(jn of the Ayurveda — 
Definition of Purusha — Classification of the mobile and the im- 
mobile — Definition and classification of disease — Classification of 
Oshadhis — ^The four factors to be employed in successfully coping 
with 'a disease — The four stages of a disease ... ... 1 — 15 



CHAPTER n. 

Initiation of a student of the Ayurveda :— Qualifications of a 
student of medicine — ]\Iode of Initiation — Compact between the 
preceptor and his disciple — Proliibited periods of the study of the 
Ayurveda ... ... ... ... ... 16 — 20 



CHAPTER III. 

Classification of the Ayurveda &c. :— The distribution of its 
hundred and twenty chapters among the five subdivisions of .this 
Samhita — A synopsis of the contents of the cliapters allotted to 
each of its subdivisions — Skilful and unskilful phj^sicians — The 
mode of studying the Ayurveda — Duties of a pupil after having 
finished the study of the Ayurveda ... ... 21 — .^2 



CHAPTER. IV. 

General explanations : — Necessity of a clear exposition of tlie 
Ayurveda — Defects which flow from nonexposition of the same — 
Duties of a student of the Ayurveda ... ... 33 — 35 



ii ' ( ONTRNTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

Preliminary surgical measures : — Classification of surgical 
ope^-ations — Accessories which are to be collected at the outset 
— Qualifications of a surgeon — Modes of incision, etc. at the different 
parts of the body — Measures to be adopted after surgical operations 
— The prophylactic Mantra — Directions for dressing wounds and 
removing bandages according to tlie nature of the prevailing season 
of the year — Acts and articles proliibited to a patient with a 
granuliiting wound — Measures for removing the pain in a surgical 
wound ... ... ... ... ... 30 — 44 



CHAPTER VI. 

Characteristic features of the different seasons of the year 
and their influence on health and drugs : — Time and its traits- 
Etymology of the term Kala (time) — Divisions of time and classifica- 
tion of the seasons of the year, witli Iheir respective features. 
Classification of the seasons of the year for the purposes of the 
Ayurveda — Inception, aggravation or subsidence of the deranged 
Vayu, Pittam and Kapham according to the nature of the prevailing 
season of the year — Aggravation or subsidence of the same in the 
dilferent qiuirters of the day and night — Causes of epidemics — Pro- 
phylactic measures — Features of natural or unnatural seasons 45 — 55 



CHAPTER YII. 

Surgical appliances, their use and construction : — Number 
of surgical instruments — Names, dimensions^ use and functions of 
surgical appliances with points of their respective excellence or defect 
— Minor siu'S'ical accessories — Excellence of Kankaraukha ... 56 — 03 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Surgical instruments, and their names, use and construc- 
tion : — Mode of handling th^ different surgical instruments. — Their 
commendable features — Sharpening, edging and tempering, etc.. of 



CONTENTS. ' 111 



surgical instruments and enumeration of cases where they »should be 
employed ... ... ... ... ... 64 — 70 



CHAPTER IX. 

Practice of surgery : — Ti'iichiiig oi' siir^^ery on (iiiiniiiies ami 
suitable fruits, etc. ... , ... ... ... 71—73 



CHAPTER X. 

Essential qualifications of a physician before he formally 
cntirs his profession: — Means of diagnosis — Things to be observed 
in making a diagnosis — Cure, palliation and incurability of diseases — 
Prohibited conduct of a physician ... ... 74 — 77 



CHAPTER XI. 

Mode of preparing alkalis, and their comparative excellence 
as incising, excising or scraping agents :— Alkalis for external 
application or internal use — Cases where alkalis prove injurious — The 
three potencies of alkalis for external application — Commendable 
or defective features in an alkali — IMode of its application, and after- 
measures— Symptoms of satisfactory cauterisation— Persons who 
should not be treated with alkalis — Dangers which attend its 
abuse ... ... ... ... ■•• 78—87 



CHAPTER XII. 

Actual cauteries : — Accessories to an act of cauterisation — Pre- 
liminary measures— Symptoms which manifest themselves as the 
skin, or flesh, or a vein, or joint is cauterised — Seats of caifterisation 
in different diseases— Different modes of cauterisation— Characteristic 
symptoms of burns and scalds, etc.— Rationale of treating a burn or 
a scald with heat— Medical treatment of burns and scalds, etc.— 
Symptoms which appear when the nostrils, etc. of a person is choked 
with smoke— Its treatment— Medical treatment of sun strikes, and 
scorchings by hot Avind, etc. ... ... 88 — 97 



IV , UONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Leeches and their use : — Persons who may be leeched — Mode 
of extracting the vitiated blood in' such cases — Mode of apply- 
ing the leeches — Classification, and mode of collecting and keep- 
ing the leeches — Bad leeches and their characteristics — After- 
measures ... ,,.. ... ... ... 98 — 105 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Origin and characteristic features of lymph chyle .-—Its 
location, course and metamorphosis into blood — Menstrual blood 
and its nature — Successive .metamorphosis of the fundamental 
principles of the body — Etymology of the terra Dhatu — Blood — 
Swellings which should not be bled — Two kinds of blood letting— 
\'enesectioii, its mode and different aspects — ]\Iischief created by the 
vitiated blood not extracted from the system — Causes of excessive 
bleeding and its effect upon the system — Symptoms of satisfactory 
l)leeding and its benertcial results — Measures to be adopted in cases 
of excessive or scanty bleeding — Medical treatment of excessive 
bleeding — Various instructions ... ... ... 106 — 110 



CHAPTER XV. 

Development or non-development of the excrements and 
constituent principles of thebody:— Nature, locations and functions 
of the Normal Vayu, Pittam and Kapham, as well as of the lymph 
chyle, blood, fat, marrow, semen, and ojah (albumen), and the symp- 
toms which mark their increase, decrease, or disiodgment in the 
human system — Etiologies of obesity and thinness ... 120 — 140 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Piercing and bandaging of the lobules of ears t — Evils wliich 
attend the acc\dental hurting of a local vein — Medical unguents and 
lints — Different processes of bringing about the adhesion of a 
bifurcated ear-lobe — plastic and rhinuplastic operations ... 141 — 154 



CONTENTS.' « V 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Distinction between suppurat\ng and non-suppurating swell- 
ings : — Different types of intiammatory swellings produced by the 
deranged Vayu, Pittani, etc , and the symptoms which mark their 
respective actions in each type — Characteristic symptoms of a 
suppurating, suppurated, or non-suppurated !5welling — Hints on in 
cising suppurated swellings-r-Evils of opening an abscess at its 
inflammatory stage — Feeding and anftsthetising of a patient before 
lancing otf an abscess — Classification of surgical operations in 
connection with an abscess ... ... ... 155 — 161 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Dressings and bandages of ulcers : — Classification of medicinal 
plasters according to their thickness, application and function — Use 
of the different types of plasters — Articles of bandaging — Bandages 
and their names and applications — Tow — Mode of introducing a 
lint — Renewals of bandages according to the nature of the ulcer 
and the prevailing season of the year — Evils of non-bandaging — 
Benefits of bandaging — Cases where bandaging is prohibited — Hints 
on the proper lubrication of the lint — Incidental remarks on the 
bandaging of fractured or dislocated bones ... ... 162 — 175 



CHAPTER XIX. 

Nursing and management of an Ulcer-patient : — Nature ot his 
bed and chamber— Articles prohibited to an ulcer patient — Prophylaxis 
against monsters and demons — Diet and conduct of an ulcer- 
patient ... ... ... ... ... 176—182 



CHAPTER XX. 

Salutary and Non-salutary effects of regimen, etc. : — Classi- 
fication (if all articles of fare according as they are wholesome or 
unwholeseme to the human system, or are relatively wholesome 
or otherwise — Foodstuff' — Incompatibility through combination — 
Injuriousness through combination- Incompatibility through pre- 



VI . "CONTENTS. 

paration,' quantity or Havour-rEffect of winds on the human system 
as they blow from the'ditierent quarters of the heaven ... 183—193 



CHAPTER XXI. 

The deranged Vaf/u, Pittam, etc., as the exciting causes of 
ulcers : — Seats of Vayu, Pittam, etc. in, the human body, and their 
functions— Different kinds of Vayii, Pittam and Shleshma, and their 
functions and locations in the economy of nature — Factors which 
aggravate the deranged Vayu, Pittam and Kapham, and their 
periodicity — Symptoms of the deranged Pittam, Kapham and blood — 
Expansion of the deranged Vayu, Pittam, etc.. and diseases dye to 
their incarceration in the difterent parts of the body — Disease — its 
development and occasions which necessitate the calling in of medical 
aid — The nature of medical treatment in the case where two or all of 
the Vayu, Pittam and Kapham are involved ... ... 194 — 211 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Secretions from boils and ulcers : — Shapes and seats of boils 
etc. — Symptoms of bad ulcers — Secretions from ulcers — Presumption 
as to the derangement of Vayu, etc. from the nature of the secretion 
— Different kinds of pain wliich mark the different types of ulcers — 
Colours of Ulcers ... ... ... ... 212—219 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Prognosis in ulcer cases -.—Easy curability of an ulcer— Symp- 
toms of an ulcer which readily granulates— Symptoms of difficult 
or incurable types, as well as of those which admit only of palliation — 
Symptoms of a purified, granulating or healed ulcer — Factors which 
lead to the reopening of a healed ulcer ... 220—227 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Classification of diseases according as they are medical or 
surgical :— Further classitica'tioii uf diseases according as they arc 
congenital, etc.— Diseases due to mental, physical or providential 



CONTENTS. » 



causes — Diseases due to the derangeinent of lymph chj-'je, etc. — 
Relation between fever and the deranged ' Vaj'u, Pittam and 
Kapham ... ... ..., ... ... 228—237 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Eight different forms of surgical operation : — Cases where 
incision, excision, scarification, aspiration, extraction, etc., should be 
respectively resorted to — Mode and conditions of suturing — Defec- 
tive surgical operations — Symptoms wliich mark tiie injudicious 
hurting of a vein, artery, lig.'iment, joint or lione, as well as those 
which are manifested when any of tlie other Alarmas is accidentally 
hurt ' ... ... ... ... ... 238—246 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Exploration of splinters, deep-seated in the organism : — Defi- 
nition of a Shalyam — Clpssification of the shafts of arrows — Flights 
of arrows — Characteristic symptoms of arrow-wounds— Localisation 
of a shaft of arrow lying imbedded in the body — Symptoms which 
show that the shaft or the splinter does not lie imbedded in the 
wound — Evils cf not extracting the shaft of an arrow from such 
a wound ... ... ... ... ... 247— 2.o5 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Extraction of splinters : — Fifteen different processes of extrac- 
'1— Two recognised modes of extracting splinters from all types of 
mds— Measures to be adopted after the extraction — Mode of 
acting splinters from veins, etc.— Dangers of not extracting 
'inter from a wound ... ... ... 2^6 — 265 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

vourable or unfavourable prognosis of an julcer: — Fatal 
avourable symptoms — Advisability of abandoning ihe patient 
hese unfavouraole symptoms appear ... ... 266 — 269 



VIU , •"CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Favourable or unfavourable prognosis in diseases as known 
from messengers, omens, birds of happy or evil augury : — The 
same predicted from dreams, etc. — Remedies for inauspicious dreams 
under the circumstance— Description of auspicious dreams 270 — 283 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Prognosis that can be obtained from the perverted functions 
of the five sense organs : — Arislitas or unfavourable mental symp- 
toms — Unfavourable symptoms in connection with the faculties of 
hearing, touch, taste, smell or. sight ... ... 284—287 



CHAPTER XXXI. 

Prognosis to be gathered from the altered condition of 
features : — Other Aristha symptoms in connection with Asthma, 
Cough, and (Edema. &c. ... ... ... 288—292 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

Prognosis based on the perversion of the external appearances 
of the body and other Arishta symptoms ... ... 293 — 297 



CHAPTER XXXIIf. 

Incurable diseases, and Incurable symptoms developed in con- 
nection with diseases of the nervous systems, morbid urethral 
discharges, Leprosy, Haamorrhoids : — Fistula in ano — Urinarj' 
concretions, DitKcult labour, Ascites, Fever, Dysentery, Phthisis, 
abdominal glands, Abscess, Chlorosis, Ha?moptysis, Insanity and 
Epilepsy ... ... ... ... ... 298—302 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Mode of preserving the Ii<e of a king whose soldiers are on 

the march : — The four factors of medical treatment — Good which 



CONTENTb. 



lebiiUs from a butitifuolory coiiibinaliun oi all tlieso lour facloib — 
Commendable features in a physician, yatient, medicine and 
nurse ... ... ... ... ... 303 — 307 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

Clinical Observations : — Cliracteristic features of a long lived 
or short lived man, or of one with an average duration of life — 
Physical temperaments and dimensions of the limbs and members 
of the body — Curable, incurable or suppressible diseases — Sym- 
pathetic and Primary diseases — Different kinds of digestive 
capacity — Three stages of man — Relative preponderance of Vayu, 
Pittam and Kapham during different stages of life — Classification 
of countries according to their physical features ... 308 — 328 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

Miscellaneous remedies for swellings : — Piasters for establish- 
ing suppuration in swellings — Plasters for bursting, pressing out the 
pus from, or asepsising swellings — Aseptic pastes — Fumigating com- 
pounds—Healing pastes — Compounds which favour granulation in, or 
destroy the supergrowths around an ulcer ... ... 329 — 335 



CHAPTER XXXVn. 

Destructive traits of the different kinds of soil commended for 
the growth or culture of medicinal herbs : — Examination of the 
soil from which medicinal drugs are to be gathered — Examination 
of drugs — IMode of collecting drugs — Commendable traits in a room 
to be used as a drug-store ... ... ... 336 — 341 



CHAPTER XXXVni. 



A General Classification o^rdf^?'^- according to tl^eir therapeu- 

umer^^ II ^ yU'irty seven different groups of 

"?yametc.-Pix)^"«- - ^^^-f^^ 

.ption of the Vel'uoi. ^ lesh group 



tical properties; — Enumerh^^jl^.^^ rhirty seven different groups of 
medicinal drugs— Their US' y^jygj. Pro^"'' ••• ••• ^^^ — ^^^ 



X CONTKNTS. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Drugs possessed of cathartic or soothing effects : — Emetics- 
Purgatives — Drugs possessed of lirith emetic and purgutive properties 
— ^.Errliines — Drugs whicli respectively soothe the der inged Vayu, 
Pittaiu and Kaphaui — Mode of administering medicines.,. 358 — 363 



CHAPTER XL, 

Drugs and their flavours, virtues, potencies, and chemical 
actions : — Disquisitions as regards the primary importance of drugs, 
or their flavours, potency', or chemical reaction in respect of 
curing diseases — Causes of different kinds of digestion — Conclusion 
as regards the primary importance of drugs in curing a 
disease ... ... ... • ... ... 364 — 374 



CHAPTER XLI. 

Specific properties of drugs : — Classification of drugs according 
to the preponderance of the virtues of elemental matter in them — 
Characteristic features of drugs of dominant earth matter, etc. — 
Periodicity of drug action — Reasons why purgative drugs move the 
bowels — Factors which lead to the aggravation or subsidence of the 
deranged Vayu, Pittam and Kapham— Potency of drugs... 375 — 381 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Specific properties of flavours :— Reasons for the classification 
of ff a voms— Relation of the elemental earth matter with the flavours 
—Reasons for the primary derangement of Vayu, Pittam, etc— 
Symptoms and aggravating factors of the deranged Vayu, Pittam 
and Kapham— Virtues of the different kinds of ^iavour, such as sweet, 
etc.— Enumeration of groups of ~ * drugs, etc.— Sixty-three 
different combinations of fiavoi^rj? XXXI ••• ••• 3^2 393 

Moae >.. , life of a king w.> 

the march j — Tnc . ^actors of medical treatuicnt — Good whw 



COMLMS. XI 

CHAPTER XLIII. 

Mode of administering emetics : — Compounds of Madana fruits 
Gompounds of Jimutaka ••» ... ... 394 — 399 



CHAPTER XLIV. 
> 
Choice of purgatives : — Most efficient purgatives— Purgative 
compounds — Purgative soups — Asavas, wines, Sauviras, and Tusho- 
dakas, etc. — Instructions as to the way of administering purgative 
compounds of Danti, etc., in the manner of Trivrit compounds — 
Trivrit Ashtakam — Mode of using purgative fruits and milky 
exudations of trees— Administration of purgative medicines through 
the media of wine, etc. ... ... ... 400—417 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Rules to be observed in respect of liquid substances : — Water 
group — Modes of purifying different kinds of water and their virtues 
etc. — Milk group — Virtues of the different kinds of milk — Curd 
group — Virtues of the different kinds of curd — Takra group — Modes 
of preparing different kinds of Takra, and their attributes — Properties 
of butter, Kilat, etc. — Different kinds of Ghritas (clarified butter), and 
their properties — Oil group and the properties of different kinds of 
oil— Properties of the fat obtained from aquatic or domestic animals 
— Honey group — Classification of the different kinds of honey and 
their properties — Sugar-cane group, and the properties of the different 
preparations of sugar-cane juice, such as treacle, sugar, etc., — Wine 
group — Properties of the different kinds of animal urine... 418 — 468 



CHAPTER XL VI. 

Different kinds of for and drink :— Descripti^^ns of Sliali 
Dlianyam, Shasht'' "Ah . udhanyam, Vaidal, Mudga, Sesamum, 
Barley, Wheat, Sp , ' ..nanyametc. — Properties of Dlianyas according 
to their jnatui'ity — Description of the Vei'udha Dhanyas— Flesh group 



Xll ■ CONTENTS. 

— Classiticutiou of tlesh— The Vishkira group — General properties of 
the flesh' of Vishkira, animal^ — Etymology of the term Pratuda — 
Enumeration of the animals of the Pratuda group— Cave dwelling, 
and hole dwelling animals— The Prasalia group of animals — Beneficial 
use of flesh of the Prasaha group in, Phthisis — Detailed classification 
of animals with the etymology of their generic names, and proper- 
ties of their flesh — Frvit group, and the properties of different fruits 
— Group of pot herbs, and their properties — Flower groups — The 
group o£ edible leaves of plants, and their properties — The group of 
bulbous plants — The group of salts — General properties of nitrate of 
potash, etc. — Properties of gold, iron, silver and other metals — Deter- 
mination of the properties of drugs other than those herein mentioned 
— Drinks and beverages — Rules of diet — Rules of serving out the 
meal — General causes of indigestion— Symptoms of the different 
types of indigestion — Medical treatment of the same — Symptoms 
which mark acts of over or insufticient eating, or an act of eating 
a meal before a previous one is digested — Reason of one's feeling 
hungi'y even when suffering from indigestion ... 469 — 571 



^ • 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHUA 



SUTRASTHANAM. 



CHAP T E R I. 

Well, we* shall now describe the origin of the Science 
of Medicine, as disclosed by the holy Dhanvantari to his 

disciple Sushruta. (Vedotpattimadhyaryam). 

Once upon a time, when the holy Dhanvantari, the 
greatest of the mighty celestials, incarnated in the form 
of Divodasa, the king of Kasi, was blissfulh^ seated, 
in his hermitage, surrounded bv a concourse of holy 
Rishis ; Aupadhenava, Vaitarana, Aurabhra, Paush- 
kalavata, Karavirya, Gopura-rakshita, Sushruta and 
others addressed him as follows : — "O Sire, it grieves 
us much to find men, though otherwise well befriended 



" The present work which originally formed the subject of a discourse 
by the holy sage Dhanvantari to his disciple Sushruta, has been compiled 
in its present form by the venerable Nagarj una, and is accordingly designated 
as the Sushruta Samhila. 



2 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap I. 

b)' the'ir kin and relations, falling a prey to diseases, 
mental, physical, traumatic, or natural, and piteously 
wailing in agony like utterly friendless creatures on 
earth ; and we supplicate thee, O Lord, to illumine our 
minds with the truths of the Eternal Ayurveda 
(Medical Science) so that we may faithfully discharge 
the duties allotted to us in life, and alleviate the 
sufferings of humanit)" at large. Bliss in this life 
and hereafter, is in the gift of this eternal Ayurveda, 
and for this, O Lord, we have made bold to approach 
thee as thy humble disciples." To them, thus replied 
the hoi}' Dhanvantari : — "Welcome to all of you 
to this blissful hermitage. All of you are worthy 
of the honour of true pupilship or tutelage." 

The A'yui'veda (which forms the subject of our 
present discourse), originally formed one of the sub- 
sections of the Athar\'a A'eda ; and even before the 
creation of mankind, the self-begotten Brahma strung 
it together into a hundred thousand couplets (Shlokas), 
divided into a thousand chapters. But then he 
thought of the small duration of human life on earth, 
and the failing character of human memory, and 
found it prudent to divide the whole of the Ayurveda 
into eight different branches such as, the Salya- 
Tantram, the Salakya-Tantram, the Kaya-Chikitsa, the 
Bhuta-Vidy.i, the KauniHr-Bhrityci, the Agada-Tantram, 
the Rusa\"ana-Tantram and the \'ajeekarana-Tantram. 



Chap. I. ] SUTRASTHAN'AM. ^ 

Xow about the characteristi'c features of each of 
these branches of the Science of the Ayurveda : — 

The Salya-Tantram*— The scope of this 
branch of Medical Science is to remote from an ulcer) 
any extraneous substanx:e such as, iTagments of hay, 
particles of stone, dust, iron or bone ; splinters, nails, 
hair, clotted blood, or condensed pus (as the case 
may be , or to draw out of the uterus a dead 
foetus, or to bring about safe parturitions in cases of 
false presentation, and to deal with the principle and 
mode of using and handling surgical instruments in 
general, and with the application of fire (cautery) and 
alkaline (caustic) substances, together with the diagno- 
sis and treatment of ulcers. 

The Sha'Ia'kya-Tantramt— embraces as its 

object the treatment of those diseases which are restricted 
to the upward (lit: — region above the clavicles) fissures or 
cavities of the body, such as the ears, the eyes, the 
cavity of the mouth, the nostrils, etc. 

The Ka'ya-Chikitsar (General diseases! — 
treats of diseases, which, instead of being simply 

* Any foreign mailer, lodged in a human organism and proving painful 
10 it, is called a Shalya. 

t The name is derived from the Sanskrit term Slialak^, a probe or a rod, 
the use and application of the instrument being primarily jincluded within 
the scope of this branch of the Ayurveda. 

J The term K^ya literally signifies the vital heat or fire which runs 
through the entire system, and hence the II5ya-chikits6 deals with diseases 
which may gradually invade the root-principles of a living human organism. 



4 THE SUSHRUTA SAATHITA' [ Cliap. I. 

restricted to an}^ specific organ, or to any particular 
part of the body, affect the entire system, as Fever, 
Dysentery, Haemoptysis, Insanity, Hysteria, Leprosy, 
unnatural discharges from the urethra, etc. 

The Bhuta-Vidya' 'Demoniacal diseases) — 
lays down incantations and modes of exorcising 
evil spirits and making offerings to the gods, 
demons, Gandharvas, Yakshas, Rakshas, etc. for 
cures of diseases originating from their malignant 
influences. 

The Kauma'ra-Bhritya Management of 
children) — deals with the nursing and healthy bringing 
up of infants, with purification and bettering of 
mothers' milk, found deficient in any of its 
characteristic traits, and also with cures for diseases 
peculiar to infant life and due to the use of vitiated 
mother's milk or to the influences of malignant stars 
and spirits. 

The Agada-Tantram ■Toxicology— deals 
with bites from snakes, spiders and venomous 
worms, and their characteristic symptoms and antidotes. 
It hai also for its object the elimination of poison 
whether animal, vegetable, or chemical (resulting from 
incompatible combinations) from the system of a man, 
overwhelmed with its effects. 

The Rasa'yana-Tantram Science of 
Rejuvenation , — has for its specific object the 



Chap. I. ] SUa^RASTHA'NAM. 5 

prolongation of human life, and tl^e invigoration of 
memory and the vital organs of man. It deals with 
recipes which enable a man to retain his manhood 
or youthful vigour up to a good old age, and which 
generally serve to make the human system invuhierable 
to disease and deca}'. 

The Varjcckarana-Tantram (Science of 
Aplarodisiacs, — treats of measures b}' which the semen 
of a man naturally scanty or deficient in quality 
becomes shorn of its defects ; or is purified, if 
deranged by the ^•itiated humours of the body (such as 
wind, etc. ; or is invigorated and increased in quantit}' 
(if pure and healthy) ; or acquires its health}' and normal 
consistence ' if thinned and enfeebled by indiscretions 
of youth\ [In short, it deals with things which increase 
the pleasures of youth and make a man doubly endearing 
to a woman]. 

Thus the entire science of the Ayurveda is classified 
into the eight preceding branches. Xow tell me, which 
of them is to be taught and to which of you ? Said the 
disciples : — "Instruct us all, O Lord, in the science of 
surgery ( Shalya ) and let that be the chief subject 
of our study." To which replied the holy Dhan- 
vantari : — "Be it so." Then the disciples again 
said : — "We are all of one mind in the matter, 
O Lord, that Sushruta shall be our spokesman aiid .ask 



6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA' [ Chap. I 

you questions conformably to the general trend of our 
purpose. All of us will attentively hear what you will 
be pleased to discourse to Sushruta, [and that will save 
you the trouble of teaching us individuall)']". To which 
replied the venerable sage — ",Be it so. Now listen, 
Sushruta, m}- dear child. The object or utility of the 
science which forms the subject of our present discus- 
sion, ma}' be gi^ouped under two distinct sub-heads such 
as (i) the cure of diseased persons, and (2) the presetva- 
tion of health in those who are not afflicted with any 
sort of bodily distempers." 

The etymological meaning of the term "Ayur- 
veda" may be interpreted to denote either a science in 
the knowledge of which life exists, or which helps a 
man to enjoy a longer duration of life. 

The primary position of surgery:— 

[As regards time and importance among the other allied 
branches of the Science of Medicine]. Hear me discourse 
on the Science of Surgery { Shalya-Tantram) which is 
the oldest of all the other branches of the Science of 
Medicme (Ayurveda) and is fuither corroborated by the 
four classes of testimonies, viz., Perception, Inference, 
Analogv and Scriptural Truths (Agamas). The 
primary position of this branch of the Ayurveda, 
(as regards its time or origin), may be inferred from the 
fact that Surgerv lends her aid materiallv towards the 



Chap. I. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 7 

« 

healing up of traumatic mlcers.* The 'second 

reason for such an intWence may be deduced 

from the replacement of the severed head of Yajna. 

It is told that the god Rudra, severed the head of 

the God of Sacrifice (Yajna). Whereupon the gods 

approached the celestial Ashvins, and addressed 

them as follows : — "You twins, O lords, who are 

to be the greatest of us all, connect the head of 

\''aj?ia with his decapitated trunk." To them, replied 

the divine Ashvins : — " We shall do, O lords, as you 

command us to do." Then the celestials propitiated 

the god Indra in order that a portion of the oblations 

offered in the course of a sacrifice, might be allotted 

to those heavenly twins. The Ashvins reunited the 

severed head of Yajna to his body as prayed for. 

[Hence this branch of the Ayurveda (Shalyanga) is the 

oldest of all its subdivisions]. 

The primary importance of the 

Shalyam : — All hold this Tantram to be the 

most imnortant of all the other branches of the 
Mi^o See/' 'f ' "^^^ ^^ suc^w 

^^ ^receptacle ofheauff iustantaueous actious can be 

r/VPQ ' ^ ^^ ^^^^^^ appliances as, 

^ 3 Jb|*/£^getable world belongs t 
Ve|*Op , T o^ locomotion, belong to 

^Jnav be areued here, since nd sword-cuts had to be dressed and 

^ ^^^ tllQ to iuindamental material the gods and the denwns, long before 

ff dQ^f]^ 'ippearance Oir) ], it is not ct' idiopathic maladies such-^ as, fever, etc. ; 

ad Smgery contruvofold attril/ was demanded of her towards the healint; 

"-• up of those u'cers. li>. But s' branch of the Ayurveda is the oldest of all 

IP the allied brawhes of thu-se in.ng art. 



8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA [ Chap. I. 

surgical operatioi|s, external applications of alkalis, 
cauterisation, etc., and -.secondly inasmuch as it 
contains all that can be found in the other branches 
of the science of medicine as well, with the superior 
advantage of producing instantaneous effects by means 
of surgical instruments and appliances. Hence it is 
the highest in value of all the medical Tantras. It is 
eternal and a source of infinite piety, imparts fame 
and opens the gates of Heaven to its votavies, 
prolongs the duration of human existence on earth, 
and helps men in successfully fulfilling their missions, 
and earning a decent competence, in life. 

Gradual extension of the Ayur- 
vedic Knowledge :—Bramha was the first to 
inculcate the principles of the holy Ayurveda. Prajapati 
learned the science from him. The Ashvins learned 
it from Prajapati and imparted the knowledge to 
Indra, who has favoured me ( Dhanvantari ) with an 
entire knowledge thereof. I, for the good of mankind, 
am ready to impart it to those ^;-}-i^antram)-M^i^ earth. 

anches of the Sci 

The King of Kar?^,ther corroborate'^^ ac- 
count Of himself i._^ pe,ception, Inft'^^ '^^ 
supreme and original god i^^^^j^^ (Agam?' *^"^^ ^^ 
Dhanvantifri. It is I who warde , f tl disease and 
decay fi-on\ the celestials, ^o - Kg j,-,^ was an inmate 
of the region of heaven, now I a . ^ .carnated on earth 



Chap. I.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 9 

with the view to teach the Science of SurgeiV with 
all its allied branches of study to men. 

In the present science (Ayurveda), the Piirusha (self- 
conscious oro:anic individual) is described as the resultant 
of the combination of the soul and the five primar>- 
material principles. All medical acts such as, surgical 
operations, administration of medicinal remedies and 
applications of alkaline substances, or cauterisation, 
etc.), are restricted to the Piirusha alone.* 

Why is it so ? The answer is, simply because the 
created world is composed of two distinct classes, 
such as the mobile and the immobile. f These two 
classes, in their turn, are further sub-divided for the 
purposes of the science of medicine into the two 
orders, Agneya hot and Saumya (cool. Hence 
the world is composed of fi^'e material principles, 
though characterised by the twofold virtues, Agneya 
(hot) and Saumya (cool).i 

* It may be questioned why they should be confined to the Puiusha ? 
Such a query may be successfully met by the statement that the Purusha 
alone is the receptacle of health and disease in contradistinction to the 
Self or Ego. 

t The vegetable world belongs to the latter category, while 'animals, 
possessed of locomotion, belong to the former. 

X It may be argued here, since everything in the universe is composed 
of the five fundamental material principles [ of earth, water, fire (heat), 
air and sky (ether) ], it is not competent to assert that the universe is 
possessed of the twofold attributes Agneya (heated or fiery) and Saumya 
(cool or watery), alone. But since fire (heat) or water (cold) predominates 
in all things in the universe in juxtaposition with ihe primary virtues of the 



10 THE SUSWRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. I. 

Further cliassification of the mobile 
and the immobile :- The animated world may 
be divided into four subdivisions, such as the Svedaja 
(born of sweat or heat and moisture ?'. e. abiogenous' , 
the Andaja ( egg-born or oviparous ), the Udbhijja 
(vegetable) and the Jarayuja (placental or viviparous j. 
The Purusha or the subjective personalit}' (man) is the 
greatest of them all, because all other forms of life are 
made to minister to his wants on Earth. 

Disease : Sts Definition :— The Purusha 

(man) is the receptacle of any particular disease, and that 
which proves a source of torment or pain to him, is deno- 
minated as a disease.* There are four different types 
of disease such as, Traumatic or of extraneous origin 
(Agantuka), Bodily (Sharira), jNfenla] (Manasa) and 
Natural (Svabhavika). A disease clue to an extraneous 
blow or hurt is called Agantuka. Diseases due to 
irregularities in food or drink, or incidental to a 
deranged state of the blood, or of the bodily humours 
acting either singh' or in concert, are called Sharira. 
Excessive anger, grief, fear, joy, despondency, envy, 
miser};, ])ride, greed, lust, desire, malice, etc. are 

other fundamental material principles, it is not improper to classify all 
under the head of hot or cold, a third factor being non-existent. Hence the 
world (^Trf) is possessed of the twofold virtues, hot and cold. 

* A disease may be defined as something whicli affiicts the Purusha 
(self-conscious personality), or those things or incidents which combine to 
afflict the Purusha are usually interpreted to connote that meaning. 



Chap. I. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 1 

included within the category of^ mental (Manasa) 
distempers ; whereas hm7.ger, thirst, decrepitude, 
imbecility, death, sleep, etc. are called the natural 
(Svabhavika) derangements of the body. The Mind 
and the Bodv are the seats of the abovesaid distempers 
according as they are restricted to either of them, or 
affect both of them in unison. * 

Samshodhanam (Cleansing), and Samshamanam 
(Pacification of the deranged or agitated bodih' humours 
giving rise to the disease^ and the regimen of diet and 
conduct are the four fectors which should be duly 
emplo3"ed in order to successfully cope with a disease.! 

Food is the principal factor which materially contri- 
butes to the strength, complexion and vitality (Ojah) of 
animated beings. Food consists of six different tastes 

* The Self or Ihe feevitma of a person is above all human concerns and, 
as such, can never be affected by any disease. 

t Cleansing (Samshodhanam) is of two kinds, viz. External and Internal. 
External purification consists in employing such measures as surgical 
operations, cauterisation of the affected part or organ, external use of 
alkaline preparations and medicated plasters, the internal one including 
such measures as exhibition of purgatives and emetics, application of 
intestinal enemas (Asthapanam) and blood-letting. Diet comprises four 
different factors such as, food, drink, lambative, etc., which, for the purposes 
of the Ayurveda, are again grouped under three different heads, such as 
the pacifier of the deranged bodily humours (Dosha-prashamanam), thera- 
peutical (VyMhi-prashamanam) and health-giving (Svastha=Vrittikara). 
Achara (conduct) appertains to three different factors, such as the body, 
the speech, and the mental acts. The abovesaid measures, duly employed, 
arc potent enough to combat all sorts of bodily distempers, if the 
special exigencies of each case arc carefully taken into consideration. 



12 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. I. 

(Rasa) '[which capnot exist independently of the subs- 
tances] in which they are inherent. These substances 
which are called the (3shadhis may be di^■ided into two 
classes such as the mobile and the immobile. The 
immobile Oshadhis in their turn, admit of being grouped 
under four sub-heads such as, the ^'"anaspatis, the 
Vrikshas. the Virudhas and the Oshadhis proper. 

Those trees which bear fruit without blossoming 
are called the Vanaspatis such as, the Plaksha and the 
Oudumvura). Those that bear both fruits and flowers 
are called the \'rikshas. Shrubs and creepers that trail 
on the ground are called Virudhas, whereas those plants 
which die with the ripening of their fruits, are called 
Oshadhis proper such as cereals . 

The mobile Oshadhis or animals are divided into 
four classes such as the viviparous, the oviparous, the 
sweat-begotten, and those that are born of decomposed 
vegetable matter. Man and other mammals belong to 
the first group ; birds, snakes, and reptiles belong to the 
second ; ants, worms, etc. belong to the third ; while frogs 
and Indragopas belong to the fourth. For medicinal pur- 
poses, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, bulbs, the ex- 
pressed juice, and milky or resinous secretions of plants, 
etc.* are .obtained from the vegetable world. The 

* The use of oil expressed oui of diutjs and seeds, as well as of iheir 
ashes or alkaline preparations are likewise indicated. 



Chap. I.] SUTRASTHAWAM. I-^ 

skin, nails, wool, blood, flesh, fat., marrow, bones, 
are procured from the animal world. 

JMetals and minerals such as gold, silver, gems, and 
Manahshila i Realgar), as well as pearls, clay and 
Kapalas (bones^, etc. should be included in the list of 
the earthy substances. * 

Gale, windfall, sunshine, shade, moonshine, dark- 
ness, heat, cold, rain, day, night, fortnight, month, 

» 
seasons, and solstices, etc. should be deemed as the 

works of eternal time, which, by virtue of their natural 

effects, contribute to the accumulation, augmentation, 

pacification or diminution of the deranged bodilv 

humours (such as, wind, etc. . 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — Physicians should look upon these four factors 
of ffood, conduct, earth and time , as the accumulators, 
aggravators and pacifiers of the deranged bodilv humours 
and of the diseases resulting therefrom in man. Diseases 
due to causes which are extraneous to the bodv ma\' 
affect the mind or the body. When it would affect the 
body in the shape of any traumatic disease (such as an 
inflammation due to a blow or a sword cut >, it "should 
be treated medicinally like the rest of the physical mala- 
dies, while the remedy should consist in the enjovmentof 

* Oxide of Iron, sand, yellow sulphurale of arsenic (Orpiment), sail, 
Gairika (ferruginous earth), Rasdnjana (antimony) should be regarded as 
appertaining to the class of earthy substances. 



14 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. hap. I. 

pleasurable sound?, touch, sights, taste or smell where the 
mind would be found to be the seat of the distemper. 

Thus I have briefly dealt with the Purusha, Disease, 
Medicine, Appliances and the Specific Time. The term 
Purusha should be interpreted to include within its 
meaning the combination of its five material com- 
ponents, and all things resulting therefrom, such as the 
limbs and members of the body, as well as the skin, 
the flesh, the blood, the veins and the nerves, etc. 
The term Disease signifies all distempers incidental 
to the several or combined actions of the three deranged 
bodily humours and blood. The term Medicine signifies 
drugs and their virtues, tastes, potency, inherent 
efficacy Prabhava and reactionary properties Vipaka . 
Appliances (kriya denotes such processes as, surgical 
operations, injections, emulsive measures, lubrications, 
etc. The term Time signifies all opportune moments for 
medical appliances. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : —The primary principle of the Science of medicine 
has thus been briefly stated and will be fully dealt with 
in the'following one hundred and twenty chapters distri- 
buted among the fi-\e main sub-divisions or Sthanas 
of the present work. These hundred and twenty 
chapters will be found to be elaborately discussed 
according to the specific import or significance of their 
denominations under the sub-heads of Sutra- Sthanam 



Chap. I.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



15 



(Definitive Aphorisms or Fundamental principles, 
Nidanam ^Etiology", Sharira-Sthanam (Anatomy and 
Physiology , Chikitsa-Sthanam (Therapeutics) and 
Kalpa-Sthanam (Toxicology . Subjects other than the 
preceding ones will be discussed in the closing chapters 
of the book by wa}- of an Appendix (Uttara-Tantranv. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — The man who reads this Eternal Science of 
Medicine ( Ayurveda-Shastram ) discoursed by the self- 
origined Brahma and propagated by the King of Kasi, 
becomes noted for his piety, is honoured by the kings 
on earth, and attains to the region of Indra (the lord 
of the celestials) after death. 



Thus ends the first chapter of the Sutra-SthSnam in the Sushrula 
Samhitd which deals with the origin of the Ayurveda. 



CHAPTER II. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which deals 
with the rites of formal initiation of a pupil into the 

science of Medicine (Shishyopanayaniya- 
madhya'yam). 

Such an initiation should be imparted to a student, 
belonging to one of the three twice-born castes such 
as, the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaishya, and 
who should be of tender years, born of a good family, 
possessed of, a desire to learn_, strength^ energy of action, 
contentment, character, self-control, a good retentive me- 
mory, intellect, courage, purity of mind and bod)', and a 
simple and clear comprehension, command a clear insight 
into tlie things studied, and should be found to have 
been further graced with the necessary qualifications of 
thin lips, thin teeth and thin tongue, and possessed of a 
straight nose, large, honest, intelligent eyes, with a benign 
contour of the mouth, and a contented frame of mind, 
being pleasant in his speech and dealings, and usually 
painstaking in his efforts. A man possessed of contrary 
attributes should not be admitted into the sacred 
precincts of) medicine. 

lYlode of Initiation :— A Brahmana preceptor 
sliould initiate a disciple or student in the following way 
— A square sand cushion or platform, measuring a cubit 



L"hap. 11. I SUTkASTHANAM. j- 



f 



in length and breadth, should be laid out on a plot of 
smooth, level and sacred' ground under the benign in- 
fluence of any auspicious phase of the moon or astral 
combination such as, the "Karanam," e»tc. and in a direc- 
tion of the compass whifch is held most auspicious to that 
end. The cusliion or the jilatform should be plastered 
over with a solution of water and cow-dung ; and blades of 
Kusha grass should be strewn over it. Then the gods, the 
Brahmanas and the ph5''sicians should be worshipped 
with oblations of flowers, fried paddy, gems and sun- 
dried rice. Then having drawn straight lines across 
the Sthandilara so as to meet the top of the furthest 
side of the square, and having sprinkled them over with 
holy water, the preceptor should lay down a blade of 
Kusha grass tied up in the form of a knot, known as the 
Brahmana, along the side of the sacred cushion to his 
right, and kindle the sacred fire close to his seat. Then 
having soaked the twigs of the four sacrificial trees of 
Khadira, Palasha, Devadaru and Vilva, or of Vata, 
Oudumvara, Ashvattha and Madhuka in curd, honey and 
clarified butter, he should perform the rite of Homa 
according to the rules of a Darvi Homa ceremony^ Then 
libations of clarified butter should be cast into the sacrifi- 
cial fire with a repetition of the Maha Vyahriti Mantras 
preceded by the mystic Omkara. After that, libations of 
clarified butter should be cast into the fire in honour of 
each of the gods and Rishis (celestial physicians) invoked 

3 



1 8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. 1 Chap. 11. 

b}^ repeating the Svaha Mantra, and the disciple should 
be made to do the same. * 

A Brahmana preceptor is competent to initiate a 
student belonging' to any of the three twice-born castes. 
A Kshatriya preceptor can initiate a student of the 
Kshatriya or the Vaish3'a caste, while a Vaishya 
preceptor can initiate a student of his own caste 
alone. A Shudra student of good character T.nd 
parentage may be initiated into the mysteries of the 
A5'urveda by omitting the Mantras enjoined to be 
recited on such an occasion. 

Then having thrice circumambulated the sacrificial 
fire, and having invoked the firegod to bear testimony to 
the fact, the preceptor should address the initiated dis- 
ciple as follows :— "Thou shalt renounce lust, anger, 
greed, ignorance, vanity, egotistic feelings, envy, harsh- 
ness, niggardliness, falsehood, idleness, ndij all acts that 
soil the good name of a man. In proper season thou shalt 
pair thy nails and clip thy hair and put on the sacred 
cloth, dyed brownish yellow, live the life of a truthful, 
self-controlled anchorite and be obedient and respectful 
towards thy preceptor. In sleep, in rest, or while moving 
about— while at meals or in studv, and in all acts 



"^ The libations should he oftered as follows -Svah^ (obeisance) to 
P,i-ahm4, Svah.4 to Praj^pati (the lord of the created beings), SvahA to 
Ashvins, .Svaha to Indra, Sv.nhA to Dhanvantari, Sv^hA to Bharadv^ja, 
and SvAh^ to A'treva. 



Chap. il. I SUTRASTHA'NAAl. 19 

thou shalt be guided by my directions. Thcju shalt 
do what is pleasant and beneficial to me, otherwise 
thou shalt incur sin and' all thy study and knowledge 
shall fail to bear their wished for fruit, and thou shalt 
gain no feme. If I, on the other hand, treat 
thee unjustly even w'ith thy perfect obedience and 
in full conformity to the terms agreed upon, may I 
incur equal sin with thee, and may all my know- 
ledge prove futile, and never have any scope of work 
or display. Thou shalt help with thy professional 
skill and knowledge, the Brahmanas, thy elders, 
preceptors and friends, the indigent, the honest, the 
anchorites, the helpless and those who shall come 
to thee (from a distance;, or those who shall live close 
by, as well as thy relations and kinsmen [to the best 
of thy knowledge and ability], and thou shalt give them 
medicine [without charging for it any remuneration 
whatever], and God will bless thee for that. Thou 
shalt not treat medicinally a professional hunter, a 
fowler, a habitual sinner, or him who has been degrad- 
ed in life ; and even by so doing thou shalt acquire 
friends, fame, piety, wealth and all wished for objects 
in life and thy knowledge shall gain pubhcity." , 

Prohibited periods of the study of 
the Ayurveda : — The day of the new moon, the 
eighth day of the moon's wane, the fourteenth day of the 
dark fortnight, as well as the corresponding days in 



20 tHE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. I Chap. II. 

the brio^ht one, the day oi the tlill moon, and the meet- 
ings olday and night such as (morning and evening) are 
occasions when the study of the Ayurveda is prohibited. 
Similarly, a clap of thunder heard at an improper 
season (months of Pousha, Phalguna and Chaitra), or a 
Hash of lightning occurring at a' time when such pheno- 
mena are naturall)' rare, or an evil befalling one's country, 
relations, or king, should be deemed as occasions 
jnohibiting the study of the Ayurveda. Moreover, 
one should not read it in a cremation ground, nor while 
riding (an elephant, horse, or any) conveyance, nor 
in a battle-held, nor in a place of execution. A festi- 
^ al or the appearance of inauspicious omens, and the 
days of the fortnight usually avoided by the Brahmanas 
in studying the Vedas, as well as an unclean state of 
the body, should be regarded as occasions prohibiting 
the studv of the Avurveda. 



riuis lmhIn llic sccijiul clinitlci' ul ihc .SuLiasLhanaiii in llit; SublmiUi. 
Sanihila which Ireals oflhc foniuil inil.i;Ui<jn of a .sUulunl intM ihc Aviiivcda. 



C H A P T E R in. 

Now we shall discuss the chapter which deals with 
the classification of the Ayurveda and the order [in 
which the venerable Dhanvantari discoursed on them to 
his pupils]. Adhyayana-Samprada'niyam. 

It has been stated before, that a hundred and twenty 
chapters have been distributed among the five parts 
or subdivisions (of the present work, in the following- 
order :— Forty six in the part of Definitive Aphorisms 
(Sutra-Sthanam) ; sixteen in the part dealing with the 
Etiology of diseases (Nidanam) ; ten in the part explain- 
ing the Anatomy and physiology of the human body 
(Sharira Sthanam); forty in the part of Therapeutics 
Ciiikitsitam ; and eight in the part dealing with poisons 
and their antidotes (Kalpa-Sthauam). In addition to 
these the Uttara-Tantram consists of sixty-six chapters. 

Metrical texts : The Sutra-Sthanam which 
contains tbrty-six chapters, is so called because it dis'jusses 
in the form of hints, arranges in the form of aphorisms 
and connects by links topics relating to longevitv. 
Chapter i Describes the origin of the science of the 
Ayurveda. 2 Relates to the formal initiation of a inipil 
into the science of medicine. ' ; Deals with the 



22 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. I Chap. III. 

classi^cation and order of the study of the Ayurveda. 
4 Dwells on general interpretations and explanations 
of subjects studied, 5 Treats of preliminary preparations 
for surgical operations. 6 Deals with seasons and their 
influence on health and drugs. 7 Treats of surgical 
appliances. 8 Describes surgi(l:al instruments. 9 Gives 
practical instructions for surgical operations. 10 Dwells 
on the duties of medical men preliminary to their 
commencing practice. 1 1 Pharmacy of alkalies 
(potential cauteries). 12 Cauteries and the rules 
to be observed in their use. 13 Leeches how 
and which to use). 14 Blood. 15 Dwells on 
the study of development and non-development of the 
humorous constituents of the body and excrements, 

1 6 The ceremony of piercing the lobules of the ears. 

17 How to distinguish between suppurating and non- 
suppurating swellings. 18 Dressings and bandages 
of ulcers. 19 The management of patients with ulcers, 
etc. 20 The salutary and non-salutary effects 
of regimen, etc. ?.i The decisive modes in the 
treatment of sores, etc. 22 The opening of abscesses, 
etc. 2S General rules to be observed in the treat- 
ment of curable and incurable (surgical diseases. 
24 The nature of diseases in general. 25 The (eight 
different) ways of using surgical instruments. 26 The 
exploration of splinters lost (deep seated; in the 
body. 2 J The extraction of splinters. 28 How 
to know favourable' and unfavourable terminations 



Chap. III. ] SUTRASTHANAM. o- 

in surgical diseases. 29 The favourable or unfavourable 
prognosis in diseases as' known from messengers, 
omens and dreams. 30 Prognosis from the per- 
version of sense perception. 31 Prognosis based on 
the altered condition of features, etc. 32 Prognosis based 
on the perversion in the external appearances of the 
body. 33 Palliative treatment of incurable diseases. 
34 The precautions to be taken (against dangers, 
such as poisoning of water, etc. by a medical 
man for the safety of a king whose army is on 
the march. 35 Clinical observations made b}' phy- 
sicians. ^6 Miscellaneous subjects connected with 
the treatment of injuries and surgical diseases. 
^y The examination of the soil for the selection 
of vegetable products growing on it to be used as 
medicines. 38 Classification of drugs according to 
their therapeutical uses.; 39 The two classes of 
drugs which cleanse the system [by evacuating bad 
humours] and drugs which pacify the irritated humours. 

40 Drugs, their flavours, properties and maturity. 

41 The properties of drugs specially considered. 

42 Flavours. 43 The choice of emetics. 44 The 
choice of purgatives. 45 Liquids. 46 Food and 
drink. 

From their investigatmg the (pathological) causes 
and symptoms of diseases, they 'are called Nidananij 
(etiology) and are sixteen in number. 



24 



» 



THP: SUSHRL'IA SAiMHlTA. [Chap. III. 



Chapter i Causes and S5''niptoms of diseases caused b}' 
wind. 2 Hoemorrhoids. 3 Urinaiy calculi 4 Fistulas. 
5 Skin diseases Kushtha), 6 Urethral discharges. 
7 .Abdominal tiVmours and dropsy. 8 Abortion and 
unnatural labours. g Abscesses. 10 ErN'sipelas and 
Carbuncles. 1 1 Tumours 12 Scrotal tumours. 13 Fractures 
'and disl(>."ations) 14 Diseases of the male organ of 
generation caused by Shuka. 15 Minor .and _ mis- 
cellaneous diseases. 16 Diseases of the mouth. 

The great sage has devoted ten chapters to the 
subject of Anatomy and Physiology (Sharira-Sthanam) 
for medical men and contemplative saints to learn the 
component parts of the human body. They are : — 

Chapter i Cosmology. 2 Healthy and un- 
healthy) condition of male and female germs. 3 
Development of the foetus. 4 Analytical descrip- 
tion of the fetus. 5 Component parts of the body. 6 
Investigation of each vital part. 7 Description of the 
veins. 8 \'enesection. g Arteries. 10 Pregnancy 
(child-birth and management of womt.-n in child-birtli 
and of children). 

The division of Therapeutics, (Chikitsitam) includes 
(amongst others; the modes of treating diseases by 
medicines, expiatory ceremonies, propitiatory rites, and 
tranquillizing efforts. Torty chapters have been devoted 
to this division. Chapter i 'Prcatment of two varieties 



Chap. III. J SUTRASTHANAM. 25 

of ulcers. 2 Treatment of instant wounds and ulcers 
resulting therefrom, 3 Fractures and dislocations. 4 
Diseases of wind. 5 Grievous maladies caused by wind. 
6 Haemorrhoids. 7 Urinary calculi. 8 Fistulas. 9 
Skin diseases. 10 Grievous skin diseases. 11 Urethral 

9 

discharges. 12 Warts, pustules and sores caused by 
urethral discharges, 13 Diabetes. 14 Abdominal Dropsy. 
15 Abortions and unnatural hibours. 16 Ab- 
scesses. 17 Erysipelas and Carbuncles. 18 Tumours. 
19 Scrotal tumours and Syphilis. 20 Minor diseases. 
21 Diseases of the male genital organ caused bv 
Shuka. 22 Diseases of the mouth. 2^ Swellings. 
24 Prophylactic treatment against diseases in general. 
2=) Miscellaneous diseases. 26 Tonics for virile debility. 
27 Tonics for general debility. 2S Remedies for increasing 
mental powers and duration of life. 2g Remedies for 
innate maladies. 30 Means for removing wordly distresses. 
31 Treatment of diseases where oleaginous substances 
are useful. ^^2 Treatment by diaphoretics. 33 Emetics 
and Purgatives. J4 Treatment for mishaps from the 
injudicious use of emetics and purgatives. 35 Nozzles 
and pipes, and enema apparatus. ^6 Mishaps from 
injudicious use of enemas. 37 Enemas and injections. 
^S Clysters. 39 Treatment of complications in general. 
40 Inhalation, fumigations, gargarismata, etc. 

From their proposing remedies against poisons, they 
are called Kalpas, and are eight in number. 
4 



46 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. I Chap. ill. 

ChUpter I Preservation of food. 2 A'egetable and 
inorganic poisons. 3 Poisons from organic creation. 
4 Snake poison. 5 Treatment of snake-bites. 6 Rat- 
bite and its treatment. 7 Emitting the sound ol 
kettle-drums (for the eh'mination of poison). 8 Antidotes 
for and treatment of venomous insect-stings. 

Thus a synopsis of one hundred and twenty chapters 
has been given. Now here follows the supplementary 
division called after its own name (Uttara-Tantram). 

The Chapter on Sympathetic diseases is placed first, 
as this division has for its main object the description 
of such diseases and their treatment. 2 Diseases of the 
joinings (margin of the eyelids) of the eyeball. 3 Dis- 
eases of the eyelids. 4 The Sclerotic of the eye. 5 The 
Cornea. 6. The eyeball, as a whole. 7 Diseases of the 
pupil. 8 Treatment of eye diseases. 9 Prophylac- 
tic and curative treatment of wind affections of the eye 
and ophthalmia. 10 Treatment of Bile affections of the 
eye and ophthalmia. 1 1 Treatment of Phlegm affec- 
tions of the eye and ophthalmia. 1 2 Treatment of Blood 
affections of the eye. 13 Treatment of aftections in 
which scarification is needed. 14 Treatment in which 
paracentesis is needed. 15 Treatment by incisions. 
16 Entropium and ectropium. 17 Treatment of the 
diseases of the pupil and vision. 18 General rules 
regarding ophthalmic medicine and surgery. 19 Treat- 
ment of traumatic affections of the eyeballs. 20 General 



Chap. III. I SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



27 



signs and s3nnptoins of ear diseases. 2 1 Treatment 
ol ear diseases. 22 Signs and S3'mptoms of nose 
affections. 2}, Treatment of nose affections. 34 Treat- 
ment of nasal catarrli. 25 Signs ai^d sj'mptoms of 
cranial diseases. 26 Ti;eatment of cranial affections. 
These (twenty-six ciiapters) form the end of the 
eight divisions of the A^'urveda, called Shilikyam. 

Chapter 2-] Signs of diseases caused by the Nava- 
grahas. 28 Prophylactic treatment of diseases caused 
by Skandha. 29 Treatment of convulsions caused by 
Skandha. 30 Treatment of Sakuni affections. 31 Treat- 
ment of Revati affections. },2 Treatment of Putana. 
33 Treatment of Andha Putana. 34 Treatment of 
Slueta-Putana. 35 Treatment of Mukhamandika. 
36 Treatment of Naigamesha. i"] Origin of the nine 
Grahas. 38 Diseases of the Vagina (and internal female 
genital organs). These twelve chapters together Vvith 
what is included in (the last chapter of the division on ; 
anatomy, form the fifth division of the A5'urveda) 
called Kaumara Tantram. 

Chapter 39 Fevers and their treatment. 40 
Enteric Catarrh and its treatment. 41 Consumption and 
its treatment. 42 Diseases of the abdominal glands and 
their treatment. 43 Diseases of the heart 'Angina 
Pectoris etc. 44 Anaemia and allied diseases and 
their treatment. 45 HfCmorrhag^c affections and their 
treatment. 46 Apoplectic diseases and their treatment. 



2-8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. 1 Chap. ill. 

47 Diseases from excessive drinking and their treatment. 

48 Symptoms, causes, and treatment of excessive thirst. 49 
Causes, S5'mptoms and treatment of vomiting. 50 Causes, 
s5^mptoms and treatment of Hiccough. 5 1 Causes, symp- 
toms, and treatment of Dyspnoea. 52 Causes, symp- 
toms and treatment of cough. 53 Aphonia. 54 
Entozoa. 55 Causes, symptoms and treatment of 
retention of excrements. 56 Causes, symptoms and 
treatment of Dyspeptic and Choleric diarrhoea.' 57 
Anorexia and its treatment. 58 Causes, symptoms 
and treatment of cystic and urethral affections. 59 
Causes and treatment of urine diseases. These twenty 
one chapters describe the remaining diseases of 
Kayachikitsa ; (which forms the third division of the 
Ayurveda \ 

Chapter 60 Causes, symptoms and treatment of 
diseases caused by superhuman powers. 61 Causes 
svmptoms and treatment of Epilepsy. 62 Mania. 
These three chapters form the Bhuta Vidya (the fourth 
division of the Ayurveda). 

Chapter 63 on the different varieties of flavour. 
64 (leneral rules for the preservation of health. 65 
Deductions and inunctions drawn from tbe texts and 
study of the Ayurveda. 66 On the varieties of mor- 
bid elements (h^^mours;. These four chapters are 
to be understood as being supplementary, and as orna- 
ments to this division. 



Chap. III. j SUTRASTHANAM. 20 

This last division from its superiority over the 
others, the great sages have called the Excellent 
(Uttarani). From the information it gives on varied 
subjects, it is called the best, the permanent and ihe 
last. 

In this division which is called the last, there are 
included four divisions (of the Ayiirveda) viz, Shalakyam, 
(treatment of diseases of parts situated above the 
clavicles), 2 Kaumarabhrit^'am (management of children), 
3 Kayachikitsa general diseases) and 4 Bliuta-Vidya. 

The division (named) Vajeekaranam (on the strength- 
ening of virile power, etc.) and Rasayanam remedies 
preserving vigor, etc.) have been included in the 
(fourth ) division (of this treatise called Chikitsa. 

The doctrine of antidotes comes under the head of 
Kalpa of this treatise and Shah'am surgery is incident- 
ally treated throughout the book. Thus these are the 
eight limbs divisions, of tne Science of Medicine 
proclaimed to the world by the original god. Those, 
who stU'ly them with due care and make use of the 
knowledge with caution, shall preserve the li\'es of 
men on this earth. It is imperatively necessary that 
the book should be read ; and after having read it one 
should attend to the practice (of the science . The 
physician who has learnt these both, is lit to be honour- 
ed by kings, 



30 THE SUSHKUTA SAiMHlTA. f Chap. III. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :— A ph^'sician, well versed in the principles of 
the science of medicine (Ayurveda), but unskilful in his 
art through want of practice, loses his wit at the 
bedside of his patient, just as, a coward is at his 
wit's end to determine what to do when for the 
first time he finds himself in the ranks of a contending 
army. On the other hand a physician, experienced in 
his art l)ut deficient in the knowledge of the Ayurveda, 
is condemned by all good men as a quack, and 
deserves capital punishment at the hands of the 
king. Both these classes of ph3^sicians are not to be 
trusted, because th}- are inexpert and half educated. 
Such men are incapable of discharging the duties of 
their vocation, just as a one-winged bird is incapable of 
taking flight in the air. Even a panacea or a medicine of 
ambrosial virtues administered b)' an unpractised or ig- 
norant ph)^sician, will prove j^ositively baneful as a 
draught of poison, or a blow with a weapon, or a thunder- 
bolt. A physician, ignorant of the science and art of sur- 
gery and emollient measures Sneha-karma , etc. is but 
a killer of men out of cupidity, and who is allowed to 
carry on his nefarious trade only through the in- 
advertence of the king. A physician well --ersed in the 
principles of surger}-, and experienced in the prac- 
tice of medicine, is alone caj^able of curing distempers, 
just as only a two- wheeled cart can be of service in a 
field of battle. 



Chap. III. SUTRASTHANAM. 



31 



Now hear me, O child, describe the mode of st'adying 
the present science of the Ayurveda.) The pupil having 
worshipped and recited his daily prayers should 
calmly sit near his preceptor, pure in body and 
mind, who should teach him a full i^hloka or couplet 
of the Ayurveda), or a half or a quarter part thereof, 
adapted to his intellectual capacity. Then he should 
make a full and elaborate paraphrase of the 
recited couplet or any piwi thereof, and ask his pupils 
individually to do the same. When the pupils have 
paraphrased the same to the satisfaction of the precep- 
tor, he should again recite the same stanza or couplet. 
The passages or shlokas should not be recited too 
hastily, nor drawled out in a timid or faltering voice, nor 
with a nasal intonation. The voice should be neither too 
loud, nor too weak, but each sound should be clearly 
and distinctly uttered, and the lips, the eyes, the eye- 
brows, and the hands, etc. should not be lifted or moved 
to keep time with the recitation. Xo one should be 
allowed to pass between the pupil and the preceptor 
at the time of study. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — A pupil who is pure, obedient to his 
preceptor, applies himself steadily to his work, and 
abandons laziness and excessive sleep, will arrive at the 
end of the science (he has been studying . 

.\ student or a pupil, having 'finished tire course ol. 



32 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. L Chap. III. 



his studies, would do well to attend to the cultivation ol" 
fine speech and constant practice in the art he has 
learnt, and make unremitting efforts towards the 
attainment of perfection (in the art). 



Thus ends the ihird Chapter uf the Siilraslhanani in the Sushrul.i 
Sanihila wliich deals with the Classification of tlie Ayurveda. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which deals 
with General Explanations (Prabha'Saniya- 
madhyaryam). 

The endeavours of a man who has studied the entire 
Ayurveda (shastra) but fails to make a clear exposition 
of the same, are vain like the efforts of an ass that 
carries a load of sandal wood (without ever being 
able to enjoy its pleasing scent). 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — A foolish person who has gone through a large 
number of books without gaining any real insight into 
the knowledge propounded therein, is like an ass laden 
with logs of sandal-wood, that labours under the weight 
which it carries without being able to appreciate its 
virtue. 

Hence the preceptor will clearly explain each shioka 
or a half or a quarter part thereof as contained in 
the present work, divided into a hundred and twenty 
chapters (as well as in the concluding portion of the 
Uttara-Tantram appended to it) ; and the student or 
the disciple shall attentively hear everything explained 
or discoursed on by the preceptor. Since it is extremely 
difficult to classify drugs, ta^te, virtue (Guna), 
potency (Virya), transform at ory or reactionary effect 



34 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. IV. 

(Vipaka), fundamental bodily principles i Dhatu) bodily 
excrement (Mala), hollow viscera ( Ashaya), vital parts 
cMarma\ veins (Sira), nerves (Snayu), joints (Sandhi), 
bones (Asthi; and the fecundating principles of semen 
and ovum, and to extricate any foreign matter lodged in 
an ulcer), or to ascertain the nature and position of 
ulcers or fractures, or the palliative, curable or incur- 
able nature of a disease, etc. ; and since these subjects 
perplex even the profoundest intellects though a 
thousand times discussed and pondered over, not to 
speak of men of comparatively smaller intellectual 
capacity, hence it is imperatively obligatory on a pupil 
or a disciple to attentively hear the exposition of each 
shloka^ or a half or a quarter part thereof, made by the 
preceptor (while studying the science of medicine). 

For explanations of truths and principles quoted 
from other branches of (science or philosophy) and 
incidentally discussed in the present work, the student 
is referred to expositions made by the masters fof those 
sciences or philosophies;, since it is impossible to deal 
with all branches of science, etc. in a single book (and 
within so short a compassX 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — By the study of a single Shastra, a man can 
never catch the true import of this ( Science of Medicine). 
Therefore a physician should study as many allied 
branches of (science or philosophy) as possible. The 



Chap. IV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



35 



physician who studies the Science of Medicine from the 
h"ps of his preceptor, and practises medicine after having 
acquired experience in his art by constant practice, is 
the true physician, while any other map dabbling in tne 
art, should be looked upon as an impostor. 

The Shalya-Tantras (surgical works) written or 
propagated by Aupadhenava, Aurabhra, Sushruta and 
Paushkalavata, are the bases of the works or Tantras 
written by others {^Karavirya, Gopura-rakshita, etc, i. 

Thus ends the fourth chapter of the Sutrasthanam in the Sushruta 
Samhit^ which deals with General Explanations. 



CHAPTER V. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
Preliminary measures in connection with the curative 
remedies of a disease).* (Agropaharaniyam- 
adhyaryam). 

The entire course of medical treatment in connec- 
tion with a disease ma)?' be grouped under Ihree 
subheads, as the Preliminary measures (Purva-karma) ; 
the Principal therapeutical or surgical appliances 
(Pradhana-karma'> ; and the After-measures (Paschat- 
karma). These measures will be discussed under the 
head of each disease as we shall have occasion to 
deal with them. As the present treatise principall)'- 

* Several authorities hold that acts such as fasting, administration 
of purgatives, etc. should be included within the preliminary measures ; 
application of absorbent (Pachana) or healing medicinal agents, within the 
second or the principal measures ; and the administration of tonics or 
restoratives within the third or the after-measure group. Others, on the 
contrary, lay down that measures adopted for the absorption, lubrication 
(pacification by the application of oily substances) or elimination of the 
deranged bodily humours Ijy sweating should be grouped under 
the first subhead ( Purva-karma), the administration of active purgatives, 
emeticsr etc., under the second (Pradhana-karma) and the giving of rice 
meal, etc. to the patient under the (Paschat-karma) last ; while according 
to others the active medicinal agents employed to cope with the deranged 
humours in the incubative stage of a bodily disease till the appearance of its 
first characteristic symptoms, should be denominated as the Preliminary 
measure ; measures employed for the subjugation of a disease in its patent or 
fully developed stage as the Pradhana-karma, and measures employed to 
guard against the recrudescence of a disease and for the restoration of 
health in a patient is the sequel treatment or the Pasch^t-karma. 



Chap.^ V. 1 SUTRASTHA'NAM. -^7 

treats of surgical acts or operations, we shall discourse 
on them and their accessories at the outset. 

Surgical acts or operations are divided into eight 
different kinds such as Incising (Chhedya), Excising 
(Bhedya), Scraping (Lekhj^as Puncturing (Vedhya), 
Searching or probing (Eshya), Extracting (Abarj'-a), 
Secreting fluids (Visravya) and Suturing (Seevya). A 
surgeon (Vaidya) called upon to perform any (of the eight 
preceding kinds) of operations, must first equip himself 
with such accessories as surgical appliances and instru- 
ments, alkali, fire, probe or director (Shalaka), horns, 
leeches, gourd (Alavu), Jamvavoushtha (a kind of pencil 
shaped rod made of slate with its top-end cut into the 
shape of a Jamboline fruit), cotton, lint, thread, leaves, 
tow(Patta), honey, clarified butter, lard, milk, oil, 
Tarpanara (powdered wheat soaked in water), decoc- 
tions Kashaya , medicated plasters, paste (Kalka), fan, 
cold water, hot water, and cauldrons, etc., and moreover 
he shall secure the services of devoted and strong- 
nerved attendants. 

Then under the auspices of blissful astral coi-Qbina- 
tions, etc., and having propitiated the Brahmanas and 
the physicians, with gifts of curd, sun-dried rice, cordials 
and gems, etc., and having made offerings to the gods 
and uttered benediction, etc., the surgeon should 
commence his work. The pa'dent should be given 
light food (before the act), and made to sit with 



38 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHTTA'. [ Chap. V. 

his face turned towards the east. His limbs should be 
carefully fastened (so as to guard against their least 
movement during the continuance of the operation). 
Then the surgeon, sitting with his face towards the 
west, and carefulh' avoiding the vital parts (Marmas), 
Veins, nerves (Snayus), joints, bones and arteries of the 
patient,should insert the knife into the affected part along 
tlie proper direction till the suppurated part would 
be reached and swiftly draw it out. In case of extended 
suppuration, the part opened (length of incision) should 
be made to measure two or three finger's widths in 
length. An incision (Vrana) which is wide, extended, 
equally and evenly divided, should be deemed the best. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — An incision which is wide, extended, well 
divided, does not involve any vital part, etc. of the 
patient, and is well-matured as regards time, is the 
best of its kind*. Courage, light handedness, non-shak- 
ing, non-sweating, sharp instruments, self confidence 
and self command are what should be possessed by 
a surgeon engaged in opening a boil or an abscess. 

Two or three incisions should be made if a single 
opening does not seem large enough for the purpose. 

* Certain commentators interpret the couplet as follows : A boil 
or an abscess which is wide, extended, well defined in its shape, equally 
suppurated in all its parts and does not involve any vital part of the body 
is the fittest thing for a surgeon's knife — Tr. 



Chap, v.] SUTRASTHANAM. 39 

Authoritative verse on the 'sub- 
ject : — The knife (lancet) should be freely used 
wherever a fissure, sinus, or a cavity would appear 
in a boil, so as to ensure a complete flowing out of 
the pus accumulated in it. 

Lateral (tirjak) incisions should be made in regions 
of the eye-brows, temple, forehead, cheeks, eyelids, lower 
lip, gums, armpits, loins, belly and the groins. 

An incision made in the region of the hand or root 
should be made to resemble the disc of the moon, while 
those about the anus and the penis should be made 
semi-circular ! half-moon j in shape. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : —An incision in any of the abovesaid regions not 
made as directed, may give rise to extreme pain, pro- 
longed granulation (healing) and condylomatous growths 
in and about the ulcer, owing to an inadvertent cutting 
of the local veins, or nerves. In a case of artificial 
or instrumental parturition, in ascites, in piles, in 
stone in the bladder, in fistula in ano, and in diseases 
affecting the cavity of the mouth, the patient operated 
on should be kept on an empty stomach (before thS^act). 

Then sprays of cold water should be dashed over 
the face and the eyes of the patient to relieve the pain 
and the sense of exhaustion incidental to the operation. 
The sides of the incision should be firmly pressed fso as 
to ensure a good outflow of the accumulated pus) and 



40 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. V. 

the margins of the wound should be rubbed with 
the fingers (so that they may have a level surface 
and be of uniform structure throughout.) Then the 
wound should be washed with an astringent decoction 
(of Nimba, Triphala, etc.) which should be wiped and 
made thoroughly dry with a piece of clean linen. Then 
a lint plug 'Varti) plastered over with the (paste) Kalka 
of sesamum, hone)' and clarified butter, and soaked in 
disinfectant (lit : — purifying medicines such as 
Ajagandha, etc. i should be inserted deep into the cavity 
of the wound. After that, a poultice made of offi- 
cinal substances should be applied over it and the 
whole should be bound up with thick layers of tow 
(Kavalikas— such as the leaves and bark of the Indian 
figtree etc.) which are neither too irritant nor too 
cooling in their effect ; and finally scraps of clean linen 
should be wound round them. The limb, [or the affected 
part] should be subsequently fumigated with the fumes 
of pain-killing (anodyne) substances and also with 
those of drugs which are supposed to ward off all 
malignant spirits (from the bedside of the patient.)* 

Then it should be fumigated with the drugs, known 
as Guggulu, Vacha, white mustard, Saindhava 
and the leaves of the Ximva tree, soaked in clarified 
butter. The residue of the clarified butter [dripped 

* Even the bedsheels, etc. of the patient should be fumigated as above. 
This foreshadows the germ theory of the modern days— Tr. 



Chap. V. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 41 

down and collected from the fumigating corftpound 
described above], should be rubbed over the 
region of the heart and other vital parts of the patient, 
and the floor of the chamber should be washed and 
sprinkled over with drops of water previousl)^ kept in 
a (new) pitcher for the purpose. The rites of protection 
from the influences of baneful spirits, should then be 
performed by reciting the Mantra which runs as 
follows : — "I am about to practise the prophylactic incan- 
tation for guarding thy person against the malignant 
influences of Rakshas and conjured demonesses, and 
may the god Brahma be graciously pleased to approve 
of its performance. May the Gods and deities and mini- 
sters of grace disperse and confound the hosts of 
wrathful Nagas (celestial serpents), Pishachas, Gandhar- 
vas and Pitris that might be maliciously disposed 
to strike thee in thy sickly confinement. May the spirits, 
which stir abroad in the night and roam about in the 
sky and on earth, defend thy person in recognition of 
thy fervent devotion to them. May the concourse of 
Brahma-begotten sages 'such as, Sanaka, etc.), the saintly 
and canonised kings (Rajarshis) in heaven and the sacred 
mounts, streams and oceans of the earth protect thee 
from evil. May the fire-god guard thy tongue ; the 
wind-god protect thy breath ; and the Moon-god, 
Parjanya, Vidyut lightning) and the spirit of the clouds 
preserve the healthy coursings of» those vital winds in 
th}' organism which are respectively known as Vy^na, 
6 



42 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA [ Chap, v 

Apana; Udana and Samana. May Indra, the presiding 
deity of all physical energies, keep thy bodily strength 
immaculate. May Manu defend the two side tendons 
at the nape of thy neck, as well as thy facult)^ of 
intellect ; the Gandharvas, thy faculty of desire ; 
Indra, thy fortitude ; Varuna, thy faculty of cogni- 
tion ; the Ocean, thy region of umbilicus ; the Sun- 
god, thy eyes ; the Quarters of the Heaven, thy ears ; 
the Moon-god, thy mind ; the Stars, thy complexion ; 
the Night, thy shadow ; the Water, thy vigour ; the 
Oshadhis, thy hair ; Infinite Ether, the space which 
is imprisoned in thy body ; \\isundhara, thy body ; 
Vaishvanara, thy head ; Vishnu, thy moral courage ; 
Purushottama (the foremost of beings), thy energy of 
action (dynamical action of purposes); Brahma, thy self; 
and Dhruva (immutable being), thv eyebrows. May 
these divinities, which perpetually reside in thy body, 
ensure thy safe continuance in being and may thou 
enjoy a long life through their grace. May the gods 
such as, Brahma, etc., confer blessings on thy head. 
May the Sun, the Moon, the twin sages Narada and 
Parvata, the fire-god, the wind, and the other celestial 
helpmates of Indra, bring thee good. May the pro- 
phylaxis devised by Brahma keep thee from evil. Mav 
thou be spared to witness the return of many a long 
and happy year on earth. May such abnormal physi- 
cal phenomena as, droyght, deluge, excessive downpour 
of rain, and excessive germination (or wholesale 



Chap, v.] SUTRASTHANAM. ., 

43 

extinction of such vermin as) rats, mosquitoes, flies 
which invariably portend evil and mortality in a 
community, as well as bloody feuds among kings, 
abate and cease. May thou be relieved of all pain and 
misery. We close the prayer with a "Svaha" (obeisance\ 
The present Vedic mantra exercises an occult power 
in relieving ailments which are due to the malignant 
influences of conjured up she-devils. May thou acquire a 
long life through the protective energy of the pro- 
phylactic prayer (lit :— incantation; now read by me. 

Then having protected the body of the patient with 
the recitation of the above Vedic Mantra, the surgeon 
shall see his patient taken to his own chamber, and 
prescribe the proper course of medicine and diet accord- 
ing to the exigencies of each case. The old bandage 
should be loosened on the third day of the operation, 
when the wound or the ulcer should be washed, and 
a fresh bandage should be wound round as before. The 
bandage should not be loosened on the day following 
the lancing of a boil, as such a measure might give 
rise to a sort of excruciating pain and formation of knots 
in the wound and retard the process of granulation 
(healing). On the third day, the surgeon (Vaidya) should 
prescribe the proper medicated plaster, diet, etc. after 
fully considering the strength of the patient, the nature 
of the disease, and the then prevailing season of the year. 
A wound should not be tried to be healed up, as long as 



44 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA [ Chap. V. 



the least morbid matter, or pus remains in its inside, as 
it would lead to the formation of fresh cavities in the 
surrounding health}^ tissues, and ultimately to a 
recrudescence of the disease. 

The authoritative verses on the 
subject : — Accordingly a wound or an ulcer should 
be made to heal up after the perfect purification of both 
of its inside and exterior has been fully brought 
about. Even after the healing of the wound the 
patient should studiously avoid all sexual connections, 
indigestive viands, fatiguing physical exercises and 
indulgence in emotions of grief or fright, or in ecstasies 
of joy, until the cicatrix has acquired enough toughness. 
The dressings and bandages should be untied and 
changed ever}' third day in winter, in spring and in the 
season of Hemanta, and on each alternate day in summer 
and in the rains. But a physician (surgeon) should 
not be guided by these rules in cases where there would 
be reasons to apprehend imminent danger, and in such 
cases the wound or the ulcer, like a house in flames, 
should be checked as speedily as possible. 

Clarified butter boiled with Yashtimadhu, and 
applied tepid to a wound, incidental to a surgical 
operation, is sure to alleviate the excruciating pain that 
is usually experienced in such an affected part. 

Thus ends llie fifih chapter, of the Sutiasthanani in ihc SushnUa Sanihita 
which treats of Preliminarv nieasiues. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Xow we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
the characteristic features of the differetit seasons of the 
year and their influence on health and drugs 
fRitucharya'dhya'yam). 

The Eternal Time is without origin, middle, or end, 
self-l/egotten, and the lord of all attributes. Contrariety 
or non contrariety of the natural attributes of drugs or 
substances endued with characteristic tastes, such 
as sweet, etc., are brought about by time ; and time 
is the principal factor that controls the births or deaths 
of beings. 

Etymology of the term Ka'Ia (t^me): — 
The Kala or the Eternal time is so called from the 
fact of its not suffering even one of its own minutest 
particles or subdivisions (Kala) to perish, though 
perpetually moving, and in constant motion in itself ; or 
it derives its epithet from the. fundamental quality of 
its destroying all beings and laying their dead remains in 
heaps in succession. Some assert that the name is due 
to the fact that time blends ( kalanam ) all beings with 
misery or happiness according to their respective acts, 
or to its leading all beings to destruction ( kala). 

The Sun-god, by his peculiar motions, divides 
eternal time which is measured by years ( Samvatsaras) 



I 



46 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. VI. 

into 'increasingly progressive but smaller subdivisions) 
such as, Nimeshas (lit : — time taken in closing the eyelids^, 
Kashthas^ Kalas, Muhurtas, days and nights, fortnights, 
months, seasons, solstices, years and Yugas. 

Time taken in articulating any of the short vowels 
(such as A. etc.), is called an Akshi-Nimesha. Fifteen 
Akshi-Nimeshas make one Kashtha. Thirty Kashthas 
make one Muhurta. Thirty Muhurtas make one day 
and night. Fifteen days and nights make one fort- 
night. A fortnight is either dark or bright. Two fort- 
nights make one month. The twelve months such as, 
Magha, etc. are divided into six seasons such as. Winter, 
Spring, Summer, Rains, Autumn and Hemanta, each 
consisting of two months. 

The two months known as Tapas and Tapasva 
(Magha and Phalgunai constitute the season of winter. 
Spring consists of two months called Madhu and 
Madhava (Chaitra and Vaishaka . Summer is marked by 
two months known as Shuchi and Shukra Jaistha and 
Ashadha '. The rains or the rainy season is marked by 
two months called Nabhas and Xabhasya (Shravana and 
Bh^dra\ The two months known as Isha and Urja 
(Ashvina and Kartika) constitute what is called the 
season of Autumn. Hemanta is marked by two months 
called Sahas and Sahasya ' Agraha5^ana and Pousha). 
These six seasons are respectiveh^ characterised by cold, 
heat, rains, etc. 



Chap. VI. 1 SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



47 



The two Ayanams are ushered in by the sun afid the 
moon changing their respective courses in the heavens 
(passing over the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn) as the 
measurers of time. The rains, autumn and Hemanta 
follow one another in succession when the sun is 
over the Tropic of Capricorn or is in the Winter 
Solstice (Dakshinayanami and the moon gains in 
strength in this part of the year. Rasas (Serum or 
sap) possessed of acid, saline and sweet tastes, grow 
strong and become dominant when the sun is over 
the Tropic of Capricorn ^Dakshinayanam) and all beings 
gain in strength and energy more and more. Winter, 
spring and summer mark the passing of the sun over 
the Summer Solstice ' Uttarayanam . The sun grows 
stronger in heat and light, and saps rasas i of bitter, pun- 
gent and sour tastes increase in intensity, and all animals 
gradually begin to lose strength and energy. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :— The moon imparts the moisture and humi- 
dity to the earth which is soaked up by the sun in 
his daily course, while the wind in conjunction 
with the sun and the moon, contributes towards the 
preservation of animal life. The successive change of 
the two solstices marks a year. 

Five such complete years count as a Yuga. The sub- 
divisions of eternal time from the- minutest Ximesha to 
a complete Yuga, are constantly revolving like a wheel_, 



48 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. VI. 

and this constant or perpetual revolution is called the 
wheel or C5Tle of time ^,Kala-Chakra 1 by certain 
authorities. 

The six seasons such as, the Rains, etc., have been 
again adverted to in this chapter for the purpose of fully 
describing the accumulation, excitation aggravation) and 
pacification of the bodily humours, such as wind, etc. 
According to some, the rainy season consists of two 
months known as Bhadra and Ashvina ; Autumn consists 
of the two months of Kartika and Margashirshya ; He- 
manta consists of the two months of Poushaand Magha ; 
spring consists of the two months of Phalguna and 
Chaitra ; summer, of Vaishakha and Jaistha ; and Pr^^Tit, 
of Ashadha and Shravana. 

Oshadhis ' Medical plants and cereals sprout 
during the rains and are enfeebled in their properties. 
Water becomes muddy or turbid and the earth is 
covered over with fresh deposits of washed off or silted 
mud. The sky becomes overcast with clouds, and 
the wind, charged with an excess of humidity, dulls 
the appetite and organisms of beings. Hence the 
food of beings which principally consists of tender 
and new-grown vegetables of feeble potency, consider- 
ably vitiated by the turbid water partaken of as drink 
during the season, proves acid in its digestive reaction, 
and germinates exce-ssive bile in the human system. 
In autumn the skv becomes cloudless, the mire is dried 



Chap. VI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. ^g 

up, and the bile originated and accumulated during the 
rains, is liquefied by the , rays of the sun and gives 
rise to bilious diseases* 

Plants and vegetables (Oshadhis) tlmt grow or sprout 
during the rainy season, are matured in course of time 
and ripen in their virtues and potency in the season of 
Hemanta. The water becomes clear, cool and heavy 
in this season. The sun's rays become feeble and mild ; 
and the winds moistened with frost and snow, make 
the human system a little numb and heavy. Hence 
water and vegetables partaken of in Hemanta are 
divested of their properties of acid reaction after being 
assimilated in the human system, but they give rise 
to an accumulation of phlegm in the body owing to 
their heaviness, sliminess, and cooling and oily character. 
In spring, the phlegm thus accumulated in the body is 
hquefied and ushers in diseases due to a deranged state 
of that bodily humour, t 

The said plants and vegetables, in their turn, lose 
their sap, moisture and nutritive element in summer, 
and become dry and extremely light. In the same 
manner water becomes drought-making [produces a 
state of parchedness in the organism — Ruksha] in its 
virtue,, and considerably loses its natural coolness and 



* This should be regarded as the excited, aggravated or agitated state 
of bile (Pitta) in the parlance of Ayurveda. 

i This is called the excited or agitated state of phlegm (Kafa). 



50 thp: sushruta samhita. [ chap. vi. 

nutritive properties. The sun's rays dry up the natural 
moisture of the human system, and accordingly water 
and vegetables largely partaken of in summer, give rise 
to an accumulation of wind in the system owing to their 
lightness, dryness, or expansive and drought-making 
properties. Subsequently wind thus accumulated in the 
summer, is agitated by the rains and cold winds in the 
'^Cr^V^rt of the rainy season (V^^vrii) when the ground is 
flooded witii water and thus gives rise to diseases \v^hich 
are incidental to a deranged state of the bodily wind.* 

The fundamental bodily humours such as, wind, 
bile, etc. augmented and accumulated during the rains, 
Hemanta and summer, should be checked as soon 
as they become aggravated (manifest themselves) in 
autumn, spring, or in the forepart of the rainy season 
(Pravrit;. 

Diseases which owe their origin to a deranged state 
of bile, phlegm and wind, are respectivel}'- amelio- 
rated in Hemanta, summer, and autumn by natural 
causes, [such as the variations of atmospheric or earthly 
temperature, rainfall, etc.]. Thus far we have discussed 
the accumulation, excitation and pacification or 
alleviation of the deranged bodily humours. 

Likewise the features, which specifically mark 
the different seasons of the year are observed to 

* This is called the excited state of wind (Vayu). 



Chap. VI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^ i 

• 
characterise the different parts of a complete day and 

night, [or in other words] .traits peculiar to spring time 

exhibit themselves in the morning ; the noon is marked 

by all the characteristics of summer r, the evening by 

those of the rainy season ; the midnight by those of 

autumn ; and the hours before dawn by those of 

Ilpmiinta And similarly, like the seasons of the year, 

the diffeieftypkiLs'of the day and night arc -/x«.rked b"^ 

variations of heat, cold, etc. [or in other words] the 

deranged bodily humours such as wind, bile, etc. 

naturally and spontaneously accumulate, aggravate, or 

subside during the different parts of the day as they do 

in the different seasons of the year [represented by 

those parts of the day and night as stated above]. 

Water and vegetables retain their natural properties 
when the seasons are natural, and do not exhibit con- 
trary features, and they then tend to increase the 
appetite, vitality, strength, and power of the human 
system. Contrary or unnatural seasons are but the 
consequences of sin committed by a whole community 
and portend the workings of a malign destiny. 
A season, exhibiting unnatural or contrary features, 
affects or reverses the natural properties of water and 
vegetables peculiar to it, which, drunk or partaken of, 
cause dreadful epidemics in the country. The best safe- 
guard lies in not using such defiled water and vegetables 
when an epidemic breaks out in the country. 



52 THESUSHRUTA SAMHITA, [ Chap. vi. 

Sometimes a town or a city is depopulated by a 
curse, anger, sin, or by a monster or a demoness conjured 
up by a spell or incantation. Sometimes the pollens of 
poisonous flowers or grasses, etc., wafted by the 
winds, invade a town or a village, and produce a 
sort of epidemic cough, asthma, catarrh, or 
fever, irrespective of all constitutional n^^nii-vit^^c 
kDr'^dei'Un^::! bodily humours agitateS'l^/Lkll^^, fTowns 
and villages are known to have been depopulated 
through malignant astral influences, or through 
houses^ wives*, beds, seats, carriages, riding animals, 
gems and precious stones assuming inauspicious features. 

Prophylactic measures:— In such cases 
migration to a healthy or unaffected locality, perfor- 
mances of rites of pacification and atonement, (wearing 
of prophylactic gems and drugs), recitations of mantras, 
libations of clarified butter cast into the sacrificial fire, 
offerings to the gods, celebration of sacrificial cere- 
monies, obeisance with clasped palms to the gods, 
practice of penances, sell-control and charity, kindness, 
spiritual initiation; obedience to one's elders and 
preceptors, and devotion to the gods and the Bramhanas, 
and observance of such like rules of conduct may prove 
beneficial to the affected community. 



* Marriages with girls of prohibited description have been known 
as well to have ushered in an epidemic which devastated a whole town or 
a country. 



Chap. VI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 53 

The characteristic features of the 
seasons Avhich c|o not exhibit un- 
natural traits (Metrical texts) -Cold 
winds from the north blow in the season of 
Hemanta. The quarters of the sky are enveloped in 
smoke and assume a dusky aspect. The sun is hid 
in the frost, and lakes and pools are frozen or lie 
covered over with flakes, or thin layers of ice. 
Cro\^'s, rhinoceroses, buffaloes, lambs and elephants 
become excited and sprightly in this part of the year ; 
and the Lodhra, Priyangu, and Punnaga trees begin to 
blossom. 

Winter exhibits the same features as above, only 
in a greater degree of intensity ; and the quarters of 
the sky are agitated by strong gales of wind and 
showers of rain. 

In spring, when the summits of the mount Malaya 
are besmeared red with the moist foot-prints of the 
brides of the Siddhas and the Vidyadharas, and are 
perfumed in contact with the sweet-scented sandal 
forests, the lively south- wind is roused up from his lair 
and winnows gladness to damsels burning with desires, 
and kindles up the flame of love and appeases the 
amorous anger of the beloved pairs by turning their 
fancies to themes of love. The quarters of the sky are 
cleared up and look joyful. The woods are decked 
with the full-blown flowers of the Kinshuka, lotus, 



54 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. VI. 

Vakula, mango and Ashoka trees. The bee hums and 
the notes of the Cuckoo are heard to reverberate 
through the skies. The south wind fans this king of 
the seasons, and the forests are hung with the festoons 
of tender and sprouting leaves in his honour. 

The sun's rays become stronger and more intense in 
summer. Unhealthy winds blow from the south-east. 
The earth is heated ; the rivers run narrow and shallow 
in their beds ; the quarters of the sky glare with a 
blazing light, the birds Chakravakas with their mates 
roam about in quest of cool ponds and reservoirs of 
water ; herds of deer are tormented and overwhelmed 
with thirst ; trees, plants and creepers are scorched by 
the intense heat, and withered leaves drop off from 
the trees which alone serve to make the identification 
of their parents possible. 

In the forepart of the rainy season (Pravrit', packs 
of detached clouds, spangled with lightning and driven 
before the gales of the west-wind, come thundering over 
and envelop the skies. The Earth is robed in green 
with luxurious growth of corn, enlivened here and 
there by the dark crimson of the cochineal insects 
(Indragopa), and Kadamva, Nipa, Kutaja, and the 
Ketaki trees begin to flower. 

During the rainy season, the rivers overflow their 
banks, tumbling down the trees which grow on them. 
Ponds and lakes are decked with the full-blown Kumud 



Chap. VI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



55 



and Nilotpala flowers. The earth is covered with firofuse 
vegetation. All distinction between dry lands and 
resers^oirs of water becomes impossible, and the sun 
and the planets are enveloped in dark clouds that 
shower torrents of rain but do not roar. 

In autumn the sun's rays assume a mellow golden 
tint. Masses of white clouds are seen to sail the dark deep 
blue of heaven. Ponds are decked with the full blown 
lotus flowers, agitated by the wings of the diving 
swans The high grounds become dry, while the low- 
lands still retain their muddy character. The level 
plains are covered with shrubs and undergrowths, 
and plants and trees such as, Vana, Saptahva, 
Vandhuka, Kasha and Asana, flower in abundance. 

The bodily humours such as wind, etc. aie disturbed 
and aggravated by the contrariety, excess or vari- 
ations in the characteristic features of the seasons. 
Hence it is prudent to check the deranged phlegm 
in spring, to conquer the deranged bile in autumn, and 
to subdue the deranged bodily wind in the rains, before 
they develop themselves in any patent or manifest 
bodily ailment. 

Thus ends the sixth chapter of the Sutrasthanam in the Sushruta 
Sanihit^ which treats of the characteristic features of the seasons and their 
influence on health and drugs. 



C H A P T E R V I I . 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
Surgical Appliances, their Uses and Construction. 
(Yantra-VicJhimadhya'yam). 

Surgical instruments number one hundred and one * 
in all, of which the hand is the most important, inas- 
much as (all of them depend on the hand for • their 
principal auxiliary) and as none of them can be 
handled without it ; and further because all sur- 
gical operations pre-eminentlj^ require its co-operation. 
Any foreign or extraneous substance, which finds a 
lodgment in the Inunan system and becomes painful to 
the body and the mind alike, is called a Shalyam ; and 
surgical instruments are the means of extracting it 
(from its seat or place where it is embedded \ 

(Surgical Appliances may be divided into six different 
groups or types, such as the Svastika, the Sandansha, 
the Tala, the Nadi Yantras, and the Shalakas, besides 
those that are called the minor or accessory appliances 
(Upa^yantras). 

The Svastika instruments (forceps) in their turn, are 
divided into twenty-four sub-classes ; the Sandansha 
instruments (tongsi into two ; the Tala Yantras 

* According to certain authorities hundred is here indefinitely used for 
a large number. 



Chap. VII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 5- 

• 
into two ; the Nadi Yantras tubular) into twent)^ ; 

and the Shalakas (bougies; into twenty-eight ; while 
the Upa-yantras admit of being divided into twenty- 
five different types. These instrumeijts are all made 
of iron which ma}" be substituted for any other 
similar or suitable substance where iron would be 
unavailable. 

The mouths of these appliances are usuall}' made to 
resemble those of birds and beasts, and hence they should 
be made to resemble the mouths of some particular 
animal in shape, or otherwise, according to the advice 
of old and experienced ph3"sicians - surgeons;, or accord- 
ing to the directions as laid down in the Shastras 
(Medical books of recognised authority, or according 
to the exigencies of the case, or after the shape and 
structure of other appliances used on similar occasions. 

Metrical texts: — Appliances should be made 
neither too large nor too small, and their mouths 
or edges should be made sharp and keen. They 
should be made with a special eye as to strength 
and steadiness, and they should be provided with 
convenient handles. 

Appliances of the Svastika class should be made 
to measure eighteen fingers in length ; and their 
mouths should be made to resemble those of lions, 
tigers, wolves, hyenas, bears, cats, jackals, deer, 
Erv^rukas ;a species of deer, crows, cormorants, 



58 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. Vll. 



Kururas la species of birdi, Hasas (a species of sparrow 
vultures, falcons, owls, kites, herons, Bhringarajas 
(a species of bird , Anjalikamas, Avabhanjanas, 
Nandimukhas, and such like beasts and birds. The 
two blades or halves of a Svastika should be welded 
together b}- means of a bolt resembling a Masura 
pulse 1 lentil; in size, and the handles should be turned 
inward in the shape of a mace, or an Ankusha. Apph- 
ances of this type should be used in extracting 
an}' thorn or foreign matter which may have entered 
into the bones. 

Sandanshas tongs are divided into two classes as 
thev are soldered together with or without a bolt. 
They should he made to measure sixteen fingers in 
length, and should be used to withdraw any thorn- 
like substance from below the skin, tlesh_, veins or 
nerves. 

The Tala Yautras which measure twelve fingers 
in length, mav be divided into two classes as the 
siiigle Tala and the double Tala. The former 
resemble the scales of fish in shape, while the latter, 
according to certain authorities, are made to resemble 
the entire mouth of a fish of the Bhetuli species. These 
Yantras are used in extracting splinters from inside 
the nose, ears and other external channels or passages 
ot the body. 

The Nadi Yantras tubular instruments like syringe,s 



Chap. VII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^o 

enemas, etc, with a passage or aperture running 
through their entire .length^ are constructed in 
a variet}' of shapes and for various purposes. 
Some of them are open at one end, while others 
are open at both. These instruments are used for the 
purpose of extracting any shalyam that has pricked 
into the external canals or passages of the body, or for 
inspecting the seat of affection as in piles, etc., or for 
sucking (blood, etc. from any affected part , or simply as 
accessories to other surgical appliances. The length and 
circumference of a Nadi Yantra should be made to 
commensurate with those of the passage 'Srota'i or outlet 
of the human system into which it is intended to be 
introduced. We shall describe, later on, the types of 
Nadi Yantras which are to be used in connection 
with such diseases as fistula in ano, piles, etc. or 
in tumours and ulcers, in Mutradvriddhi (Hydrocele) 
in Niruddha Prakasha ( Phimosis ), in Niruddha 
Guda 'Stricture of the rectum) and in ascites, 
as well as those to be used for the purpose of 
injecting anything into the urethra, the bowels, the 
vagina and the uterus, or are used in connection with 
medicated inhalation, or with those that are known 
as the Alavu Yantras (gourd used for cupping). 

The Shalaka- Yantras bougies are of various 
shapes and serve a variety of purposes. The lengths 
and girths of these instruments should be determined 



6o THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. : Chap. vil. 

according to the necessity of each individual case. 
Four probes or directors shalaka in two pairs, are 
used for the purposes of searching Eshana pus 
in a suppurated part or limb, or in connection with 
uplifting, cutting and thereby withdrawing a shalyam 
from the part it has pricked into, or with a view to 
transfer such a body from one place to another 
Chalanam , or for the purpose of extracting it 
i Shalyam from the affected part. The mouths of the 
two types of these directors respectively resemble those 
of a Gandupada earthworm and of a Sharapunkha 
Tephrosia Purpurea, Pers while the other two are 
respectively headed like the hood of a serpent and a 
fish hook. A couple of directors are used for the pur- 
pose of withdrawing a foreign matter 'Shalyam; 
imbedded in any outer canal of the body (Srotas ). The 
top-ends of these directors are bent down a little, and 
they resemble a lentil seed in size. Six types of directors 
or probes are used in cleansing the pus from an affected 
part of the human organism ; and their top-ends are fitted 
with caps of loose cotton. The three sorts of directors 
used in applying alkaline medicines, are shaped like 
ladles, and their mouths resemble the cavities of little 
stone mortars (Khala.) Of the six sorts of directors used 
in connection with the process of cauterisation (Agni- 
Karma) three are mouthed like the Jamboline fruit, 
while the other three are faced like a mace or a spear 
(^Ankusha. . A kind of director used in removing nasal 



Chap. VII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 6l 

tumours, is mouthed like the half of the kernel 'found 
in the inside of a Jujube-stpne, with a little dip in the 
middle, its lip or end having a keen or sharp edge. 
The ends of the type of probe used in applying 
Anjanams medicated collyria to the eyelids are 
wrought into two small round lobes like the Matara 
pulse and are blunted, while the sort of probe 
used in cleansing the urethra, is made round like the end 
of tht; stem of a Mdlati flower. 

The Upa-yantras or minor surgical 
accessories — include such substances as rope, 
the Venika (braided hair;, silk thread, the bark and the 
inner-skin of trees, creepers, linen, Ashthila 'stones , large 
oval shaped pebbles, a hammer, the palms of the hands, 
the soles of feet, fingers^ tongue, the teeth, the nails, hair, 
the mane of horses, branches of trees, a magnet, alkali, 
fire, and medicine, and such acts as spitting, straining 
(kunthanam;, exhilaration and intimidation. 

IVIetrical texts : —These accessories should be 
applied to the entire body of a patient, or to any part 
thereof such as, the arteries, the ^'iscera, or the joints, 
according to the necessities of each case to be 
determined by the surgeon. 

The Functions of Surgical Instru- 
ments : — are striking out Nirghatanam-lit : — with- 
drawing a Shalyam by moving it to and fro), 
mjection or filling, binding, up-lifting, cutting and 



62 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. vii. 

thereby withdrawing a Shalyam, resetting by means 
of a twirling motion, removing of a Shalyam from 
one place to another, twisting, expanding, pressing, 
purifying of a passage, drawing off, attracting, bringing 
to the surface, uplifting, lowering down, applying 
pressure all round a part, or an organ, agitating, sucking, 
searching, cutting or cleaving, straightening, washing or 
flushing, stuffing the nose and cleansing. They number 
twenty-four in all. 

IVIctrical texts :— The intelligent surgeon shall 
exercise his judgment and determine the nature of the 
surgical operation required in each individual case, for 
surely the shalj^as requiring a surgeon's aid are infinitely 
varied in their character. 

An appliance A^antraUvhich is too thick, or. made of 
inferior metal and hence) not substantially made, or too 
short or too long, or does not admit of being easily 
handled and is incapable of taking in the entire 
Shalyam, or is curved, loosely fitted, or soft-bolted, or 
loosely tied up with cords, 'should not be used in 
surgical operations). These are the twelve defects of a 
surgical instrument. 

Metrical texts : — The use of an instrument 

devoid of the abovesaid defects and measuring eighteen 

fingers in length, is commended in surgical operations, 

Shalyas which are manifest and visible to the naked 

eye, should be extracted with the instruments of the 



Chap. VII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM, 6^ 

Sinha-mukha (lion-mouthed) type, while those that can 
not be seen, should be removed with the help of the 
Kanka-mukhas ( heron-mouthed ) instruments, etc., 
according to the directions laid down in the Shastras 
medical or surgical works of recognised authority). 
The Kanka-mukhas are the best of all other types of 
instruments, inasmuch as the}'- can be inserted and taken 
out without the least difficulty, are capable of drawing 
out a'Shalyam with the greatest ease, and are applicable 
to all parts of the human body 'be they an artery or a 
bone- joint.) 

Thus end.s the sevenih chapter "( ihc SiUiasthSnam of the Sushruta 
SamhitS which treats of the shape, construction and dimensions of surgical 
appliances. 



C H A P T E R V I I I. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
instruments used in connection with a surgical operation. 
(Shastrarvacharaniyamaclhya^am). 

These instruments are twenty in number such as, 
the Mandalagram, the Karapatram, the Vriddhipatram, 
the Nakhashastram, the Mudrik^, the Utpalapatram, 
the Arddhadh^ram, the Suchi, the Kushapatram, the 
Atemukham, the Shardrimukham, the Antarmukhanij 
the Trikurchakam, the Kuth^rika, the Vrihimukham, the 
Ar^i, the Vetasapatrakam, the Vadisha,the Dantashanku, 
and the Eshani.* 

■ The MandaMgram measures six fingers in length and is 
provided with a round or circular face. The Karapatram is the same as 
the modern saw. The term Vriddhipatram signifies a razor. A Vriddhi- 
patram measures seven fingers in length, the handle alone measuring 
five fingers. The Nakhasastram is the same as the modern nail-clipper, 
the blade of the instrument measuring a finger in breadth. The Utpala- 
patram resembles a lotus leaf in shape. The Arddhadhfiram (lancet) 
measures eight fingers' breadth' in length, being one finger broad at the 
middle, and two fingers at the blade. The Suchi. is the same as the 
modern needle. The Kushapatram is so called from its resemblance to the 
blade of a Kusha-grass. An Atemukham resembles the bill of a bird of the 
Ate species. The blade of an Atemukham measures two fingers in 
length, the handle measuring five fingers and thus giving an entire 
length of seven fingers. The SharSrimukham (scissors) is so-called from the 
resemblance of its blades to the bills of a Shariri bird and looks somewhat 
like a modern black-smith's clipper, the measure of its entire length being 
twelve fingers. The Antarmukham is semicircular in shape and is provid- 
ed with a toothed edge like that of a hand-saw. The Trikurchakam (trocar) 
is provided with three separate blades. The intervening space between 
the couple of blades attached to a handle measuring five fingers in length, 
is equal to ihe width of a Vrihiseed, its entire length being eight fingeis. 



Chap. VIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 65 

Of the abovesaid instruments the Mandalagram and 
the Karapatram should be 'used in incising and scraping. 
The Vriddhipatram, the Nakhasastram, the Mudrik^, 
the Utpalapatram, and the Arddhadharam, should be 
employed in incising f Chhedanam ) and excising 
(Bhedanani) ; and the Kushapatram, the Shuchi, the 
Atemukham, the Shararimukham, the Trikurchakam and 
the Antarmukham should be made use of in exudating 
or secreting (Visravanam.i The Kutharika, the Vrihimu- 
kham, the Ara, the Vetasapatram and the Suchi (needle) 
should be used in puncturing. The Vadisha and the 
Danta-Shanku should be used in extracting sohd bodies. 
The Eshani 1 probe or director) in probing or search- 
ing the course or direction of the pus (in a suppurated 
part), and the Suchi (needle; should be used in suturing. 
Thus we have explained the eight different func- 
tions ol the instruments in connection with surgical 
operations. 

The kutharika (small, blunt axe) measures seven lingers and a half in liic 
handle, the blade is half a finger in width and is blunted like the tooth of'a 
cow. The Vrihimukham measures six fingers in its entire length and 
its top is like that of a Vrihi seed, and the edge is cut into small thorn- 
like projections. The Ar5 resembles the awl of a cobbler and measures 
ten fingers in its entire length, the blade is wide as the seed of a 
sesamum and has the girth of a Durva (grass) stem. The Vetasapatram 
(knife) resembles the leaf of a Vetasa plant. The blade is four fingers 
in length, one finger in width, and is keenly edged, the handle measur- 
ing four fingers in length. The Vadisha is shaped like a modern 
fishing hook. The Danta-shanku (pincers for extracting teeth) somewhat 
resembles the Vrihimukham in shape. The face of an Eshani (probe) is 
like that of a Gandupada (earth-worm). 
9 



66 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. Ylll. 

No^v we shall deal with the mode ol handling 
the abovesaid instruments. — The Vriddhipatram and 
other instruments for excising (Bhedanam; should be 
caught hold of at a part between the blade 
and the handle. In acts of scraping the Vriddhipatram 
and the MandaUgram should be handled with the 
palm of the hand slightly turned up. The instruments 
for secreting should be caught hold of at the roots 
of their blades at the time of using them, while in 
the case of a king, an old man, a timid or a 
delicate person, a child, a woman and specially in the 
case of a prince of the royal blood, the Trikurchakam 
should be used when any secreting or exudating opera- 
tion would be necessary. The handle of a Vrihi- 
mukham should be kept concealed within the palm 
of the hand and the blade should be caught hold of 
with the thumb and the index finger (Pradeshini). 
The Kuth^rika should be first supported on the left 
hand and then struck with the thumb and third finger 
of the right. The Ara, the Karapatram and the 
Eshani, should be caught hold of at their roots. The 
rest of the surgical instruments should be grappled 
according to requirements. 

The abovesaid instruments are shaped like things 
which their very names imply, as ha^^e been al- 
ready described. The Nakashastram and the Eshani 
measure eight fingers in length. The Suchi (needle) 



Chap. VIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 67 

shall be described later un. The top-ends of the Vadisha 
and the Danta-Shankhu pental pincers'; are a little 
bent down and their faces are made to resemble 
sharp thorns, or the newly sprouted leaves of a 
barley plant. The top-end of an Eshani closely 
resembles the mouth of an earth-worm. Tlie lenj^th 
of a Mudrika should be made equal to that of the 
top phalanges of the index finger 'of a man of 
avera'ge height.) A Shararimukham measures ten fingers 
in length. The rest of the instruments are mostly 
made to measure six fingers in length. 

Commendable features in a Surgi- 
cal instrument : —Instruments that are fitted 
with handles of easy grip and are made of good and 
pure iron, well shaped, sharp, and are set with edges 
that are not jagged and end in well formed points or 
tops, should be deemed as the best of their kind. 

Curvature, bluntness ( Kuntha— lit :— incapable of 
cutting hair , unequal sharpness of the edge, rough- 
edgedness, over- thickness, over-thinness, over-lengthi- 
ness, and over-shortness are the defective traits in a 
surgical instrument. Those possessed of contrary features 
should be used. But a Karapatram set with a very 
rough (dentated) edge may be used for the purpose of 
sawing the bones. 

A surgical instrument meant *'or excision 'Bhedanann 
should be set with an edge as thin as that of a Musura 



68 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. VIII. 

pulse 'lentil seed , while an instrument used in scraping 
should be set with an edge half as thin as that of 
the former. An instrument used either in connection 
with the measures of secretion or cutting by uplifting 
(Vyadhanam) should be set with an edge as fine as the 
human hair, while an instrument of incision should have 
an edge half as thin as that of the former. 

Surgical instruments should be tempered with one 
of the three substances such as, alkali, water, and oil. 
Instruments used in cutting an arrow, a bone, or any 
foreign matter (Shalyami pricked into the human 
body, should be tempered with alkali, whereas those that 
are made use of in cutting, cleaving, and lopping off the 
flesh from an affected part), should be tempered with 
water. Instruments used in opening Vyadhanam) 
a vein (Shira) or in cutting open a nerve .Sna)^!: 
should be tempered with oil, and should be whetted 
upon a species of stone-slab resembling a Masha pulse in 
colour, and their set- edge should be protected by putting 
it in a sheath made of Sh^lmali wood. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :— An instrument, well-ground, well-shaped, fitted 
with a convenient handle and capable of (laterally) 
cutting a hair in two and made according to measures 
laid down in the Shastras, should be alone used in a 
surgical operation. 



Chap. VIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 6g 

The Inferior or substitutive instru- 
ments (the Anu-Shastras : — The skin of bamboos, 
crystals, bits of glass, Kuruvindas Ca sort of crystal"* 
leeches, fire, alkali, nails, the leaves of trees known as 
Goji, Shephalika and Shakapatra, the tender sprouts 
of corn, hair, and the fingers, should be included within 
the category of the minor instruments of surgery and 
(which may be used in certain instances in substitution 
for the principal and usual ones. 

Metrical texts :— The four articles such as 
strips of bamboo skin, crystals, bits of glass, and the rock 
known as Kuruvinda, should be used by an intelli- 
gent physician in incising or excising Bhedanam i opera- 
tions, where the patient would be found to have a dread 
of the knife, or too young to be surgically operated upon 
with it, or where the proper instrument cannot be pro- 
cured. The nails of fingers should be used in operations 
of incising, excising or extracting in (substitution for the 
instruments enjoined to be used for the purpose), when 
such a course would appear feasible. The processes of 
applying alkalis, leeches and cauterisation will be dealt 
with later on. In Diseases affecting the eyelids or the 
cavity of the mouth, operations for the purposes of 
secreting or evacuating 'the accumulated pus or 
phlegm), may be performed with the leaves of 
Shakapatra, Shephalika or Gojis. In the absence of 
a probe or director, searching may be done with the help 



^o 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. L Chap. vili. 



of a finger, or with a hair, or with a corn sprout. 
An intelligent physician should deem it his im- 
perative duty to get his surgical instruments made 
by a skilful and experienced blacksmith, and of 
pure, strong and sharp iron steel >. A physician, skilled 
in the art of using surgical instruments, is always 
successful in his professional practice, and hence the 
practice of surgery should be commenced at the very 
outset of medical studies. 

Thus ends the eighth chapter of the Sutrasthiinam in the Sushruta 
SamhitS which treats of Surgical|Instruments. 



CHAPTER IX. 
Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
practical instructions in surgical operations (Yogya- 
Sutra). 

The preceptor should see his disciple attends the 
practice of surgery even if he has already thoroughly 
mastered the several branches of the science of Medicine, 
or has perused it in its entirety. In all acts connected 
with surgical operations of incision, etc. and injection 
of oil, etc. the pupil should be fully instructed as regards 
the channels along or into which the operations or 
applications are to be made (Karma-patha\ A pupil, 
otherwise well read, but uninitiated into the practice (ol' 
medicine or surgery) is not competent > to take in hand 
the medical or Surgical treatment of a disease . The art 
of making specific forms of incision should be taught by 
making cuts in the body of a Pushpaphala (a kind of 
gourd , Alavu, watermelon, cucumber, or Ervaruka. The 
art of making cuts either in the upward or downward 
direction should be similarly taught. The art of making 
excisions should be practically demonstrated by making 
openings in the body of a full water-bag, or in the 
bladder of a dead animal, or in the side of a leather 
pouch full of slime or water. The art of scraping should 
be instructed on a piece of skin on which the hair 
has been allowed to remain. The art of venesection 



72 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. IX. 

c 

(Vedhya) should be taught on the vein of a dead animal, 
or with the help of a lotus stem. The art of probing 
and stuffing should be taught on worm (Ghuna) eaten 
wood, or on the reed of a bamboo, or on the mouth of a 
dried Alavu (gourd). The art of extracting should 
be taught by withdrawing seeds from the kernel of 
a Vimbi, Vilva or Jack fruit, as well as by extract- 
ing teeth trom the jaws of a dead animal. The act 
of secreting or evacuating should be taught on the 
surface of a Shalmali plank covered over with a coat 
of bee's wax, and suturing on pieces of cloth, skin 
or hide. Similarly the art of bandaging or ligaturing 
should be practically learned by tying bandages round 
the specific limbs and members of a full-sized doll made 
of stuffed linen. The art of tying up a Karna-sandhi 
(severed ear-lobe) should be practically demonstrated 
on a soft severed muscle or on flesh, or with the stem 
of a lotus lily. The art of cauterising, or applying 
alkaline preparations \^causticsj should be demonstrated 
on a piece of soft flesh ; and lastly the art of inserting 
syringes and injecting enemas into the region of the 
bladder or into an ulcerated channel, should be taught 
(by asking the pupil) to insert a tube into a lateral 
fissure of a pitcher, full of water _, or into the mouth 
of a gourd (Alavu). 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :— An intelligent physician who has tried his 



Chap. IX. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 73 

prentice hand in surgery ion such articles of experiment 
as, gourds, etc., or has learnt the art with the help of 
things as stated above , or has been instructed in the art 
of cauterisation or blistering (application of alkali) by 
experimenting on things which are most akin, or simi- 
lar to the parts or members of the human body they 
are usually applied to, will never lose his presence of 
mind in his professional practice. 
> 

Thus ends the ninth chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the Sushruta 
Samhit^ which treats of Instructions in Surgical operations. 



10 



C HAPTER X. 

Now we sliall discuss the Chapter wliich treats of 
the essential qualifications of a physician before 
he formally enters his profession (Vishlkha'- 

nupravcshaniya-madhya'yam). 

A physician haying thoroughly studied the Science of 
medicine, and fully pondered on and yerified the truths 
he has assimilated, both by obseryation and practice, and 
haying attained to that stage of (lucid ) kno^vledge, ^yhich 
\yould enable him to make a clear exposition of the 
science (^vhene^■er necessary), should open his medical 
career conmience practising) with the permission of 
the king of his country. He should be cleanly in his 
habits and well shaAed. and should not allow his nails 
to grow. He should wear white garments, put on a 
pair of shoes, carry a stick and an umbrella in his hands, 
and walk about with a mild and benignani look as a 
friend of all created beings, read}- to help all, and frank 
and friendly in his talk and demeanour, and neyer allow- 
ing the full control of his reason or intellectual powers 
to be in any way disturbed or interfered with. 

A physician, haying met with a messenger of 
happy augury, or having been encouraged on his journey 
by the notes of auspicious birds or sights, should go to 
the house of his patient. [Then, haying entered the 



Chap. X. ] SUTRASTHANAM. >jz^ 

sick room], the physician should \ie\v the bod>' of his 
patient, touch it with his own hands, and enquire 
(about his complaint . SeNcral authorities hold that these 
three, (inspection, touch and questioning; largely form 
the means of our ascertaining the nature of a disease. 
But that is not correct, inasmuch as the five sense- 
organs of hearing, sight, etc. and oral enquiry material- 
ly contribute to a better diagnosis. 

Diseases, which are to be diagnosed with the help of 
the organ of hearing, will be fully treated, later on, in 
the Chapter on Vrana-Srava (secretions from an ulcer). 
The wind (Vayu), making the blood ebullient, forces it up 
with a distinctly audible report and thus affects the sense 
of hearing. But this will be dealt with later on in the 
abovesaid chapter. The heat and coldness of the body, 
or the gloss, roughness, hardness, or softness of the skin 
of the affected part as in fever, or in an oedematous 
swelling of the body, are perceptible by the sense of 
touch. Fullness or emaciation of the body (cachexia), 
state and indications of ^■itality, strength, complexion, 
etc. are perceived by the sense of sight. Secretions or 
discharges (from the inflamed mucous membrane of 
the urethral in Prameha etc., should be tested with 
the organ of taste.* The characteristic smell emitted 



* The .-jwecl, ur an}' olher ta.'^lc of ihe dibcharj^eb should Ijt; inleiicd 
from the fad of iheir bting or not being swarmed wiili hosts of ants 
or flies, etc. 



76 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. X. 

by an ulcer in its critical stage f Arishta) should be 
determined with the help of the organ of smell. 

While such facts as the time or season (of the first 
appearance) of the disease, the caste which the patient 
belongs to, and things or measures which tend to 
bring about a manifest amelioration of the disease, 
or prove comfortable to the patient (Satm3'ami 
as well as the cause of the disease, the aggrava- 
tion of pain, the strength of the patient, and his 
state of digestion and appetite, the emission of 
stool, urine and flatus, or their stoppage, and the 
maturity of the disease as regards time, should 
be specifically ascertained by directly interrogating the 
patient (on those subjects). Though the abovesaid five 
organs of sense, like the three fundamental vital humours, 
help us to make the correct diagnosis of a disease, 
still the objects locally perceived by these senses 
should not be left out of account in ascertaining its 
specific nature. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — A disease wrongly observed or incorrectly 
described, or wrongly diagnosed, is sure to mislead a 
physician. 

Ha^'ing made these observations the physician will 
try to cure diseases that are curable, adopt palliative 
measures in cases where palliation is the only remedy 
that can be offered, and give up a case which is beyond 



Chap. X. ] SUTRASTHANAM . ^7 

all medical treatment, and mosth' those which are of more 
than a year's standing. Diseases affecting a Br^hmana 
well versed in the Vedas_, or a king, or a woman, or an 
infant, or an old man, or a timid person, or a man in the 
royal service, or a cunning man, or a man who pretends 
to possess a knowledge of the science of medicine, or a 
man who conceals his disease, or a man of an excessively 
irascible temperament, or a man who has no control 
over his senses, or a man in extremely indigent cir- 
cumstances of life or without any one to take care of 
him, are apt to run into an incurable type though 
appearing in a common or curable form at the outset. 
The physician, who practises his art with a regard to 
these facts, acquires piety, wealth, fame and all wished 
for objects in life. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — A physician should abjure the company of 
women, nor should he speak in private to them or 
joke with them. A physician is forbidden to take 
anything but cooked rice from the hands of a woman. 



Thus ends the tenth Chapter of the Sutrasthanam in the Sushruta 
Samhiti which treats of the essential qualifications of a physician. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of the 
pharmacy of alkalis or potential cauteries (KshaTa- 
pa'ka-vidhi-madhya'yam). 

In cases that require incising, excising and scraping, 
alkalis or alkaline preparations are of greater importance 
than surgical instruments and appliances (both principal 
and secondary or substitutive, as they are possessed of 
the virtues of subduing the three deranged bodily 
humours such as wind, bile and phlegm). 

The etymological signification of the term Kshara 
(alkalis) is based on their property of corroding i the skin 
or the flesh of an affected part of the body), or on their 
peculiar quality in destroying the skin and flesh where 
such an effect is desired . Since a variety of substances 
enter into the composition of Kshara alkalis , they are 
endued with the virtue of subduing the three deranged 
bodily humours. Owing to their white colour, Ksharas 
should be included within the category of cooling 
substances ( Saumya'. 

But since many drugs or substances of a hot or fiery 
nature ( Agneya) enter into their composition, KshiCras 
(alkalis) are endued with the properties of blistering, 
burning, suppurating • Pachana >, opening etc., without 



Chap, XI. 1 SUTRASTHA'NAM, 



79 



involving any contradiction to their generic iSanimya) 
nature, and lience the}- are included within the list of 
those substances which are both hot and cooling (Saum^^a 
and Agne^'a in their ^'irtues. The}' are pungent in 
taste, of a heat- making potency, irritant, digestive, 
corrosive, absorbent, liquefacient, improve unhealth}' 
sores and granulation, and act as styptic and 
paralysing agents. They exercise destructive action 
on aaimal tissues. They are antitoxic, anthelmintic 
and possess the propert}- of curing mucous accumu- 
lations in the intestines. They tend to reduce fat and 
phlegm and they have the ^'irtue of destroying skin 
diseases. In large doses, 'alkalis) have the effect of 
destroying the virile potency of a man. 

Kshara (caustics may be grouped under two distinct 
heads according to their mode of administration \ such 
as the Pratisaraniya i for external application) and the 
Pania i alkaline potions . Alkaline preparations should 
be externally used in such skin diseases as Kitima, 
Dadru, Kilas, Mandala, Fistula in ano, tumour, bad 
ulcer fDushta Vrana', sinus, Charma-kila, Tilkalaka, 
Nacchya, Vyanga, Mashaka and external abscesses 
and hoemorrhoids. In cases of worms and poisoning 
as well as in the seven forms of diseases which affect the 
cavity of the mouth, such as Upajihva, Upakusha, 
Danta-Vaidarbha, and in the three types of Rohini, 
external applications of alkalis act like substitutive 



go THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XI. 

surgical instruments. Alkaline potions or any other 
internal use of alkalis, should be prescribed in cases 
of Gulma (abdominal glands;, Ascites, loss of 
appetite, indigestion, flatulent distension of the abdomen 
with suppression of stool and urine, urinary calculi, 
stone in the bladder, internal abscesses, worms in the 
intestines and hcemorrhoids, as well as for subduing 
or eliminating any sort of poison from the system. 

Alkalis or alkaline potions will prove positively 
injurious to a patient laid up with fever or hsemoptysis, 
to a man of bilious temperament, to an infant, or to an 
old man, and they will work similar mischief in a weak 
person, or in a patient suffering from vertigo, insensi- 
bility, syncope and Timira (darkness of vision). These 
preparations of Alkalis should be made in one and 
the same way b}- filtering ; and we reserve the full 
description of this process for another occasion. 

Alkalis for external application are prepared in 
three different potencies ; the mild, middling and 
strong (extremel}' irritant'. A physician wishing 
to prepare such an alkali, should first purif^^ his 
body and mind, and observe a l^st on a day in autumn 
marked by auspicious astral combinations. Then 
having ascended the brow of a hill, he should select a 
full grown Ashita-mushka (Ghanta parul i tree of middle 
age, and growing on soil recommended in the works 
on pharmacy and not anywise affected. Then having 



Chap. XI. SUTRASTHANAM. 8l 

formally invoked the spirit of the aforesaid tree, 
which bears no white flowers) the physician should 
fell it on the day following, — reciting the Mantra which 
reads as : — " O thou possessed of mighty virtues, O 
thou endued with fiery potency, may thy potency 
never decrease or vanish. Stay here, O thou blissful one, 
execute my work, and after the performance thereof 
thou shalt be at libert}- to ascend to the heavenly 
regions." 

Then haA'ing performed the Homa ceremon}' with 
thousands of white and red flowers, the physician 
should cut the wood of the abovesaid tree into 
small pieces and put them in a place pro- 
tected from the wind. Then having placed pieces of 
unslaked limestone over them, the physician should 
burn them to ashes with the lighted faggots of dried 
sesamum plants. Then after the fire has fairly 
burnt itself out, the ashes of the limestone and the 
Ghanta-parula wood should be separately collected 
and stored. Similarly the wood as well as the 
leaves, roots and fruits of Kutaja, Palasha, Ashva- 
karna, Paribhadra, Vibhitaka, Aragvadha, Tilvaka, 
Arka, Snuhi, Apamarga, Patala, Naktamala, Vrisha, 
Kadali, Chitraka, Putika, Indra-Vrilvsha, Asphota, 
Ashvamaraka, Saptachchhada, Agnimantha, Gunja, 
and the four species of Koshataki, should be burnt 

down to ashes. 
II 



S2 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XI. 

Then a Drona measure of the ashes thus prepared* 
should be dissolved and stirred up in six Drona measures 
of pure water or cow's urine, and be filtered 
twenty-one times in succession. The ('alkaline water 
filtered as abo\-e) should ])e kept in a large caldron 
over a fire and boiled by gently agitating it with a 
ladle. . It should be taken down from the fire when bv 
gradual stirring, the saturated water would appear 
transparent, slimy, red and irritating. It should 
then be filtered through a piece of clean linen, 
and the dregs thrown away. After this a Kudava 
measure and a half 12 Palas) of the (abovesaid) 
saturated or alkaline water should be taken out 
of the caldron, and the rest should be again kept boil- 
ing over the fire. Following this, substances laiown 
as Kata-Sharkara, the ashes of the burnt limestone 
pre^■iously obtained, Kshirapakas (fresh water oysters) 
and Sankhanabhi, should be burnt red hot in 
equal proportions, and then immersed and pressed 
in the Kudaba measure of alkaline water previoush" 
set apart in an iron basin as above described. 

Then having immersed eight Pala measures of the 
substances known as the Shankhanabhi etc., in the 
abovesaid alkaline water, the physician should boil 
it by continuous and steady stirring, care being 



* Two piuia of tht buinl ashes of Ghanla-panila and one pari of ihc 
ashes of Kuiaja, n^Ic. 



Chap. XI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 8 



o 



taken not to make it of too thin nor of tod thick 
a consistency. Then the basin or the caldron 
should be taken down from the oven, and its contents 
poured into an iron pitcher, carefully covering its 
mouth after filling it. The alkali thus prepared is 
called the Kshara (alkali of middling potency, which, 
if prepared without the subsequent addition (lit : 
throw-over) of the ashes of Katasharkara, etc., goes by 
the name of mild alkali 'IVLi-idu Kshara). Similarly, alkali 
prepared with the addition of the powders of the drugs 
known as Danti, Dravanti, Chitraka, Langulaki, Putika- 
Pravala Talpatri, \'idha, Suvarchika, Kanaka-Kshiri, 
Hingu, Vacha, and Visha, or with as many of them as are 
available, each weighing four tolas, is called the strong 
Kshara (extremely irritating alkali). These alkaline pre- 
parations of different potencies, should be severally used 
in cases where their adnn'nistrations would be clearlv 
indicated. An alkaline preparation, any way weakened, 
should be strengthened by adding to it alkaline water 
(water saturated with an alkali) as before described. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject ; The commendable features in an alkali are 
based on its whiteness, on its being neither too mild nor 
too strong, on its gloss and sliminess, on its sticking to 
the place of application, and on its power of secreting 
(Abhisyandi the morbid fluid, and on its rapid effect. 
On the other hand, its defective traits consist in its being 



8^ THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. | Chap. XI. 

too m'lld, of excessive whiteness, excessive strength or 

irritability, of over-sliminess, excessive stickiness or 

thickness, insufficient boiling, and insiifiiciency of 
component ingredients. 

A patient laid up with a disease amenable to an 
application of alkali potential cautery or caustic) should 
be kept in a spacious chamber, and should not be ex- 
posed to draughts and to the hot rays of the sun, 
[Then the physician having secured] the necessary 
appliances etc, as already laid down in the Chapter V, 
should view the part of the patient's body to which 
the alkali is to be applied. The affected part should 
be then* rubbed or scarified t with an alkali, and covered 
overt with a piece of linen. The alkaline prepara- 
tion should be applied with a rod or director* and kept 
undisturbed for a period needed to articulate a hundred 
long letter sounds). 

Metrical texts : The perfect burning (blis- 
tering, should be inferred from the black colour of the 
skin of the affected part. Madhuka and the substances 
included within the Amla-varga (group of acid drugs) 
pasted with clarified butter, should be applied to allay 
the incidental burning isensation). A plaster composed 

♦ In a case brought about by (Pitta) ascendency of the deranged bile. 

t It sliould be scraped with the alkali where the skin would appear 
hard and benumlied owinp; In ihc action of the deranged vital winds (V5yu). 

i In a case of deranged phlegm (Kafa) the affected part being marked 
by itching and swelling. 



Chap. XI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. g^ 

of the shreds of Amla-Kaiijika, sesamum and Madhiikam 
taken in equal parts, and pasted together, should be 
applied to the part burnt with an alkali ; in the event 
of the latter having failed to produce the desired effect 
owing to the disease being deepl}" seated. Madhukam 
and the Kalka paste of sesamum mixed with clarified 
butter would cause such an incidental; ulcer to heal. 

Now you may ask the question how can an acid 
subst'ance, which is fiery in its virtue and heat-making in 
its potency, tend to subdue the effects of an alkali which 
is possessed of similar virtues and properties, instead 
of augmenting them, as can naturally be apprehended ? 
Well my child, the question can be fairly answered 
by stating, that substances of all tastes enter into the 
composition of an alkali except the acid one. The 
pungent (Katu : taste is the principal taste of an alkali, 
while the saline :Lavana forms its minor or accessory 
flavour LAnurasa). Xow this saline taste in conjunc- 
tion with the acid one renounces its extremely 
sharp or irritating property and is thus transformed into 
one of sweetness or of soothing virtue. Hence it 
is that an acid taste tends to alla)^ the burning incidental 
to an application of alkali (potential caustic) in the 
same way as water tends to put out fire. 

An operation of perfect cauterisation with an alkaline 
application brings about an amelioration of the disease, 
or the disease is entirely subdued, accompanied by 



86 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XI. 

Hghtne^ss of the limbs and absence of secretion from 
the affected part ; while an insufficient burning [of 
the part] is generally attended by symptoms of 
aggravation of the malad}' and also gives rise to 
local pain, itching and numbness, [On tire other 
hand], excessive burning [of the part] with an 
alkaline preparation may ha^'e a fatal termination, and 
is attended by such symptoms as burning, suppuration, 
redness, secretion in and from the seat of affeqtion. 
A feeling of languor and fatigue comes upon the 
patient accompanied with thirst, swooning and an aching 
sensation. An ulcer incidental to a burn by an alkali 
should be treated with a special eye to the nature of the 
disease and the deranged bodily humour specifically 
involved in the case. 

A weak person, an infant, an aged person, a man of 
timid disposition, a patient suff'ering from abdominal 
dropsy with general anasarca or from haemoptysis, 
a pregnant woman, a woman in her menses, a person 
suffering from an attack of high fever or urethral 
discharges, or emaciated with chronic inflammation 
of the lungs, or a person subjected to fits of faint- 
ing or abnormal thirst, or a person suffering 
from virile impotency, or whose testes ha^'e become 
deranged either upwards or downwards, or a woman 
suffering from retro\'ersion or introversion of the 
uterus or prolapsus of the vagina, should be deemed 



Chap. XI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 87 

unfit for being cauterised with alkalis. More- 
over their application is. not to be sanctioned over 
the veins, nerves, joints, gristles or tender bones or 
cartilages, sutures, arteries, throat, umbilicus, genitals, 
regions of Srotas (external channels), parts covered 
over with a thin layer of flesh, inside the nails and 
other vulnerable parts of the body, nor in diseases 
of the eyes, excepting those which affect the eyelids. 

Alkalis fail to produce any beneficial effect in a 
patient suffering from oedema of the limbs, or suffering 
from bone- ache, or laid up with a disease affecting the 
joints or the heart, or in a person of impaired appetite 
who has lost all relish for food, even when their use 
is otherwise indicated. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : An Alkali adnn'nistered by an ignorant phv- 
sician is to be dreaded more than poison, fire, blows 
with a weapon, thunder-bolts, or death itself ; while 
in the hand of an intelligent physician it is potent 
enougli to speedily subdue all serious diseases in which 
its use is indicated. 



Thus ends the eleventh Chapter of the Suliasthanam in the Siishiuta 
Samhita which treats of the Pharmacv of AlkaHs. 



C H A PT E'R XII. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
cauteries and the rules to be observed in their use 

(Agni-Karma-Vidhimadhyayam). 

A fire (cautery ) is better than an Alkali as far as its 
healing property is concerned. A disease burnt with 
fire, is cured for good and knows no recrudescence ; and 
diseases which ordinarily baffle the skill of a surgeon 
or a physician, and never prove themselves amenable 
to medicinal or surgical remedies, are found to yield 
to fire I cauterisation . 

The following drugs, articles and substances should 
be understood as accessories to an act of cauterisation, 
viz., Pippali, the excreta of goats, the tooth of a cow 
I Godanta'', Shara, a rod, the surgical instrument known 
as the Jamvavaustha, articles made of copper or silver, 
honey, treacle, oil, or any other oily substance. Out of 
these, Pippali, the Godanta, Shara and the rod should be 
(made red hot and) used in cauterising the affected part 
in a disease which is restricted only to the skin ; 
similarly the surgical instsument known as the 
Jamvavaustha, as well as the appliances made of 
copper or silver should be used in a disease which 
is seated in the flesh. Honey, treacle and oil should 
be (boiled and employed in cauterising the disease 



Chap. XII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 89 

which affects any of the veins, nerves, bones or'bone- 
joints. 

Cauterisation is admissible in all seasons of the 
year except summer and autumn; but no such distinction 
should be observed in cases of impending danger, when 
it should be practised with the help of such appliances 
of a contrary (cooling) nature, [as wet sheets, cooling 
drinks and cooling plasters, etc.] 

In all diseases and in all seasons of the year, the 
patient should be fed on a diet of slimy (mucilaginous) 
food before actually applying the cautery ; while the 
patient should be kept on an empty stomach before the 
act where the complaint would be a case of Mudagarbha 
rfalse presentation), fistula in ano, haemorrhoids or a 
disease affecting the cavity of the mouth. 

According to certain authorities the processes of 
cauterisation may be grouped under two heads according 
as the skin or the flesh is cauterised. The present work 
does not lay an}^ injunction against the cauterisation of 
any nerve, vein, bone or bone joint (as stated before). 
A burning of the skin is accompanied by a peculiar 
bursting or cracking sound. The skin becomes con- 
tracted and emits a fetid smell. Similarly, in a case 
where the flesh is burnt, (the affected part) assumes 
a dove color of (blackish brown), marked by pain 
and a little swelling, and the incidental ulcer becomes 
dr)' and contracted. In the case where a nerv^e or a vein 

12 



90 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. Xll. 



is burnt, the ulcer presents a raised (elevated) and 
black aspect with the stoppage of all secretions ; while 
an ulcer incidental to the cauterisation of any of the 
bone joints has a parched red hue and becomes hard 
and rough. 

The regions of the eye-brows, forehead and temple- 
bones, should be cauterised in diseases affecting the 
head as well as in a case of Adhimantha (Ophthalmia). 
In diseases affecting the ej'elids the eye should be 
covered over with a moist piece of Alaktaka (a thin 
pad of red pigment principally used in d3'eing the feet 
of ladies) and the roots of the eyelashes should be duly 
cauterised. Cauterisation is specificall}' enjoined to 
be resorted to incases of glandular inflammation, tumour_, 
fistula in ano, scrofula, elephantiasis, Charmakila, warts, 
Tilakalaka, hernia, sinus hoemorrhage, and on the occa- 
sion of cutting a vein or a bone joint, as well as in 
the event of the vital wind (Vayu) being extremely 
agitated and lodged in the local skin, flesh, vein, nerves 
and the bone-joints and giving rise to excruciating 
pain in and about the ulcer which in consequence 
presents a hard, raised and inert surface. 

The modes of cauterisation vary according to the 

seat of the disease, and number four in all, viz., the 

Ring, the Dot, the Lateral or Slanting lines, and the 
Rubbing modes. 



Chap. XII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



91 



Authoritative verse on the subject : — 

A physician, after having tarefully considered the seat 
of the disease and judiciously ascertained the patient's 
strength and the situations of the Marmas the vital 
parts of the patient's') body, should resort to 
cauterisation with an e3''e to the nature of the malady 
and the then prevailing season of the year. 

> 

The part, after being properly cauterised, should be 
rubbed with an unguent composed of honey and clarified 
butter. A man of bilious temperament or with a quantity 
of bad blood lying stagnant and locked up in any part 
of his bod}', or of lax bowels, a person with any foreign 
substance (such as a thorn or a splinter still lodged in 
his body), a weak or an old man, an infant, or a man 
of timid disposition, or a person afflicted with a large 
number of ulcers, as well as a patient suffering from 
any of the diseases in which diaphoretic measures 
are forbidden, should be regarded as a subject unfit for 
cauterisation. 

Now we shall describe the characteristic sym- 
ptoms of the several kinds of burns other than those 
caused (for surgical purposes). Fire feeds both 
upon fatty and hard fuels, [such as oil and logs of wood 
etc.]. Hot or boiling oil has the property of permeating 
or entering into the minutest nerves and veins, and 



g2 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. Xli. 

hence, it is capable of burning the skin, etc. Accord- 
ingly an ulcer incidental to such a burning (scald) is 
characterised by extreme pain, etc. 

Burns may be grouped under four distinct heads viz., 
the Plush tam, the Dur-Dagdham, the Samyag-Dagdham 
and the Ati-Dagdham. A burn characterised by the 
discolouring of its seat and extreme burning and mark- 
ed by the absence of any vesicle or blister, is called the 
Plushtam, from the root "plusha" to burn. A burn, 
which is characterised by the eruption of large vesicles or 
blisters, and assumes a red colour, and is characterised by 
excessive burning and a kind of drawing pain, and which 
suppurates and takes a long time to heal, is called the 
Dur-Dagdham (bad burn or scald). A burn, which is not 
deep (superficial) and assumes the colour of a ripe Tala 
fruit, and does not present a raised or elevated aspect 
and develops the preceding symptoms, is called the 
Samyag-Dagdham (fully burnt one). A burn in which 
the flesh hangs down, and where the veins, nerves and 
bones are destroyed, accompanied with fever, burn- 
ing, thirst, fainting and such like disturbances, and 
which leads to a permanent disfiguration of the body, 
retarding the healing of the incidental ulcer which leaves 
a discoloured cicatrix even after healing, is called the 
Ati-Dagdham (over burnt one). A physician should 
try to heal any of these four types of burns with the 
measures already laid down before. 



Chap. XII. ] sutrasthanam 93 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject. — The blood of a. man is agitated and made 
hot by fire, and the blood thus heated tends to 
excite or causes it to raise the bile. And since fire and bile 
(Pittam) are similar in their taste, essence, effect, potency 
and natal factors, the effects of Pittam (burning sensation 
etc.), are naturally aggravated and augmented through a 
contact with fire. Blisters or vesicles crop up in 
rapid' succession and mark the seat of burning, and 
fever, thirst, etc., supervene. 

Now I shall describe the course of medical treat- 
ment to be adopted for the cure of burns. Hot and 
dry fomentations, as well as warm plasters should be 
applied to a burn of the Plushtam type, and a course 
of hot food and drink should be likewise prescribed for 
the patient. The blood becomes thin when the body 
is diaphorised by m.eans of warm fomentations, and water, 
in virtue of its natural cooling properties, tends to 
thicken the blood. Hence warm fomentations or appli- 
cations exercise curative virtues in the case of a 
burn of the foregoing t)^pe, and water or cold appli- 
cations produce the contrary effect.* 

Both warm and cold measures are to be adopted 
in the case of a burn of the Dur-Daghdha t5''pe, the 

* By arresting the radiation of the incarcerated heat and thereby 
favouring the elevation of the local temperature and the increase of the 
burning sensation. 



94 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, xil 

medicinal remedies consisting of cold applications and 
unguents of clarified butter.* • 



A plaster composed of Tugakshiri, Plaksha, Chandana, 
Gairika, and Amritam Guduchi), pasted together with 
clarified butter, should be applied over a bum of the 
Samyag-Dagdha type, or the flesh of domestic or 
aquatic or amphibious animals should be pasted and 
plastered over the affected part. A burn ol the 
present type, marked by excessive burning, should 
be medicinally treated in the same manner as a case of 
bilious abscess (Pitta-vidradhi). 

In the case of a burn of the Ati-Dagdha (over-burnt i 
t3^pe, the loose or the dangling integuments (skin) 
and flesh should be removed, and cold applications should 
be made over the ulcer. Then the affected part 
should be dusted over with pulverised Shali rice, 
or a plaster composed of the pulverised skin of 
Tinduki and clarified butter pasted together, should be 
applied over its surface.! The affected part should be 
covered over with the leaves of Guduchi, or of lotus, or 
other aquatic plants, and all measures and remedial 



* Cold applications and cooling measures should be resorted to in the 
case of a deep and excessive burn, while the contrary should be held as the 
correct remedy in the case of a slight and superficial one. 

•)• Several authorities prescribe Tinduki bark and human cranium 
powdered together and mixed with clarified butter, while others prescribe 
a decoction of Tinduki bark. 



Chap. XII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 95 

agents, indicated in the case of a bilious erysipelas, 
should be resorted to in the present instance 
as well. 

A plaster composed of bee's wax, Madhukam, 
Sarjarasa, Manjistha, (red) Chandanam and Murva 
pasted together and boiled with clarified butter should 
be regarded as beneficial to burns of all types to 
promote rapid healing. 

In the case of a burn from boiling oil, clarified butter 
or such like substances should be externally applied 
and all measures which promote dryness of the 
part (Ruksha) should be adopted without the least 
hesitation. 

Now we shall describe the s5''mptoms which become 
manifest in a person [whose nostrils and larynx] 
are choked with smoke. — The respiration becomes 
laboured and hurried and the abdomen is distended 
accompanied by constant sneezing and coughing. The 
eyes look red and seem as if burning. The patient 
breathes out smoke and fails to catch any other smell 
than that of it. The sense of hearing is considerably 
affected ; the sense of taste becomes inert ; fever, 
thirst and a burning sensation supervene ; and the 
patient drops down utterly unconscious. 

Now hear me discourse on the course of medical 
treatment to be adopted in the case of one 



g6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XII. 

over-powered with smoke.— Emetics in the shape of 
clarified butter mixed with sugarcane juice or milk 
saturated with the juice of grapes, or lumps of 
sugar- candy dissolved in an adequate quantity of 
w^ater, or any acid potion slightly sweetened, should be 
administered to th.e patient. The contents of the 
stomach are speedily discharged by vomiting ; the disten- 
sion of the abdomen is removed ; the smell of smoke in 
the breath is mitigated, and the accompanying fever with 
(its concomitants) of sneezing, languor, thirst, cough, 
laboured breathing etc. is abated, and the patient is 
restored to consciousness. Gargles having a sweet, 
saline, acid or pungent (katu) taste restore the sense- 
perception of the patient, and gladden his mind. Medi- 
cated snuffs in adequate quantities should be adminis- 
tered by a well-read physician to such a patient, whereby 
his head, eyes and neck would be able to resume 
their normal functions. And a course of diet, which is 
light, emollient and not acid in its reaction, should be 
prescribed. 

Cooling measures or applications should be 
prescribed or made in the event of any part of the body 
being scorched by excessive heat, or by being exposed 
to a draught of hot and parched wind. Similarly, hot 
and emollient measures or applications should be re- 
sorted to where any part of the body has become frozen 
or shrivelled by snow or cold winds. A person struck 



Chap. XII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. gy 

by lightning should be regarded as beyond the pale 
of medicine.* 



* Additional texts :— \\Tieie the scorching would be found to be consi- 
derably extensive ; otherwise such measures as lubrication with medicated 
unguents etc. should be adopted in a case where the patient is picked 
up alive. 

Thus ends the twelfth Chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the Sushruta 
Samhit^ which treats of Cauteries and the rules to be observed in their use. 



'3 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats 
of leeches and of how and which to use (Jalaukar- 
vacharraniyamadhyaryam). 

Leeches should be applied where the patient 
would be found to be old or imbecile, or a woman, 
or an infant, or a person of an extremely timid disposition, 
or a person of a delicate constitution, and as such is 
not fit to be surgically operated upon, since this 
mode of bleeding is the gentlest that can be possibly 
devised. The blood vitiated by the deranged wind 
(Vayu\ bile (Pittam), and phlegm (Kapham) should be 
respectively sucked through a horn^ by leeches and a 
gourd appliance (Alavu-Yantra) or with whichsoever 
of them is available at the time, irrespective of the cause 
of such vitiation, whenever such bleeding or sucking 
would be found to be imperatively necessary. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — A CO whom is described in the Shastras as of a 
hot or heat making potency, and as possessed of a 
slightly cooling (Snigdha) or soothing (Madhura) pro- 
perty. Accordingly it should be used in sucking the 
blood vitiated through the action of the deranged bodily 
wind. Leeches, which are born in water, are possessed of 
Madhura (sweet or soothing) properties, and hence they 



Chap. XIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 9^ 

should be used in sucking the blood vitiated throoigh a 
deranged condition of the bile (Pittam\ The gourd 
(Alavu) is pungent, parching and irritating in 
its potency and should be therefore used in sucking 
the blood vitiated through the action of the deranged 
phlegm (Kapham). 

Mode of application :— The part from 
which the blood is to be sucked should be first scarified 
or slightly cut in two or three places, and then the 
mouth or the open end, of the horn, covered with a 
thin piece of muslin tied round its edges should be 
placed over it and sucked with the mouth through the 
aperture at its tip or top- end, or with a gourd appliance 
equipped with a lighted lamp placed in its inside. 

The term Jalauka (leeches) may be etymolo- 
gically interpreted to mean creatures whose life 
(Ayu) or whose longevity is in, or depends upon, water, 
whereas the derivative meaning of the term 
Jalauka (leeches) is based upon the fact of their dwelling 
("Oka"— dwelling place) in water (Jalam). Leeches may 
be divided into twelve distinct species of which six are 
venomous, and six non-venomous. The six venomous 
species are named Krishna, Karvura, Alagarda, 
Indrayudha, Sdmudrik^ and Gochandana. The leeches 
of the first-named species (Krishna) are marked by thick 
heads, and of a colour resembling powdered lampblack. 
The leeches of the Karvura type have extended or 



lOO THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XIIl. 

elongated bodies like the Varmifishes, and are 
indented and thick at the waist. The Alagarda 
leeches are hairy, thick and round at the sides, and black 
at the mouth. The leeches of the Indrayudha species 
are marked on the surface with up-pointed rainbow 
coloured lines. The skins of the Samudrikas are black- 
ish yellow, dotted over with white spots of a variety 
of shapes. Leeches which are provided with narrow 
mouths and are marked by bifurcating line at the 
bottom like the scrotal sac of a bull are called 
Gochandanas. 

A person bitten by any of the abovesaid venomous 
leeches has an irresistble inclination to scratch the seat 
of the bite which is marked by a considerable swelling. 
Fever, with burning, retching, drowsiness and delirium 
supervenes and ultimately the patient loses all conscious- 
ness. The remedy consists in the administration of 
an anti-toxic medicine known as Mahagada, as snuffs, 
potions and unguents, etc. A bite by an Indrayudha 
usually proves fatal. Venomous leeches, as well as cures 
for their bites, have thus been described. 

The non-venomous species include Kapilas, Pingalas, 
Shankhamukhis, Musikas, Pundarimukhis and Saravikas. 
The Kapilas are coloured like Manah-Shila ( realgar ) 
at the sides, and their backs are tinged with a 
glossy hue like that of a Mudga pulse. The Pingalas 
have a reddish colour, are round in shape and 



Chap. XIII. ] SUTRASTHANAAI. loi 

capable of speedy locomotion. The Shankhamuldiis are 
marked by a blackish red hue like that of the 
liver, are provided with sharp elongated moutlis, 
and are capable of sucking blood with the greatest 
swiftness. The Musikas are coloured like the common 
blind moles, and emit a fetid smell from their bodies. 
The Pundarimukhas are coloured like the IMudga pulse 
and are so called from the fact of the resemblance of 
their mouths to the full-blown lotus hhes TPimdarikas). 
The Saravikas have cold bodies marked with impress- 
ions like lotus leaves and measure eighteen fingers' 
width in length, and they should be employed in 
sucking blood from the affected parts of lower animals. 
This exhausts the list of non-venomous leeches. 

The countries, such as Turkesthan (Yavana), the 
Deccan (Pandya), the tract of land traversed by the Ghaut 
mountains (Sahya), and Pautana (modem Mathura), are 
the natural habitats of these leeches. The leeches, 
found in the aforesaid countries, are specifically non- 
venomous, strong, large-bodied, greedy and ready 
suckers. 

The venomous leeches have their origin in the de- 
composed urine and fecal matter of toads and venom- 
ous fishes in pools of stagnant and turbid water. The 
origin of the non- venomous species is ascribed to such 
decomposed vegetable matter, as the petrified stems of 
the several aquatic plants known as Padma, Utpalam, 



I02 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XIII. 

Nalina, Kumuda, Pundarika, and the common zoophytes 
which live in clear waters. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject. — The non-venomous leeches swim about in sweet 
scented waters, live on non-poisonous weeds, lie on the 
leaves of flowering water plants instead of on the dank 
and ooz)^ beds of pools, and suck blood from the affected 
part of a human organism without causing any discomfort. 

Leeches should be caught hold of with a piece of 
wet leather, or by some similar article, and then put in 
to a large-sized new pitcher filled with the water and 
ooze or slime of a pool. Pulverised zoophytes and powder 
of dried meat and aquatic bulbs should be thrown into 
the pitcher for their food, and blades of grass and 
leaves of water-plants should be put into it for them 
to lie upon. The water and the edibles should be 
changed every second or third day, and the pitchers 
should be changed each week, (the leeches should be 
transferred to a new pitcher at the end of every 
consecutive seven days). 

The authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — Leeches that are venomous, thick about the 
middle, elongated, of slow locomotion, look fatigued, 
do not readily take to the part they are 
appHed to, and capable of sucking only a small quantity 
of blood, should be looked upon as not belonging to 
the proper or the commendable type. 



Chap. XIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM, 103 

Then having seated or laid down the patient 'suffer- 
ing from a disease which requires the application of 
leeches, the seat of bleeding, if not previously ulcerated, 
should be roughened b}' dusting it over with a compo- 
sition of loose earth and pulverised cowdung. Then 
the leeches should be taken out of their receptacles 
and sprinkled over with water saturated with mustard 
seed and pasted turmeric. Then for a moment they 
should be kept in a basin full of water, and after they 
have regained their natural vivacity and freshness, they 
should be applied to the affected part. Their bodies 
should be covered with a piece of thin and wet linen, 
or with a piece of white cotton. The affected part 
should be sprinkled over with drops of milk or 
blood, or slight incisions should be made into it in the 
event of their refusing to stick to the desired spot. 
Other fresh leeches should be applied even when the 
preceding measures should prove ineffectual. That the 
leeches have taken to the affected part may be inferred 
from the mouths of the leeches assuming the shape 
of a horse-shoe, and the raised and arched position 
of their necks after they had become attached to 
the seat of the disease. While sucking, the leeches 
should be covered with a piece of wet linen and 
should be constantly sprinkled over with cold water. 

A sensation of itching and of a drawing pain at the 
seat of the application would give rise to the pre- 



104 ^^^ SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XIII. 

sumption that fresh blood was being sucked, and the 
leeches should be forthwith removed.* 

Leeches refusing to fall off even after the production 
of the desired effect, or sticking to the affected part out 
of their fondness for the smell of blood, should be 
sprinkled with the dust of powdered Saindhava (rock 
salt.) 

After falling off, the leeches should be dusted | 

over with rice powder and their mouths should be j 

lubricated with a composition of oil and common salt. 
Then they should be caught by the tail-end with the 
thumb and the forefinger of the left hand and their 
backs should be gently rubbed with the same fingers of 
the right hand from tail upward to the mouth with a 
view to make them vomit or eject the full quantity of 
blood they had sucked from the seat of the disease. 
The process should be continued until they manifest 
the fullest symptoms of disgorging. Leeches that, -y.^ 

had vomited the entire quantity of blood sucked 
as above, would briskly move about in quest of 
food if placed in water, while the contrary should be 
inferred from their l5nng dull and inert. These 
should be made to disgorge again. Leeches not 
made to emit the entire quantity of the sucked 

"^ The leeches, though a blissful dispensntion of Nature in themselves, 
instinctively draw off the vitiated blood from a diseased part, attacking the 
healthy vital fluid (red blood) \Yhen the former has been completely tapped 
or sucked. 



Chap, XIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 105 

blood stand in danger of being attacked* with 
an incurable disease peculiar to their genus, and 
which is known as Indramada. The leeches should 
then be put into a new pitcher, and treated as before 
laid down, after they had fully emitted the sucked blood. 

An ulcer incidental to an application of leeches 
should be rubbed with honey or washed with sprays 
of cold water, or bound up with an astringent (kashaya) 
sweet and cooling plaster, according to the quantity of 
blood removed from the part.* 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — The physician who is fully conversant with 
the habitat, mode of catching, preservation and appli- 
cation of leeches, can well aspire to cure the diseases 
which yield to them or in which their use is indicated. 

* In case of full and proper bleeding (Voga) the ulcer should be 
rubbed with clarified butter technically known as the Shatadhautam (lit: 
hundred times washed) Ghritam (clarified butter), or a piece of cotton, 
soaked in the same substance, applied as a compress over the part. 
The ulcer should be rubbed with honey in a case of insuflicient bleeding, 
while it should be washed with a copious quantity of cold water if 
excessive bleeding (Ati-Yoga) should set in. Similarly in a case marked by 
the absence of any bleeding at all (Mithya-Yoga) a sour, sweet and cooling 
plaster should be applied over the ulcer. 

Thus ends the thirteenth Chapter of the Sulrasthinam in the Sushruta 
Samhita which treats of Leeches and of how and which to use. 



14 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
blood (Shonita-Varnaniya- mad hya'yam). 

The food of a human being, which is usually 
composed of the five fundamental material principles, 
admits of being classified under four different heads 
[as, drinks and edibles, etc.]. It has six different 
tastes or is of two [cooling or heat-making] potencies, 
or consists of eightfold properties, [viz. hot, cool, 
dry, expansive, slimy, mild, sharp, etc.] and of a 
variety of other active or efficacious virtues. The 
food is fully digested with the help of the internal 
heat and ultimately assimilated in the system, giving 
rise to lymph chyle (Rasa) which is extremely thin 
or attenuated in its consistency and which forms the 
essence of the assimilated food.* 

The lymph chyle (Rasaj, though running through the 
whole organism, has its primary seat in the heart, whence 
it flows through the twenty- four vessels which branch 
off from the latter (heart) to the remotest parts and 
extremities of the bod5\ Of the aforesaid twenty-four 
vessels, ten are up-coursing, ten are down-coursing, 
and four have a lateral direction. The Rasa or the 

* It is free from all sorts of impurities such as fecal matter, etc., and 
permeates the minutest vessels and capillaries. 



Chap. XIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



107 



lymph chyle, thus flowing out of the heart, constantly 
soothes, maintains, and irrigates b}^ transudation the 
body, and further contributes to its growth, and supports 
life owing to the dynamical effects of causes which 
lie beyond the ken of human understanding. The nature 
and course of this lymph chyle, which runs through 
the whole system, can be inferred from the growth, 
attenuation, or other modified conditions of the bod5\ 

Now it may be asked, whether the Rasa, which 
permeates the entire body and limbs, and which by 
flowing through different chambers (visceras) of the 
body is thus in constant contact with the excreta and 
other morbid humours, is of a cooling (Saum3'a) or 
heat-making (Agneya) potency ? 

The question may be answered by stating that, since 
the Rasa or lymph chyle is a fluid, and possessed 
of lubricating, vitalising, moistening, and nutritive (lit : — 
supporting) properties, it must be included within the 
class of Saumya (cooling) substances. The Rasa, though 
a Saumya fluid, obtains its characteristic pigment 
(Ragam) in its passage through the spleen and liver. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject:— The Rasa or the lymph chyle, coloured 
through the effect of the healthy normal d5''eing heat 
of the body, obtains the name of blood. The Rasa 
is transformed into the catamenial flow in women which 
commences at the age of twelve and ceases at fifty. 



I08 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XIV. 

Catamenial blood, though originating from Rasa 
which is of a cooling potency^, is fiery or heat-making 
(Agneya) in its character ; and the fecundated or 
impregnated o\'um (Garbha) is both cooling and heat- 
making in its properties on accoimt of its partaking of 
the nature of both the menstrual blood (ovum) and 
semen which are respectively possessed of the two 
preceding virtues. Hence several authorities hold the 
blood to be identical with the life blood or with the 
vital principle of a living organism, and being such, to be 
the product of the five fundamental material principles 
(Panchabhautikam). 

lYIctrical texts:— In blood the properties such 
as, a raw or fleshy smell, fluidity, redness, lightness 
and mobility, which respectively characterise the 
fundamental principles (of earth, water, fire, air, and 
sky) are to be found thus representing those specific 
elements in its composition. 

The chyle produces blood. From blood is formed 
flesh. From flesh originates fat which gives rise to 
bones. From bones originate marrow, which, in its 
turn, germinates semen. 

The Rasa which is originated from the digested or 
assimilated food and drink pre-eminently strengthens 
all the fundamental principles of the body. 

The Purusha or self-conscious personality is Chyl«- 



Chap. XIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM 109 

born in its origin, and hence an intelligent person should 
carefully preserve his bodily Rasa dymph chyle) by 
adopting a proper regimen of diet and conduct. 

The term Rasa is derived from the root "Ras", to 
go, and the substance is so called from the fact of its 
continually flowing through and permeating every vital 
principle of an animated organism. 

The Rasa is successively transformed into each of the 
six remaining fundamental principles of the body, and 
continues in the shape of each for the period of three 
thousand and fifteen kalas five days according to our 
modern computation . Thus the Rasa is converted into 
semen, or into the menstrual blood 'ovum) in women, 
in the course of a month.* 

* The successive development of the fundamental or root principles 
of the body follows a distinct order. The essence of the assimilated food- 
matter under the heat of digestion goes towards the formation of chyle, 
and is ultimately transformed into it, its excreted and effete residue being 
passed out of the organism in the shape of stool, etc. The chyle thus 
produced is called the immature Rasa, or the Rasa in its nascent stage. 
Subsequently it enters into the bodily principle of Rasa, becomes matured 
by the native heat of the latter, and is resolved into three factors, or in 
other words, its excreted matter is transformed into phlegm, its thick 
or condensed portion is transformed into and assimilated in the matured 
Rasa of the bodv, whereas its subtile essence is metamorphosed into 
blood. The blood, thus newly generated, is merged into the fundamental 
organic principle of blood ; and there by the heat of the latter 
it is again resolved into three factors, viz., its excreted portion is 
transformed into bile, its thick or condensed portion is transformed 
or assimilated into the fundamental organic principle of blood, and 
its subtile essence is metamorphosed into flesh. The flesh, thus 
newly formed, is merged into the fundamental organic principle of flesh, 
and there, by the native heat of the latter, it is resolved into three 



I JO THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XIV. 

Authoritative verse on its com- 
putation: — In the present work, as well as in other 
works of recognised authority, a month is calculated to 
consist of eighteen thousand and ninety Kalas. 

The said Rasa courses through the whole body in 
invisible currents of zigzag shape, like the waves of sound, 
or in (an upward direction) like flames of fire, or (in 
a downward direction s like rivulets of water. 



factors, vis, its excreted portion goes towards the formation of such 
excreta as are found to be deposited in the corners of the eyes and 
inside the integuments of the prepuce, or about the region of the glans penis, 
its thick or condensed portion is transformed into the organic principle 
of flesh and its subtile essence is metamorphosed into fat. The fat, 
thus newly generated, enters into the organic principle ',of that name, and 
there, by the native heat of the latter, is resolved into three factors, 
?7-, its excreted portion is discharged through the pores of the skin in 
drops of perspiration, its condensed portion is assimilated in the organic 
principle of fat, and its subtile portion is metamorphosed into bone. 
Again the bone, in its nascent stage, enters into the organic principle 
of bone, and there, by the inherent heat of that principle, is resolved into 
three factors, v!~, its excreted portion goes towards the formation of hairs, 
mustaches, etc, its thick or condensed portion is assimilated into the 
organic principle of bone, and its subtile portion is metamorphosed into 
marrow. The marrow, in its nascent state, enters into the organic 
principle of that name ; and there matured under the native heat of 
that principle, it is resolved into three factors, vh, its excreted portion 
contributes towards the formation of gelatinous matter deposited in the 
corners of the eyes, and the oily secretions of the skin, its condensed portion 
is assimilated into the organic principle of marrow, and its subtile portion 
is metamorphosed into semen. The semen again, in its nascent stage, 
enters into the organic principle of that name and there matured under 
its native heat is resolved into two factors, I'i:. thick and thin. The thick 
portion is assimilated into the organic principle of semen, the thin one being 
metamorphosed into (albumen). Semen, like gold a thousand times purified, 
casts off no dregs. Hence certain authorities hold albumen (protoplasmic 
matter) to be the eighth or the culminating principle of the body. 



Chap. XIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 1 1 

Now it may be asked, since the Rasa is naturally 
transformed into semen in .the course of a month, what 
is the use of administering medicine which has a 
stimulating effect upon the organs of generation 
(Vajikaranam.) The answer is, that such medicines out 
of their own specific potencies and virtue help the 
speedy conversion of Rasa into semen and its profuse 
emission [on the desired occasion] like purgatives aiding 
the drastic evacuation of the bowels. 

Again it may be asked, how is it, that semen 
is not found in an infant ? Since perfume in a flower- 
bud is imperceptible to the organ of smell you may 
as well ask whether there is any perfume in it or not. 
But what does not exist in a thing can not be evoked 
in the subsequent course of its development. As the 
perfume in a flower-bud lies latent in its earl}^ stage 
of growth but becomes patent only with the growth 
of its seed organs, so semen or catamenial blood 
lies in a potential state in a male or a female 
child, and appears with the growth of beards and 
mustaches, or with the enlargement of the breasts, 
uterus and vaginal canal and the appearance of pubic 
hair. 

The same Rasa, originated from the assimilated food, 
serves only to maintain the vitality in the old and 
spontaneously decayed subjects owing to an exhausted 
state of the inner vitalising principle, natural to old age. 



112 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. : Chap. XIV. 

The abovesaid principles (of Rasa, blood etc.) are called 
the root principles (Dhatus), inasmuch as they maintain 
the integrity of the human organism and guard 
against its speedy dissolution). And since the strength 
or weakness of the abovesaid bodily principles 
absolutely depends upon the richness or poverty of blood, 
we shall discourse on the latter condition of the blood. 

The blood, vitiated by the deranged bodily wind 
(Vayu), becomes thin, frothy, transparent, quick- coursing, 
and expansive, assumes a vermilion or black hue, 
and is divested of its slimy character ; whereas vitiated 
through a deranged condition of the bile (Pittam), it 
assumes a blue, yellow, green, or brown colour, emits a 
fishy smell, becomes thin in its consistency and is shun 
by flies and ants. Similarly, blood, vitiated by the 
deranged phlegm (Kapham), becomes cold, glossy and 
thick, assumes a colour like that of the washings of 
Gairika or that of a flesh tendon, takes time in secreting 
or in mnning down, and is marked by an increase of its 
slimy character. The blood, vitiated through a concert- 
ed derangement of the three bodily humours, is marked 
by features peculiar to each of them, and assumes a 
colour like that of Kanjika (sour gruel), and emits a 
fetid smell. Similarly, the blood, vitiated through 
the joint action of any two of the (beforesaid) bodily 
humours, is characterised by features peculiar to each 
of them. 



Cain . XIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



113 



The blood in its healthy and natural state is possess- 
ed of a vivid red colour like that of an Indragopa 
(Cochineal) insect, and is neither too thin nor too 
transparent.* 

Cases where blood-letting is pro- 
hibited : — A person afflicted with an oedematous 
swelling extending all over the body should be deemed 
unfit for bleeding. An intumescence occurring in a weak 
and enfeebled patient owing to an excessive use of 
acid food or in a person suffering from jaundice or laid 
up with haemorrhoids or abdominal dropsy, as well as 
in an enceinte, or in a person suffering from Pulmonary 
consumption (Shosha), should not be bled. 

Blood-letting, with the help of a surgical instrument, 
may be grouped under two distinct heads, according 
as scarification (Prachchhanam) or venesection (Sira- 
Vyadhanam) is resorted to for the purpose. In such a 
case the knife or the instrument (Shastram) should be 
driven straight and speedily so as to make the incision 
straight, narrow, unextended, and of equal and slight 
depth throughout, (so as to reach only the surface 
layer of the flesh and blood), and not to injure in any 
way the local veins, nerves, joints, and other vital parts. 

Bleeding performed on a cloudy day or done with a 

* Additional texts : — Later on we shall have occasion to speak of 
the principles known as the life-blood (essential conditions of vitality — 
Sk. Jiva-Shonita) and of the process of blood-letting. 

15 



114 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. Xiv 

wrong incision, or with full exposure to cold and wind, 
or performed on a patient not previously diaphorised, 
or on a patient with an empty stomach, is attended 
. with little or no outflow of blood owing to the thickened 
condition of the blood. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — Blood-letting surgically performed on a fatigued 
or exhausted subject, or on a person in a swoon, 
or anyway poisoned or intoxicated, or on a person 
suffering from extreme constipation of the bowels accom- 
panied by suppression of the flatus i Vayu) and urine, or 
on a person of timid disposition, or on one overcome with 
sleep, is marked by the absence of any outflow of blood. 

The vitiated blood, failing to find out an outlet, gives 
rise to itching, swelling, redness, burning, suppuration 
and pain in the part (to which it is confined). 
On the contrary, blood-letting performed on the body 
of a person excessively diaphorised or heated, or by 
an ignorant or inexperienced surgeon, or with an 
injudiciously deep incision, is attended with haemorrhage, 
which may be followed by such dreadful results as 
Shirobhitapa or violent headache, blindness or loss of 
sight (Timria, Adhimantham (ophthalmia^ loss of vital 
principles of the body (Dhatu-Kshaya), convulsions, 
paralysis (Ekanga Vikara), Hemiplegia (Pakshaghata), 
thirst, a burning sensation, hic-cough, cough, asthma, 
jaundice and even death. 



Chap. XIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. n^ 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — Therefore blood-Jetting should be performed 
on a patient not in an extremly hot or cold season, 
neither on one who is too much heated or im- 
properly diaphorised (before the act). The patient 
should be given gruel ( Yavagu) before the operation. 
A spontaneous cessation of red flow would indicate 

that there has been a free discharge of blood. 
» 
An act of complete and successful blood-letting is 

followed b}' a feeling of lightness and alleviation of pain 

in the affected part, by an abatement of the disease, 

and a general sense of cheerfulness. 

A person, accustomed to blood letting, enjoys a kind 
of immunity from all types of skin diseases, sarcomata, 
aneurism, oedema, and diseases brought about by a 
vitiated condition of the blood such as, Ovarian tumour, 
Carbuncle, Erysipelas, etc. 

A plaster composed of Ela, Shitashiva, Kustha, 
Tagara, Patha, Agaradhuma, Bhadradaru, Vidanga, 
Chitraka, Trikatus, Ankura, Haridra, Arka, and Nakta- 
mala, or three, or four, or as many of them as 
are available, pasted together and soaked in mustard oil 
saturated with common salt, should be rubbed over 
the mouth of the incision. By this means the blood will 
fully come out. In a case of excessive flow or hcem- 
orrhage, the mouth of the incision should be gently rubbed 
with a composition consisting of the powders of Lodhra, 



Il6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. Xiv. 

Priyangii, Madhiika, Pattanga, Gairika, Sarjarasa, 
Rasanjana, Shalmali flowers, Shankha, Shukti, Masha, 
Yava and Godhuma, and firmly pressed with the tips of 
the fingers. As an alternative, the mouth of the incision 
should be gently rubbed with the powdered barks of 
Sdla, Sarja, Arjuna, Arimeda, Mesha-shringi, and 
Dhanvana, or the edges of the wound should be lightly 
dusted with the burnt ashes of a silk cord (a piece of silk 
rolled up in the form of a cord}, and firmly pressed 
with the tips of the fingers ; or the mouth of the 
wound should be lightly touched with the powders of 
Laksha and Samudra-phena, and its edges should be 
similarly pressed together as above. Then the wound 
should be firmly tied up (with a piece of silk or 
linen; plastered over with a paste of the substances 
mentioned in connection with the bandaging of ulcers 
(Vrana). The patient should be kept in a cool 
room, covered over with a wet sheet and constantly 
soothed with sprays of cold water. A medicinal plaster 
of a cooling virtue and a course of cooling diet should be 
prescribed for him. The wound should be cauterised 
with fire or an alkali, or the vein should be again 
opened at a point a little below the seat of the 
first incision in case where the abovesaid measures 
should have failed to check the flow of blood. The 
-patient should be made to drink a decoction compound of 
drugs of the Kakolyadi group, sweetened with sugar or 
honey ; and his ordinary' drink should consist of the 



[Chap. XIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. II7 

blood of the Ena or common deer, or of a sheep, hare, 
or buffalo. A diet composed of boiled rice, soaked 
in or saturated with clarified butter, should be pres- 
cribed, and the complications should be subdued 
according to the nature of the deranged bodily 
humours respectively involved therein. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject: — Excessive blood-letting is followed b}' im^paired 
appetite and an agitated condition of the vital Vayu 
owing to the loss of the fundamental principles of the 
body, and, accordingly, to recoup the health of the 
the patient a course of diet should be prescribed 
which is light and not excessively heat-making, and 
which contains a fair amount of emollient and blood- 
making matter, and is marked by Kttle or no acid taste. 

The four measures indicated for the stoppage of 
bleeding are known ; as the Sandhanam (process 
by contracting the affected part), the Skandanam 
(thickening or congealing the local blood), the 
Pachanam (process of setting up suppuration in the 
wound) and the Dahanam (process of cauterisation). 

Drugs of astringent tastes are possessed of the 
property of bringing about an adhesion (contraction) of 
the wound. Cooling measures such as, applications of 
ice etc, tend to thicken the local blood ; alkalis and 
alkaline preparations produce suppuration in such a 



Il8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XIV. 

woimci or ulcer, whereas cauterisation has the property 
of .contracting a vein. 

Remedies and appHances possessed of the virtue of 
bringing about an adhesion of such a wound should be 
used where applications for thickening or congealing 
the local blood would fail ; whereas the suppurating 
measures should be adopted in the event of the 
former (Sandhanam) proving ineffectual. With any of the 
three of these preceding measures a physician should try 
to check the outflow of blood incidental to an operation 
of bleeding, and lastly the process of cauterisation 
should be resorted to in the event of the preceding 
ones having pro^-ed unavailing, as it is pre-eminently 
the best means of checking the bleeding. 

The least residue of the vitiated blood continuing 
in the affected part may not aggi-avate the disease 
but prevent its perfect healing. In such a case bleed- 
ing should not be again resorted to, but the derang- 
ed residue should be subdued by means of pacifying or 
absorbing remedies. 

Blood is the origin of the body. It is blood that 
maintains vitality. Blood is life. Hence it should be 
preserved with the greatest care. 

The Vayu of a person who has been bled, and 
which has been aggravated by constant cold applications 



Chap. XIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 119 

may give rise to a swelling of the incised* part 
characterised by a piercing pain, which should be 
treated with an unguent of tepid clarified butter. 



Thus ends the fourteenlh Chapter of the Sutrasthan^m in the Sushrula 
Samhit^ which treats of Blood. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Now we shall describe the Chapter which 
treats of development and non-deA'elopment of the 
humoral constituents . of the body and excrements 
(Dosha- Dhai:u-IVIaIa- Kshaya-Vriddhi - 
Vijnaniya-madhya^am). 

Since the human body is constituted of humours, 
(Doshas), excretions (Mala\ and the fimdamental princi- 
ples (Dhatus. of blood, marrow, etc., hear me discourse 
on the features which are peculiar to each of them. 

The Vayu. — The imparting of motion to the 
body : Praspandanam;, the carrsing of the sensations of 
the respective sense organs (Udvahanam', the passing 
down of food to its proper receptacles (Puranam), the 
separation of excretions from the assimilated food matter 
(,Viveka , and the retention and evacuation of urine and 
semen, etc. (Dharanam' should be ascribed to the 
fimctions of the five kinds* of Vayu inerve forcei 
which support the body. 

The Pittam. — Pigmentations or coloiu-ing 
(Ragakrit), the digestion of food and metabolism of 
tissues (Paktikrit), the vitalisation and nutrition of the 
protaplasmic cells (Ojakrit), the origination and preser- 

* They are called Pr^na, Ud<ina, Samdna, \'y^na and Apina. 



Chap. XV. ] SUTR ASTHANAM . 1 2 i 

vation of eye-sight (Teja-Krit), the germination df heat 
and maintenance of the temperature of the body (Ushma- 
Krit), and the origination of the faculty of intellection 
(Medha-Krit) should be regarded as the functions of 
the five kinds* of Pittam, which contribute to the 
preservation of the body through its thermogenetic 
potency (Agni-Karma). 

The Shieshma'.— The function of the five 
kindsf of Shieshma is to lubricate the interior of the 
joints (Sandhi-Samshleshanam), to contribute to the 
gloss of the body (Snehanam), to aid in the formation 
of healthy granules in sores (Ropanam), to add to the 
size of the body (Puranam', to build fresh tissues 
(Vrimhanam), to impart a pleasant or soothing sensation 
to the body (Tarpanam), to increase its strength 
' Valakrit , and to give firmness to the limbs 'Sthairya- 
krit), thereby contributing to the welfare of the body 
by supplying it with its watery element. 

The Rasa or the lymph chyle exercises a 
soothing effect upon the entire organism and tends 

* They are named as Ranjaka. P^chaka, SSdhaka (Medh^krit and 
Ojakrit), Alochaka and BhrSjaka. 

t They are known as Shleshmaka, Kledaka, Vodhaka, Tarpaka, 
Avalamvaka. 

A^. B, — The V^yu, Pittam, andShleshmS, (Kaphham), though ordinarily 
translated as wind, bile and phlegm, differ in their meaning from their 
usual English synonyms. We reserve the treatment of these subjects for 
a separate place in another part of the book when we shall have 
occasion to deal with the essentials of Ayurvedic Physiology — Tr. 
i6 



122 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XV. 

to contribute to the increased formation of blood. 
The blood, in its turn, increases the healthful glow 
of the complexion, leads to the increased formation of 
flesh and muscles and maintains vitalit}- in the organism. 
The flesh contributes towards the stoutness or rotundity 
of the limbs and occasions the formation of fatty 
matter in the system. The fat gives rise to the 
glossiness (formation of oily or albuminous matter) of 
the body and primarily contributes towards the firm- 
ness and growth of the bones. The bones, in their 
turn, support the body, and contribute to the formation 
of marrow. The marrow contributes towards the for- 
mation and increase of semen, and fills in the internal 
canities of the bones, and fomis the chief soiu"ce of 
strength, amorous feelings and hilarity. The semen gives 
rise to valour and courageousness, makes a man amor- 
ously disposed towards the female sex, increases his 
strength and amativeness, is the sole impregnating 
principle in the male organism, and is possessed of the 
virtue of being quickly emitted. 

The excreta or the fecal matters of a man are in- 
dispensably necessary for the preser\^ation of the body. 
They contain the wind and digestion .being primarily 
connected with the movements of the bodily Vayu and 
the feeling of hunger). The urine fills the receptacle of 
the bladder, and is possessed of the property of washing 
or draining off the waste or refuse matter of the organism ; 
whereas perspiration tends to moisten the skin. 



Chap. XV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



123 



The Artavam (menstrual blood) is endued with the 
same properties as its arterial namesake, and is one of the 
essential factors in a woman which makes impregnation 
possible. The foetus or impregnated matter (Garbha) 
serves to make patent the features characteristic of 
pregnancy. The breast-milk in its turn tends to 
bring about an expansion of the mammae lof a 
woman , and maintains the life of her child (by 
suppl}'ing it with the necessary and nutritive element 
of food). These Vayu, etc. should be duly preserved 
in their normal condition. 

Now we shall describe the symptoms which 
attend the loss or waste of any of the foregoing 
principles of the body.* 

The loss of the bodily Vayu f nerve-force) is followed 
bv a state of languor, shortness of speech, uneasiness 
or absence of hilarity, and loss of consciousness. The 
loss of fPittam) is marked b}' a dulness of complexion, 
diminution of the bodily heat and an impaired state 
of internal fire (digestive heat). The loss of phlegm 
(Kapham) is marked by dryness, a sensation of internal 
burning, a feeling of emptiness in the stomach and other 

* Such a loss or perceptible deterioration of any of them should be 
ascribed to the use of exce^^sive cleansing or cathartic (Samshodhanam) and 
pacifying (Samshamanam) measures, or to a repression of the natural 
urgings of the body, or to a course of violent or overfatiguing physical 
exercise, or to amorous excesses, or to the use of unwholesome and 
unsuitable food, or ta grief, etc. 



124 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XV. 

cavities or chambers of the body, looseness of the joints 
(a feeling as if the joints were all broken), thirst, weak- 
ness, and insomnia. In such cases the medical treatment 
should consist of remedial agents which are capable 
of directly contributing to the growth or formation 
of the humour so lost or deteriorated. 

Similarly the loss of lymph chyle is marked by 

pain about the region of the heart, Angina Pectoris, 

with palpitation of the heart, a sensation of 

emptiness or gone-feeling in the viscus, and thirst. 

The loss of blood is attended with such symptoms as 

roughness of the skin, and a craving for acid food 

or drink. The patient longs to be in a cool place 

and asks for cool things, and the veins become loose 

and flabby. The loss of flesh is marked by emaciation 

of the buttocks, cheeks, lips, thighs, breasts, armpits,* 

neck, and the calves of the legs. The arteries seem 

loose and flabby, and the body seems to be dry and 

inert, accompanied by an aching or gnawing pam 

in its members. The loss of fat is followed by such 

symptoms.as the enlargement of the spleen, a sense of 

emptiness in the joints, and a peculiar dryness of the 

skin and a craving for cold and emollient meat. The 

degeneration of the bones is marked by an aching pain 

in the bones and bone-joints, a wasting of teeth and 

ffums, and a general drvness of the body. Similarly, . 

* The armpits look thin, narrow and contracledt 



Chap. XV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 125 

the loss or waste of marrow is characterised by the for- 
mation of a lesser quantity of semen, aching pain in the 
bones and breaking pain in the bone-joints which have 
become marrowless. The loss or waste of semen is mark- 
ed by pain in the penis and the testes, and by incapacity 
for sexual intercourse. In such cases the emission of semen 
but rarely happens, and is then perceptibly deficient in its 
quantity, the emitted matter consisting of a small quantity 
of sehien marked with shreds of blood. The medical treat- 
ment under the preceding circumstances should consist 
of remedies of such medicinal virtues as are found to 
directly and immediately contribute to the formation 
of the bodily principle (thus wasted or lost). 

The loss absence, suppression or scanty forma- 
tion of fecal matter is attended with a sensation 
of pain at the sides and the region of the heart, 
and the upward coursing of (the incarcerated) wind 
or flatus, accompanied with a rumbling sound 
about the region of the liver and the intestines. 
Similarly, the loss, absence or scanty formation) of 
urine is marked by an aching pain in the bladder, causing 
it dribble or to come out in thin and scanty jets. Here, 
as in the foregoing instances, the remedial agents 
should consist of drugs which directly contribute to 
the formation of urine. Similarly the waste, absence or 
scanty formation of perspiration is followed by such 
symptoms as numbness about the pores of the hair, and 



126 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XV. 

dryness of the epidermis (skin\ The sense of touch is 
perceptibly affected, and perspiration is entirely stopped. 
The medical treatment in such a case consists in 
the application of medicated unguents, lubrications, 
diaphoretics, and adoption of measures (that tend to 
produce a copious perspiration\ 

In the case of loss or waste of the catamenial 
flow, the menses do not appear at the appointed 
time or are scant}'. The vagina seems stuffed and 
painful. The medical treatment in such cases consists in 
the adoption of alterative or cleansing measures, and in 
the administration of drugs of a heat-making (Agneya) 
potency or virtue. 

The loss or waste of breast-milk is characterised by 
a shrunken condition of the mammae, and suppression or 
scanty secretion of the fluid. The medical treatment 
in such cases lies in the administration of drugs which 
generate Kapham. 

The atrophy or wasting of the foetus in the womb 
(during the period of gestation) is marked by the 
absence of any movement in the uterus and the non- 
distended condition of the sides or walls of the abdomen. 
The treatment consists in the application of Kshira 
Vastis (enemas of medicated milk into the region of the 
utenis) in the eighth month of gestation, and prescribing 
courses of emollient fare for the patient mother)* 

* Several editions read invigorating diets, egg, etc. 



Chap. XV.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



127 



Now we shall describe the symptoms which mark 
the excess (excessive accumulation in the body > of any 
of the fundamental humours, ]>rinciples and excrements 
of the body. 

The quantities of these humours, principles and 
secretion, are abnormally increased through the use of 
substances that primarily contribute to their formation 
in the organism.* 

An excess of Vayu in the body is marked by such 
symptoms as roughness of the skin, t emaciation of the 
body, darkness of complexion flit : blackness of hue), a 
little tremor or trembling of the limbs, longing for 
heat, or for hot things, insomnia, thickness or increased 
consistency of the fecal matter and decrease of bodily 
strength. (Similarly, an abnormal) increase of Pittam 
is characterised by a sallow complexion or a 
yellowish colour of the skin, a general burning sensation 
in the body as well as insomnia, a craving for cold 
contacts and cooling things, diminution of strength, 
weakness of the sense organs, fits of fainting and 
yellowness of the conjunctivae, stool and urine. 

An excess of Kapham in the body is marked 
by such symptoms, as the whiteness, coldness and 
numbness of the body, heaviness of the limbs, a 

* Several Editions read it as an additional text. 
+ Several Editions read roughness of speech. 



128 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XV. 

sense of drowsiness and languor_, somnolence, and a 
feeling of looseness of the bone-joints. 

Similarl}', an increased germination of lymph chyle 
(Rasa) in the body is manifest by such characteristics 
as, nausea, water-brash, and an increased flow of salivary 
secretion. A plethora of blood in the system gives a 
reddish glow to the complexion and the white of the 
eyes, and imparts fullness to the veins. An increase of 
flesh is marked by the rotundit}" and fullness of the 
buttocks and the lips, as well as of the penis, arms, and 
the thighs, and an increased heaviness of the whole body. 
An excess of fat in the body imparts an oily gloss to the 
skin. The sides of the abdomen are increased in bulk, 
and the body emits a fetid smell, and the person is 
assailed with cough and dyspnoea. An excessive forma- 
tion of bone (abnormal ossification) is attended with such 
symptoms as the cutting of additional teeth and the 
abnormal development of any of the bone-structures. An 
excessive formation of marrow gives rise to a heaviness 
of the eyes and to the members of the body. 

An excess of semen in the body is marked b}' an ex- 
cessive flow of that fluid and gives rise to the fomiation 
of gravels (concretions) in the bladder which are known 
as Shukrashmari. An abnormal increase in the forma- 
tion of fecal matter is attended with distension of the 
abdomen and colic pains in the loins and the intestines. 
An excessive formation of urine is manifest by constant 



Chap. XV. SUTRASTHANAM. 129 

urging for micturition and distension of the bladder, 
attended by a kind of gnawing or aching pain. 

Similarly, an increased secretion of perspiration is 
attended with an itching of the skin which emits a bad 
odour. An excess in the quantity of catamenial blood* 
gives rise to an aching of the limbs and an excessive flow. 
So also an excess in the quantity of the breast-milk is 
attended with frequent secretions of that fluid, and with 
inflaihmation and pain in the mammae. An excessive 
growth of the faetus in the uterus tends to abnomially 
swell .the region of the abdomen, and is accompanied 
by anasarca, or dropsy, of the lower extremities 
(phlegmasia dolens;. 

These abnormal excesses of the aforesaid humours 
and principles, etc. of the body should be checked or 
remedied with corrective (cleansing) or pacifying 
measures as would be indicated by their respective 
natures, so as not to reduce them to a smaller quantity 
than that in which they are found in the normal and 
healthy state of a body. 

IVIetrical text : — An increased quantity of a 
bodily principle gives rise to a similar increase in the 
quantity of one immediately succeeding it in the 
order of enumeration as stated above ; aud hence an 

* An abnormal flow tends to stimulate the voluptuous sensation of a 
woman to a considerable extent, and is followed by a sense of reactionary 
weakness. Il emits a fetid smell and originates ovarian tumours. 

17 



130 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XV. 



increase in any of the fundamental principles of the 
body should be checked and reduced to its normal 
quantity. 

Now we shall describe the characteristic features 
of the strength-giving principles of the body, as well 
as the symptoms that mark their loss or waste. The 
quintessence of all the fundamental principles of 
the body, starting with lymph chyle and ending with 
semen, is called the Ojas, which is identical with what 
is termed "vital power." This view of oneness of 
vitality with protoplasmic albumen has been adopted 
in the present work* 

This Ojas (albumen) or strength-giving principle 
serves to impart a firm integrity to the flesh (and the 
muscles), exercises unbounded control over all acts of 
vitality, improves the voice and complexion, and 
helps both the external (operative") and the internal 
^intellectual) sense organs, in duly performing their 
natural functions. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject: — Ojas (albumen being of a white colour belongs 
to the class of Somatmakam (cooling) substances. 

* The Sanskrit lerm "Ojas"' has a variety of meanings. Primarily 
it means protoplasmic matter as found in cells (Vindus). Secondarily 
it means albumen as we shall describe later on in the chapters on 
etiology and therapeutics of Prameha. Several authorities hold a contrary 
view staling that Ojas (albumen) forms only one of the essentials of 
vitality and that the two are by no means identical. 



Chap. XV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 131 

It is cooling, oleaginous, and firm (Sthira), contributes to 
the formation and growth -of flesh, maintains its integrity 
or holds it firm, and is mobile or capable of moving about 
from one place to another within the organism. * 
It is further soft and shiny, and is possessed of the most 
efficacious virtue and should be regarded as the most 
important element (seat) of vitality. The whole body 
with its limbs and members is permeated with Ojas, 
and a loss or diminution in its natural quantity leads 
to the gradual emaciation (and ultimate dissolution) of 
organism. 

A blow, a persistent wasting disease, anger, grief, 
cares and anxieties, fatigue and hunger, are the causes to 
which should be ascribed the wasting or disappearance 
of this strength-giving principle (albumen) of the body. 
The bodily albumen, through the agency of the above- 
said causes, is wasted through the channels carrying the 
different fundamental principles of the body. Albumen is 
transformed into strength which radiates from the heart. 

A deranged or vitiated albumen (Ojas) is characterised 
firstly by its dislodgment from its proper seat or locality 
(Visransha), secondly, by a change or modification of its 
native virtues in contact with the deranged humours 
or disordered organs (Vyapad) and thiidly, by wasting 
away (Kshaya\ 

* Several editions read Rasam, meaning it to be possessed of a sweet 
taste. 



132 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XV. 

The first of the preceding properties (dislodgment) 
gives rise to such symptoms as looseness of the 
bone-joints, numbness of the hmbs, dislodgment of 
the deranged humours from their respective recep- 
tacles and suppression of the (bodily and intellectual) 
functions. To the second of the foregoing properties, 
(change or modification of its natural virtue through 
contact with the deranged bodily humours etc) should be 
ascribed such symptoms, as numbness and heaviness of 
the limbs, dropsy due to the action of the deranged 
bodily Vayu, discoloured or changed complexion, feeling 
of malaise, drowsiness and somnolence. The third pro- 
perty of the deranged albumen, loss or wasting), brings 
on fits of fainting, loss of flesh, stupor, delirium and 
ultimately death. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject:— A deranged state of albumen is marked 
by the three abovesaid properties of dislodgment 
from its proper seat (Visransha) ; by a change of its 
natural virtues through contamination (Vyapadi and 
by wasting (Kshaya . The first of these properties 
(Visransha) is characterised by looseness of the joints, 
by an inert state of the body, by a sense of fatigue, 
by a dislodgment of the deranged humours from their 
natural seats, and by a suppression of the bodily and 
intellectual functions. Numbness and heaviness of 
the limbs, malaise, a discoloured complexion, drowsiness, 



Chap. XV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 133 

somnolence and dropsical swelling brought about by 
a deranged state ot t\\e bodily Vayu, should be 
considered as natural consequences of the Vyapad 
^change of the natural virtues of albumen through 
contamination). The loss or waste of Ojah (albumen) is 
marked by such symptoms as fits of fainting, 
emaciation of the body, bewilderment and distraction 
of the mind, delirium and loss of consciousness and 
ultim?itely death. 

The medical treatment in cases of dislodgment or 
flowing out external secretion) of albumen from its 
natural seat (Visransha), as well as in the event of it 
becoming contaminated by the vitiated principles of 
the body, should consist in improving its quantity by 
elixirs and remedies possessed of rejuvenating properties, 
tending to increase the quantity of such fluid (albumen 1 
in the body. A patient who has lost all consciousness 
owing to an excessive loss or waste of albumen) 
should be given up by a physician as incurable\ 

The oily or albuminous matter found within 
the components of the other fundamental principles 
(Dhatu) of the body as metabolised by the 
internal heat and regularly metamorphosed into 
the succeeding ones) should be grouped under 
the head of fiery or thermogenetic (Agneya)) 
substances. This fatty matter iVas^'i predominates in 
the female organism and produces its peculiar softness, 



134 ^^^ SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XV. 

beauty and pleasing shape, causes the grovrth of scanty 
but soft hair on its surface. It strengthens the eyesight 
and increases the energy of the body, improves its 
power of digestion and heightens its glow and com- 
plexion. Fat is deranged by such acts as, an abuse of 
astringent, bitter, cold, parchifying or Vistambhi 
(indigestible food which remains stuffed in the 
stomach^ substances, a voluntary repression of the natural 
urging for evacutions of the body, by excessive sexual in- 
dulgence, and fatiguing physical exercise, or by the 
draining action of any particular disease. 

An instance of dislodgment of fat from its proper seat 
or locality is attended by such symptoms as roughness 
of the skin, loss of the natural healthful glow of the body 
and a breaking or an aching pain in the limbs. Anaemia 
or a gradual emaciation of the body, impaired digestive 
function and a slanting or downward course of the 
deranged humours, mark the case where the bodily fat has 
undergone a change in its natural properties through any 
foul contamination. A case of loss or waste of the bodily 
fat is marked by such S5aTiptoms as, impaired digestive 
function, dulness of sight, decay of strength and aggra- 
vation of the bodily Vayu, and always ends in death. 

The medical treatment in the latter case (loss of fat) 
should consist in the administration of oily or emollient 
drinks, use of medicated unguents or lubrications, 
Pradeha (plasters of oleaginous substances) and 



Chap. XV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 13^ 

Parisheka (washes) and a diet comprising light, cooling 
and well-cooked articles of food. 

lYIetrical texts : — A person suffering from 
a wasting of any of the constituent humours or 
fundamental principles or excrements of the body, 
as well as one suffering from loss of Ojah (albumen) 
naturally craves for drink and food that tend to con- 
tribute directly to the formation of the matter (or bodily 
principle) so lost or wasted. Conversely, the particular 
food or drink longed for b}' a person suffering 
from a loss or waste of any of the abovesaid fluids or 
principles, should be looked upon as possessed of 
a curative virtue in that particular case. Such a 
person devoid of consciousness and divested of his 
bodily and intellectual functions through a deranged 
state of the bodih' Vayu ner\-e-force) and extremely 
weak and enfeebled owing to the loss of the vital fluid 
should be regarded as past all cure. 

Etiology of Obesity :— Obesity or loss of 
flesh (Karsha) should be ascribed to changes in the condi- 
tion of the lymph chyle. The lymph chyle derived from 
the assimilated food of a person, who is habituated to a 
course of diet which tends to promote the quantitv of 
the bodily Kapham or is in the habit of pampering his 
belly even when a previous meal has not been thoroughly 
digested, or who is addicted to a habit of sleeping in the 
day, or leading a sedentary life, or is averse to taking 



136 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. t Chap. XV. 

any sort of physical exercise, continues in an immature 
State and is transformed into a serum of sweet taste which 
moves about within the body, engendering the formation 
of fat which produces excessive stoutness. A person 
afflicted with obesity develops such symptoms as short- 
ness of breath, thirst, ravenous appetite, excessive sleepi- 
ness, perspiration, fetid odours in the body, wheezing 
sound in the throat during sleep or sudden suspension of 
breath, inert feeling in the limbs, dulness or heaviness 
of the body, and indistinctness of speech. Owing to 
the softness of fat, a fatty person is unntted for every 
kind of work. Capacity for sexual intercourse is dimi- 
nished (in such a one), owing to the obstruction of the 
passage of semen by phlegm and fatty deposits ; 
and the growth of the rest of the root-principles 
of the body such as, lymph chyle, albumen, semen, 
etc., is considerably arrested owing to the deposit 
of fatty matter within the channels of the internal 
passages of the body, thus seriously affecting his bodily 
strength. An obese or excessively corpulent person is 
likely to be afflicted with any of the following diseases 
such as, urethral discharges, eruptions, boils, carbuncles, 
fever, fistula in ano, or with any of the diseases which 
are caused by a deranged state of the bodily V^3ai ; 
and such attacks are invariably found to terminate 
in death. Any disease in such a person is apt to develop 
into one of a violent and dangerous type owing to the 
obstruction of the internal channels with deposits of fat. 



Chap. XV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



^2^7 



Hence all things or conditions which foster the growth 
of abnormal fat should be carefully avoided. 

Accordingly medicated compositions, consisting of 
such drugs and substances as Shilajatu, Guggulu, 
Go-Mutram, Triphala, Loharaja, Rasanjanam, IMadhu, 
Yava, Mudga, Koradusha, Shyamaka and Uddiilaka 
which are anti-fat in their properties, or of remedial 
agents possessing the efficacy of cleansing the 
internal channels, as well as enematas of liquefacient 
solutions technically known as Lekhana Vastis and 
physical exercise should be prescribed. 

Etiology of Karshyam :— Loss of flesh or 
a gradual emaciation of the body should be ascribed to 
the partaking of food in the composition of which, matter 
which aggravates the bodily Vayu largel)' or excessively 
enters, to over-fatiguing physical exercise, sexual excess- 
es, over study, fright, grief or anxiety, to the keeping 
up of late hours, to unsatisfied hunger, insufficient food, 
and to astringent food which tends to dr}- up the lymph 
chyle. The chyle, thus parched up, moves about in the 
organism, but fails to impart to it the necessary nutritive 
element owing to its being insufficiently charged with it, 
thus causing the body to grow extremely emaciated. 

A patient suffering from extreme emaciation of the 
body fails to bear the inclemencies of weather and the 
variations of terrestrial heat, and becomes apathetic to 
all movements and does but imperfectly perform the 



138 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XV. 

functions of vitality, and is also incapable of enduring 
thirst or hunger. The bodily strength suffers a gradual 
diminution, and diseases, incidental to a deranged state 
of the bodily Vayu, make their appearance, and the 
patient has to meet his doom from any of the following 
diseases as asthma, cough, Shosha (phthisis), enlarged 
spleen or liver, abdominal drops}^, dyspepsia, abdominal 
glands and haemoptysis. Any disease appearing in such 
a patient develops into one of a violent type owing to 
the loss or diminished condition of the bodily strength 
or protoplasm (Prina). 

Contrarily, conditions or factors which produce 
obesity should be avoided. A case of patent obesity 
should be checked with a medicated compound, con- 
sisting of such drugs as, Payasya, Ashvagandha, Vidari, 
Vidarigandha, Shat^vari, Vala, Ativala, Nagavala and such 
other drugs of sweet taste. Diets consisting of thickened 
milk, clarified butter, ciu^d, meat, boiled Shall rice, 
Yasthika, wheat, barley, etc., should be prescribed in the 
case ; and sleep in the day, sexual indulgence, physical 
exercise, etc., should be prohibited. Enematas of nutri- 
tive substances can be likewise given with advantage. 

On the other hand, the lymph chyle of a man, who 
partakes of food belonging to both the abovesaid classes, 
courses through his organism and strengthens the root- 
principles of his body, thus giving a middling or health- 
ful rotundity to his limbs owing to its properties being 



Chap. XV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. j^c^ 

equipoised. A man possessed of such a body is capable 
of all kinds of work and movement. He can fairly stand 
the inclemencies of weather and the keenness of hunger 
and thirst, and will gain in strength and energy. Care 
should be always taken to have such a well equipped 
body of moderate size. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject*: — Excessively corpulent and excessively lean 
persons are alike condemnable. A body which is 
neither too stout nor too lean, but strikes the mean 
as regards plumpness, is the best. A lean frame 
should have the preference to a stout one. The enraged 
or aggravated bodil}- humours dry up the fundamental 
principles of the body, such as the lymph chyle etc., just 
in the same way as a well- kindled fire will evaporate 
the water contained in a basin placed over it. Since 
^the temperament, constitution, size and the fundamental 
principles of) the body vary in different individuals ; 
rand since the body, in its turn, undergoes such 
gradual transformations as infancy, youth and old 
age), and changes its state each moment, it is absolutely 
impossible to lay down the exact quantity of the 
deranged humours, excrements and fundamental 
principles (of lymph chyle, blood, semen, albumen, 
etc.) that may be found in the human organism. 
Hence it is necessary for a physician to ascertain their 
state of equilibrium (their continuance in normal state and 



[_,^0 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. l Chap. XV. 

quantity) at any particular time ; and which should be 
pronounced onl}' in cases where sigiis of perfect health 
would be visible. An experienced physician would 
naturally draw a contrar}- inference from the improper 
functions of the organs in an individual. A person 
with an uniformly healthy digestion, and whose bodily 
humours are in a state of equilibrium, and in whom 
the fundamental vital fluids course in their normal 
state and quantity, accompanied by the normal processes 
of secretion, organic function, and intellection, is said 
to be a healthy person . 

An intelligent physician should preserAC the state 
of health in a healthy individual, wliile he should 
increase or decrease the quantity of the bodily humours, 
vital fluids, or excrements in a sick patient according 
to the exigencies of the case until his health is perfectly 
restored. 

Thus ends ihe fifteenth Chapter of'the Sutrasthanam in the Sushruta 
Samhit^ which treats of the Development and Non-development of the 
humoral constituenls of the bodv. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of the 
piercing and bandaging of the lobules of ears (Kama- 
Vyadha-Vandha-Vidhimadhyaym). 

The lobules of the ears of an infant are usually pierced 
through for protecting it (from the evil influences of 
mali^ant stars and spirits) and for the purposes of 
ornamentation as well. The piercing should be performed 
on a day of bright fortnight marked by the auspicious 
lunar and astral combinations, and in the sixth or the 
seventh month of the year reckoned from its beginning 
(Bhadra). The child should be placed on the lap of its 
nurse, and benedictions should be pronounced over it. 
Then having soothed it and lured it with toys and 
playthings, the physician should draw down with his 
left hand the lobules of its ears with a view to detect, 
with the help of the reflected sun-light, (the closed up) 
apertures that are naturally found to exist in those 
localities. Then he sliould pierce them straight through 
with a needle held in his right hand, or with an awl (Ara), 
or with a thick needle where the appendages would 
be found to be too thick. The lobule of the right ear 
should be first pierced and then the left in the case of a 
male child, while the contrary should be the procedure in 
the case of a female. Plugs of cotton-lint should be then 
inserted into the holes of the pricked ear-lobules, which 



1^2 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XVI. 

should be lubricated or rubbed with any unboiled oil. 
A copious bleeding attended with pain would indicate 
that the needle has passed through a place other than 
the natural (^and closed up) fissure described above ; 
whereas the absence of any serious after-effect would 
give rise to the presumption that the piercing has been 
done through the right spot. Any of the local veins 
incidentally injured by an ignorant, bungling surgeon, 
may be attended with symptoms which will be 
described under the heads of K^lika, Marmarika, and 
Lohitika. 

Karlika' is marked by fever and a burning pain 
in the affected part and swelling. Marmarika gives rise 
to pain and knotty (nodular) formations about the 
affected region, accompanied by (the characteristic 
inflammatory) fever ; while in the last named type 
(Lohitika) symptoms such as, Manya-Stambha (numb- 
ness of the tendons forming the nape of the neck), 
Apatfinak (a type of tetanus), Shirograha (headache) and 
Karna-shula (ear-ache) exhibit themselves, and they 
should be duly treated with medicinal remedies laid 
down under their respective heads. The lint should 
be speedily taken out from a pierced hole which is 
marked by extreme pain and swelling, etc., on account 
of its being made with a blunt, crooked or stunted 
needle, or owing to its being plugged with a deep and 
inordinately large lint, or to its being disturbed by the 
aggravated bodily humours (Doshas), or to its being made 



Chap. XVI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 43 

at a wrong place. An unguent composed of Madhuka, 
Eranda roots, Manjistha, Yava, Tila, honey and clarified 
butter pasted together, should be thickly plastered over 
the affected part until the ulcers are perfectly healed ; 
after which the lobules of the ears should be again 
pierced through according to the directions laid down 
before. 

The lint should be removed, each third da)'-, and a 
thicker one should be inserted in its stead on each 
successive occasion, and the part should be rubbed 
with (unboiled oil) as before. For the expansion of 
the fissures, (sticks of Nimba or Apamarga, or rods of 
lead) should be inserted into them after the subsidence 
of the accompanying symptoms and deranged bodily 
humours t,in the locality). 

lYIetrical Text : — The fissures thus expanded 
may ultimately bifurcate the lobules of the ears owing to 
the effects of the deranged bodily humours (Dosha), or 
of a blow. Now hear me discourse on the mode of 
adhesioning them (with suitable bandages). 

These unions or adhesions admit of being briefly 
divided into fifteen different kinds, viz., the Nemi- 
sandhdnaka, the Utpala-Bhedyaka the Valluraka, the 
Asangima, the Ganda-karna, the Aharyaya, the Nirve- 
dhima, the Vyayojima, the Kapata-sandhika, theArdha- 
kap^ta-sandhika, the Samkshipta, the Hina-karna, the 
Vallikarna, the Yasthi-karna, and the Kakaushthaka. 



144 '^^^ SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XVI. 

Out of these, the process, known as the Nemi- 
sandhanaka, should be used in cases where each of 
the bifurcated lobes of the ears would be found to be 
thick, extended, and equal in size. The process, known 
as the Utpala-Bhedyaka, should be used in cases 
where the severed lobes of the ears would be found to 
be round, extended, and equal in dimensions. The 
process, Valluraka should be resorted to in cases where 
the severed lobes of the ears would be found to be 
short, circular and equal in size. The process, known 
as the Asangima, should be adopted in cases where 
the anterior surface of one of these severed appendages 
would have a more elongated shape than the other. 
The process, known as the Ganda-Karna, consists in 
slicing off a patch of healthy flesh from one of the 
regions of the cheeks and in adhering it to one of the 
severed lobes of the ears which is more elongated on 
its anterior side than the other (Plastic-operations). In 
the case of extremely short lobes, the flesh should be 
cutoff from both the cheeks and adhered to them, the 
process being known as the Aharyaya. The lobes of the 
ears which have been completely severed from their roots 
are called Pithopamas. The process known as the 
Nirvedhima should be resorted to in such cases by 
piercing the two Putrikas (Tragus and Anti-tragus of 
the ears. 

The process known as the Vyayojima should be 
made use of in cases where one of the bifurcated 



1 



Chap. XVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 145 

lobes of the ear should be found to be dissimilar to 
the other as regards its . thickness or thinness. The 
process known as Kapata-Sandhika consists in bring- 
ing about an adhesion, on the posterior side, between 
one of the bifurcated lobes and another, which is 
elongated on the anterior side of the ear. The adhesion 
is so called from the fact of its resembling the closing of 
the two leaves of a door 'Kapatam), The process 
knoWn as the Ardha-Kapata-Sandhika consists in bring- 
ing about an adhesion on the anterior side between 
the shorter one of the two parts of a bifurcated ear- 
lobe with the part, elongated on the posterior side, like 
a half- closed door. 

The ten aforesaid processes of adhesion may be 
successfully brought about and their shapes can be 
easily pictured from the meanings of their respective 
names. 

The remaining five sorts such as the Samkhiptam etc., 
are seldom attended with success and hence are called 
impracticable (Asadhayas'. The process Samkhiptam 
has its scope in the case where the auricle (^Shashkuli) 
has been withered up and one of the bifurcated lobes 
is raised, the other being reduced and shortened. The 
process of Hina-karna should be adopted in cases 
where the supporting rim of the lobe (pinna) has been 
entirely swept away and its exterior sides and the cheeks 
are sunk and devoid of flesh. Similarly the adhesive 

19 



146 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XVI. 

process known as the Vallikarna is indicated in 
cases where the lobes are short, thin and unequal. 
The adhesion known as the Yasthi Kama is indicated 
in cases where the thin and severed ear-lobes are run 
across with veins and made of knotty or nodular flesh. 
The case in which the ear-lobe, being permeated with 
a little quantity of blood, is fleshless and ends 
in a narrow tip or end, furnishes the occasion for 
Kakusthakapaii. 

The five abovesaid adhesions, if followed by swelling, 
inflammation, suppuration and redness of the affected 
part and found to be secreting a sort of slimy pus 
or studded over with pustular eruptions, may be 
apprehended as not to be attended with success. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — The exact middle point of the external ear 
should be pierced (with a knife^ and the severed parts 
should be pulled down and elongated in the case where 
both the parts of a bifurcated ear-lobe would be 
found to have been entirely lost or eaten away. In 
the case where the posterior one of the two bifurcated 
parts would be found to be longer or more elongated, the 
adhesion should be effected on the anterior side ; whereas 
the contrary should be the case where the anterior 
one would appear to be more elongated. Only the 
remaining one of the two bifurcated parts of an ear-lobe 
would be pierced, cut in two and adhesioned on the top, 



Chap. XVI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 147 

in the case where the other part would be found to 
be gone. A surgeon well-versed in the knowledge of 
surgery ''Sh^stras should slice off a patch of living 
flesh from the cheek of a person devoid of ear-lobes 
in a manner so as to have one of its ends attached 
to its former seat (cheek). Then the part, where 
the artificial ear-lobe is to be made, should be slightly 
scarified (with a knife), and the living flesh, full of 
blood'and sliced off as previously directed, should be 
adhesioned to it (so as to resemble a natural ear-lobe 
in shape). 

A surgeon, wishing to effect any sort of adhesion 
other than those described before, should first collect the 
articles enumerated in the chapter on Preliminary 
Measures to Surgical Operations, together with milk, 
water, Dh^ny^mla (fermented rice boilings), Suramanda 
(transparent surface-part of wine) and powders of 
earthen vessel. Then the hair of the patient, whether 
male or female, should be gathered and tied up in a 
knot, and the patient should be given a light food 
(so as to keep up his strength without hampering 
his digestion) ; after which his friends and relations 
should be asked to hold him firm. Then having ascer- 
tained the particular nature of adhesion to be effected 
in the case, the smgeon should examine the local blood 
by incising, excising, scarifying or puncturing the 
affected lobes as found necessary, and determine 
whether the same is pure or vitiated. Then having 



I_|8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XVI. 

washed the blood with Dhanyamla and tepid water, 
if found vitiated through the action of the deranged 
(V^yu), or with milk and cold water in the event of 
the same being contaminated by the deranged Pittam, 
or with Suramanda and warm water in the case of its 
being vitiated by the action of the disordered 
Kapham, the surgeon shall bring about the ad- 
hesion by again scarifying the affected parts of the 
ear, so as not to leave the adhesioned parts elevated 
(raised), unequal and short. Of course the adhesion 
should be effected with the blood being still left in the 
parts that had been scraped. Then having anointed 
them with honey and clarified butter, they should be 
covered with cotton and linen, and tied with strings 
of thread, neither too loose nor too tight, and dusted 
over with powders of baked clay. Then directions 
should be given as regards the diet and nursing of 
the patient, who may be as well treated with the 
regimen laid down in the chapter on Dvi-vraniyam. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — Tlie patient should be careful not to disturb 
the bandage and avoid physical exercise, over- eating, 
sexual intercourse, exposure to, or basking in, the glare 
of fire, fatiguing talk, and sleep by day. For three 
consecutive days the ulcer should be anointed with 
unboiled oil ; and cotton soaked in the same substance 
should be placed over it, which is to be altered, 
each third day, till healing. 



Chap. XVI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 14^ 

The incidental ulcer should not be tried to be 
healed up as long as the local blood (blood in the 
ulcer) is not fully purified ; or so long as there 
is haemorrhage from the seat of the affection or 
the local blood continues feeble. An ulcer, adhesion- 
ed with the least of the Vayu-vitiated blood 
continuing in its inside, will spontaneously burst or 
break open afresh. It will be again attended with 
pain, -burning, redness and suppuration in the event of 
its being closed with a little quantity of Pitta-deranged 
blood incarcerated in its inside. Adhesioned even with 
a little quantity of Kapha fouled blood in its cavity 
an ulcer is marked by itching and numbness. An ulcer 
adhesioned with the continuance of an active haemor- 
rhage from its inside is marked by a brown or blackish 
yellow swelling. An ulcer, adhesioned at a time when 
the local blood, though otherwise good or pure, has 
been thinned or weakened through excessive bleeding, 
is followed by a corresponding emaciation (thinness) 
of the adhesioned part. The lobule of the ear thus 
adhesioned should be gradually pulled down and 
elongated after the complete healing of the local ulcer 
and the subsidence of its concomitant symptoms, and 
after the cicatrix has assumed the colour of the 
skin of the surrounding part. Otherwise the adhesioned 
part may be characterised by pain, swelling, infla- 
mmation, burning and suppuration, or the adhesion 
may again fall off. An adhesioned ear-lobe, un- 



I50 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XVI. 



accompanied by any of the distressing or unfavourable 
symptoms, should be gradually elongated by rubbing 
it with an unguent composed of the milk, fat, and 
marrow of any such animals and birds as the Godha, the 
Pratudas, the Vishkiras, the Anupas, or the Audakas as 
would be available, and clarified butter and the oil ex- 
pressed out of the seeds of white mustard, boiled with 
the decoction or Kvatha of Arka, Alarka, VaU, 
AtivaU, Anant^, Apamarga, Ashvagandh^, V.idari- 
gandha, Kshira-Shukla, Jalashuka and the drugs form- 
ing the group known as the Madhura, which should 
be previously prepared and carefully stowed in a 
covered receptacle. 

IVIetrical texts :— Then the above medicinal 
unguent should be applied or rubbed over the lobe of 
the affected ear, whereby all the disturbing or unfavour- 
able symptoms would be subsided, thus favouring its 
firm and steady growth. Similarly a plaster composed 
of Yava, Ashvagandh^, Yashtyahva, and Tila, pasted 
together might be rubbed over the affected ear-lobe with 
advantage. Oil prepared and boiled with the essence of 
Shatavari, and Ashvagandh^, or Payasya, Eranda, Jivana 
and milk increases the growth of an ear-lobe. The lobe 
of an ear, which refuses to grow in size in spite of being 
fomented and lubricated as above indicated^ should 
be scarified with slight longitudinal incisions on its 
anterior side (that is on the side nearest to the cheeks) 



Chap. XVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. I^l 

and not on the posterior one, as such a procedure might 
be attended with dreadful results. 

An ear-lobe should not be tried to be elongated just 
after the adhesion of its two severed parts, inasmuch as 
the centre of the adhesion, still being raw, might 
cause them to fall off again. Thus an ear-lobe under 
the circumstance should be gradually elongated, only 
when it would be found to be marked by the growth of 
hair on its surface, and the hole or the perforation has 
assumed a circular look, and the adhesion has become 
firmly effected, well-dried, painless, even and level in its 
entire length. 

The modes of bringing about an adhesion of the 
two severed parts of an e;f\-lobe are innumerable ; and 
a skilled and experienced surgeon should determine 
the shape and nature of each according to the exi- 
gencies of a particular case.* 

* Additional Text :— O Sushrula, again I shall deal with diseases 
which affect the lobule of an ear under the circumstance described above 
The deranged bodily Vdyu, Pittam and Kaphani, either jointly or severally, 
give rise to several types of diseases which affect the lobule of an ear. The 
deranged V^yu produces numbness and an erysipelatous swelling and ul- 
cer about the affected ear-lobe, while an erysipelatous ulcer in the 
locality accompanied by swelling, burning, suppuration, etc., should be 
ascribed to the action of the deranged Pittam. Heaviness, numbness and 
swelling of the ear-lobe accompanied by constant itching in the affected 
locality mark the action of the deranged Kapham. The medical treatment 
in these cases consists in effecting a subsidence of the particular deranged 
humour by means of diaphoresis, lubrication, Parishekas (medicated 
plasters) or blood-letting as the case may be. These measures should be 
moderately applied and a nutritive and invigorating food should be pres- 



1^2 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XVI. 

Rhinoplastic operations : -Now I shall 
deal with the process of affixing an artificial nose. 



cribed for the patient. The physician who is well familiar with the actions 
of the deranged bodily humours as described above, should be looked upon 
as alone entitled to take in hand a case, which falls under the head of one 
of the preceding types. 

Now I shall enumerate the names of the several diseases which affect 
a severed lobe of the ear and describe the sjTnptoms which each of them 
develops in succession. They are known as UtpStaka, Utputuka, Shyava, 
Bhrisam-kanduj^ta, Avamantha, Sakanduka, Akundaka, Granthika, J5m- 
vala, SrAvi and Dihavdna. Now hear me discourse on the nature of 
medicinal treatment to be adopted in each of them. 

Remedies : — A plaster composed of the drugs known as Apam£rga, 
Sarjarasa, Patala bark and Lakucha bark pasted togather, or a medicated 
oil prepared and boiled with the preceding substances should be applied 
in a case of the Utpataka type, wherea' a case of the Utputuka type would 
prove amenable to a medicinal plaster consisting of Shamp&ka, Shigru, 
Putika, the fat and marrow of a GodhS and the milk and bile of a she-deer, 
she-buffalo or sow, pasted togather ; ^r to a medicated unguent com- 
posed of the abovesaid substanees duly Lioiled with oil. Similarly, a medi- 
cinal plaster composed of the drugs known as Gauri, Sugandhd, ShydmS, 
Anantd, Tanduliyakam, or an oil prepared and boiled with the extract of 
the preceding drugs, would prove beneficial in a case of the Shyiva type of 
the desease. In a case of the Vrisham-Sakundakam type, the affected 
part should be rubbed or lubricated with an unguent or medicated oil 
prepared with the boiled extract of PathA, Rasanjanam, Kshoudram, and 
warm Kdnjik5m. or a plaster composed of the same drugs and substances 
should be applied over the diseased locality. 

In a case of ulceration, the ulcerated ear-lobe should be rubbed with the 
oil prepared and boiled with the drugs known as Madhukam and Kshira- 
kSkoli, or with those which form the group known as the Jivakddi-Varga ; 
while in a case where Vringhanam measures are to be adopted, lard pre- 
pared from the fat of a Godhd, boar, or snake might be used with advantage. 
In the Avamanthaka type the diseased ear-lobe should be washed and 
covered with a plaster composed of the drugs known as Prapaundarikam, 
Madhukam, Samanga and Dhavam, or rubbed with oil prepared and 
boiled with the same drugs. Similarly, a case of Kandu-Juta (accompanied 
with itching) would yield to a plaster composed of the drugs known as 
SahadevA, Vishvadevd, and Saindhava salt pasted with goat's milk, or to the 
medicated oil boiled and prepared with the same drugs and substances. 



Chap. XVI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 1;^ 

First the leaf of a creeper, long and broad enough 
to fully cover the whole of the severed or clipped 
off part, should be gathered ; and a patch of li\ing 
flesh, equal in dimension to the preceding leaf, should 
be sliced off ;from down upward) from the region 
of the cheek and, after scarifying it with a knife, 
swiftly adhered to the severed nose. Then the cool- 
headed physician should steadily tie it up with a 
bandage decent to look at and perfectly suited to the 
end for which it has been employed (Sadhu Vandha). 
The physician should make sure that the adhesion of 
the severed parts has been fully effected and then 
insert two small pipes into the nostrils to facilitate 
respiration, and to prevent the adhesioned flesh from 
hanging down. After that, the adhesioned part should 
be dusted with the powders of Pattanga, Yashti- 
madhukam and Rasanjana pulverised together ; and 

In a case of the Granthika type (accompanied by the formation of knotty 
growths in its inside) the knotty growths or glandular formations should 
be first removed, and che affected locality should be bled with a surgical 
instrument and dusted with powdered Saindhava salt. Likewise, in a 
case of J^mvala type, blood-letting should be resorted to by scarifying 
the seat of the disease, which should be then washed with a spray of milk. 
The ulcer =^ ild be healed after the perfect purification of its internal 
morbid c^ Of ts. A case of the Srivi (secreting) type would readily 
vield to a inal plaster composed of the drugs known as Madhuparni, 

snd Mad' ..alil, or of Madhukam pasted with honey, or to the medicinal oil 
Uprepared and boiled with the same drugs and substances. A case of the 
Jahyam^na (burning) tj'pe should be treated with a plaster composed of 
the drugs known as the five Kalkas and Madhukam pasted together and 
nixed with clarified butter, or with a pasted compound of the drugs which 
form the group of the Jivakadi Varga with a quantity of clarified butter 
added to it. 
20 



154 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XVI. 



the nose should be enveloped in Karp^sa cotton and 
several times sprinkled over with the refined oil of pure 
sesamum. Clarified butter should be given to the 
patient for drink, and he should be anointed with oil and 
treated with purgatives after the complete digestion 
of the meals he has taken, as advised (in the books of 
medicine). Adhesion should be deemed complete after 
the incidental ulcer had been perfectly healed up, while 
the nose should be again scarified and bandaged in the 
case of a semi or partial adhesion. The adhesioned 
nose should be tried to be elongated where it would 
fall short of its natural and previous length, or it should 
be surgically restored to its natural size in the case of 
the abnormal growth of its newly formed flesh. The 
mode of bringing about the adhesion of severed lips is 
identical with what has been described in connection 
with a severed nose with the exception of the insertion 
of pipes. The physician, who is well conversant 
with these matters, can be alone entrusted with the 
medical treatment of a King. 

Thus ends the sixteenth chapter of the Sutra-Sthina n in the Sushruta 

SamhitS which treats of the Piercing and Bandaging of t .-lobes. 

Jivaw 



opted, 
i with 



nd 

d 

2d 

as 
the 
:es. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which deals with 
the mode of distinguishing between suppurating and non- 
suppurating swellings. Ama-pakkaishaniya- 
madhyayam. 

Diseases such as, Granthi (Aneurism), Vidradhi, 
(abscess) and Alaji (inflammation of the edge of the 
cornea) etc. are ushered in by a preliminary swelling 
which subsequently develops symptoms peculiar to 
each of them. These diseases differ in their symptoms 
and outward shape. A swelling which may appear at 
any part of the body, and is round, elevated, even, or 
uneven in its (surface) is called a Shotha (swelling). 
It restricts itself to the skin and flesh of its locality 
and is characterised by the several or concerted 
action of the deranged bodily humours. The Shothas 
(swelling) admit of being divided into six different 
types according as they are caused by the action of the 
deranged Vayu, Pittam, Kapham or blood, or are due 
to the concerted action of the three fundamental 
humours of the bod)'', or are of traumatic origin. 

Now we shall describe the symptoms which 

maT'k the respective actions of the humours in a 

welling. A swelling due to the action of the deranged 

iyu a.'tsumes a reddish or blackish hue and is shifting 

1 its ciiif acter. It feels rough and soft to the touch, 




1^6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XVII. 

and is marked by a sort of aching pain (peculiar to the 
deranged Vayu) which vanishes at intervals. 

A swelling, due to the action of the deranged 
Pittam, assumes a yellowish hue. It is soft and 
fluctuates under pressure, and is marl^ed by an accu- 
mulation of blood in its body. It swiftly shifts from 
one part of the body to another, accompanied by a 
burning, sucking pain. A swelling, brought ^bout 
through the deranged condition of the Kapham, assumes 
a grey or whitish colour. The skin becomes glossy and 
cold, and the swelling very slowl)'- changes its original 
site, if it shifts at all, accompanied b}- pain and itching. 
A swelling engendered through the concerted action 
of the three bodily humours successively manifests the 
symptoms and assumes the colours respectively peculiar 
to each of them. The symptoms which mark a swelling 
due to the action of the vitiated blood are identical with 
those which are exhibited in a swelling of the Pittaja 
type with the exception of the blackness of the part 
(and an increase of heat). A swelling due to an 
external blow traumatic) manifests symptoms peculiar 
to'the Pittaja and blood-origined types. 

A swelling, which does not 3'ield to internal and 
external remedies on account of an excessive accumula 
tion of the deranged local humours, or through +' 
insufficient or contrary effects of the remedial ame 
shows sign of suppuration. i can 



/ 
/ 



Chap. XVII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 157 

Now hear me describe the symptoms, which respec- 
tively mark an unsuppurated, suppurating or sup- 
purated swelhng. The un suppurated or immature stage 
continues as long as the skin of the swelling retains 
its natural hue, marked by a little pain and heat in 
its inside, and coldness, hardness and a slight elevation 
of its surface. 

The suppurating stage gives rise to a sensation of 
pricking pain in the affected locality. The swelhng 
seems as if it is being pricked with needles, or bitten 
or wandered over by a host of ants, or cut with a 
knife, or pierced with a spear, or thrashed with a club, 
or pressed with the hand, or scraped round with fingers, 
or burnt with a fire or an alkali. The patient complains 
of a sort of sucking, burning pain in the swelling of 
a fixed or shifting character. The patient, as if stung 
by a scorpion, does not find comfort in any place 
or position. The hue of the local skin is changed 
and the swelling goes on increasing like an inflated 
leather bag ; and fever, thirst, a burning sensation and 
aversion to food etc. gradually supervene. 

The suppurated stage is marked by an amelioration 
of the local pain and a yellowishness of the skin over the 
swelling, which cracks and seems too big, thus giving 
pu§ to folds in the integument. The swelling exhibits 
the uation under pressure and shows perceptible signs 
large cdinution. Moreover, it yields to pressure and 



1^8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XVII, 

reaches its former height when the pressure is removed. 
The pus or the suppurated matter changes its place, or 
shifts from one part of the sweUing to another under 
pressure hke water in a bloated leather bag. The 
distressing symptoms gradually subside ; the patient 
again evinces a desire for food, and feels a constant 
inclination for scratching the affected part which is 
characterised by a sort of aching pain. Sometimes, 
as in cases of traumatic swelling or in those brought 
about by a deranged condition of the Kapham, the 
suppurating process is restricted to the deeper tissues 
of the affected part and hence fail to exhibit its 
characteristic symptoms — a fact which often misleads 
a physician (surgeon) as regards the true state (lit : — 
whether suppurated or not) of the accompan3'ing swell- 
ing. But the knowledge that a process of suppuration, 
occurring in the deeper tissues of an affected part, is 
accompanied by alleviation of the pain and swelling 
which becomes as compact as a stone and cold to the 
touch, and the local skin resuming its natural colour, 
would unquestionably ward off all apprehensions for 
error of judgment. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :— A physician (surgeon) who is fully conversant 
with the symptoms which are respectively exhibited 
by (an inflammatory) swelling in its unsuppurated, supT 
purating and suppurated stages, is alone worthy of the 
epithet ; the rest are but impostors. Since there can 



/ 



Chap. XVil. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 159 

be no pain without the intervention of the deranged 
V^yu ; and no suppuration can set in without the 
action of the deranged Pittam ; nor pus, without the 
action of the deranged Kapham ; it is evident that a 
suppurated swelling is marked b}^ the combined and 
simultaneous action of the three deranged humours of 
the body. 

According to certain authorities, the deranged 
Pittam gets the preponderance over the local Vayu and 
Kapham, and transforms the blood into pus out of its 
own preponderant energy. 

The incision or opening of a swelling in its inflam- 
matory or unsuppurated (lit. immature, unripe) stage 
is attended with the destruction of the local flesh, liga- 
ment, bone, vein, or joint, and is usually followed by 
excessive haemorrhage. The incidental wound becomes 
extremely painful. Many distressing symptoms begin 
to manifest themselves in succession and cavities are 
formed inside the wound which may lapse into a 
case of Kshata-Vidradhi (a type of ulcerated abscess). 

On the other hand, a fully suppurated swelling, left 
unopened for a long time out of fear or ignorance by the 
attending physician, is attended with symptoms which are 
fraught with dreadful consequences. The accumulated 
pus, unable to find an outlet, is infiltrated and attacks 
the deeper tissues of the affected part, and forms 
large cavities or sinuses in their inside, thus converting 



l6o THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XVII. 

the disease into one of a difficult or incurable 
type. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — The physician (surgeon) who opens an unsup- 
purated or unripe swelling out of ignorance, as well as 
the man who neglects a fully suppurated one, should 
be looked upon as the vilest Chandala for his wrong 
or incorrect diagnosis. The patient should be provided 
with a meal before the surgical operation, or strong 
wine should be given him, if he is found to be addicted 
to the habit of taking any. The effect of a good meal 
under the circumstance will be to keep up the strength 
of the patient and to guard against his swooning during 
the operation, while the effect of wine will be to make 
him unconscious of the pain. The rule as regards the 
feeding and anaesthetising (wine giving) of the patient 
should be strictly adhered to, since the internal 
vital principle of a man is invigorated by the strength 
of his body which is the product of lymph-chyle, the 
essence of food, and the quintessence of the five 
material principles. A swelling, no matter whether 
limited or extensive, spontaneously runs on to suppura- 
tion, if not medicinally treated, or left to nature. The 
base of such a swelling goes on extending. It becomes 
unequally suppurated and reaches an unequal elevation, 
thus affecting the deeper tissues of the part and swiftly 
running into one of an incurable type. A swelHng, which 
does not yield to the application of medicated plasters 



Chap. XVII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. l6l 

or to corrective or blood-letting measures, speedily and 
uniformly suppurates, and • is marked by a small and 
restricted base and a circular or conical elevation. As 
a blazing fire fed by gusts of favourable wind soon 
consumes a withered forest, so the incarcerated pus, in 
the absence of any outlet, attacks and eats away the 
healthy flesh, veins and nerves of an organism. 

Surgical acts in connection with an abscess (Shotha) 
may be divided into seven kinds such as i. mutila- 
tion (Vimlapanam) of the swelling by massage, 

2. Avashechanam (bleeding or application of leeches) 

3. Upanaham (poulticing) 4. Patanam (opening or 
incision; 5. Shodhanam (purification of the internal 
morbid matter of an incised boil with corrective 
medicines) 6. Ropanam (healing) and 7. Vaikritdpa- 
ham (restoring of the natural colour of the skin to 
the cicatrix). 



Thus ends the .scvciUecnlh Chaplei of ihc Suiiaslhfinam in ttie 
Siisliiul;! Sanihit^ which lieals ofhuw to (hslinguisli Ijetween suppurating 
and noii-suppurating swelhngs. 



21 



CHAPTER X V 1 1 1 . 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which treats 
of dressings and bandages of ulcers (Vranarlepana- 
Vandha-Vidhi-madhyayam). 

A medicinal plaster should be regarded as the 
general and most important remedy in all cases of 
(inflammatory) swelling. We shall presently discuss 
the nature of plasters to be used in each specific form 
of disease. A bandage plays a more important part (than 
a medicinal plaster) as regards its healing and curative 
efficacy, inasmuch as it materially contributes to the 
purification and healing of an ulcer and keeps the 
joints steady. A medicinal plaster should be applied 
from down upward or in a direction contrary- to 
that of the local hair (Pratiloma). It should never 
be applied (so as to run down with the local hair), 
since a plaster, applied as directed above, would firmly 
stick to the surface of the affected part, and naturally 
percolate through the follicles of the hair and the 
external orifices of the vehicles of perspiration 
(Sudoriferous ducts), thus permeating the organism 
with its own native potency and virtue. 

A medicinal plaster should be removed or replaced 
by a fresh one as soon as it has become dry, 
except in cases where the purpose of its application 



Chap. XVIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. l6^ 

would be found to be the drawing of pus to a definite 
head (Pidayitavya Vrana).' 

A dried medicinal plaster will prove useless or 
abortive, and may act as a caustic or corrosive agent. 
A medicinal plaster admits of being grouped under 
any of the three subheads of Pralepa, Pradeha and 
Alepana (according to its thickness or consistency) etc. 

IVIeciicinal plasters :— A medicinal plaster 
of the Pralepa class is applied thin and cold, and 
is made to be endued with an absorbing (Vishoshi) 
or non-absorbing Avishoshi*) property according to 
the nature of the eftbct desired. 

On the other hand, a medicinal plaster of the 
Pradeha class is applied either thick or thin, warm 
or cold, and acts as a non-absorbent. 

A medicinal plaster of the Alepana class stands 
midway between a Pralepa and a Pradeha. 

Of these, a plaster of the Pralepana class is 
possessed of the efficacy of pacifying or restoring the 
deranged blood and Pittam to their normal condition. 
A plaster of the Pradeha class pacifies the deranged 
Vayu and Kapham and tends to bring about the union, 
purification, and healing (of an ulcer), causing the 

* As in the case of a Pidayitavya ulcer, described before, where the 
withdrawing or gathering of pus to a definite head is desired. 



164 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XVIII. 



subsidence of pain and swelling. Hence it should be 
used in all types of swelling whether ulcerated or 
otherwise. 

A medicinal plaster (Alepanam) applied over an 

ulcer is called by the changed epithet of Kalka or 
f ... 

Niruddha-Alepanam (arrestive or astringent plaster). 

The function of such an Alepanam consists in arresting a 

local haemorrhage, in softening the ulcer, in withdrawing 

sloughing or putrifying flesh from its cavity, in checking 

the formation of pus in its inside, and in correcting 

the morbid matter or deranged humours (that retard 

its union and healing). 

IVIetrical Texts : — A medicinal plaster of the 
Alepanam class would prove beneficial in a sweHing 
marked by the absence of suppuration, inasmuch as it 
subdues the characteristic symptoms of each of the 
deranged bodily humours y/2, the burning sensation 
(peculiar to the deranged Pittam), itching (incidental 
to the deranged state of Kapham) and the aching 
pain (which marks the disorder of the bodily Vayu). 
Its action lies principally in cleansing the skin, the 
flesh and the blood of all morbiferous diatheses, in 
removing the burning sensation, and in alleviating 
the piercing pain and itching. 

A physician (surgeon) should use an Alepana in 
(ulcerous) diseases appearing about the anus, or about 
any other vital part ; Marnias) of the body, with a view 



Chap. XVIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 5^ 

to bring about the purification of the (local deranged 
humours). In diseases caused by a deranged con- 
dition of the Vayu, Pittam or Kapham, medicinal 
plasters should be respectively mixed with a quantity 
of clarified butter, measuring a sixth, quarter, and an 
eighth part of their respective quantities. 

It has been said that the thickness of an Alepa- 
nam "should not be made to exceed that of the 
newly-flayed skin of a buffalo. Under no condition, 
should a medicinal plaster be applied at night, 
inasmuch as such a measure would arrest the escape 
or radiation of heat from the swelling in virtue of 
its own inherent humidity, and thus bring on an 
aggravation. 

Metrical Texts : — In diseases, which are 
amenable to the application of medicinal plasters of 
the Pradeha type, as well as in swellings resulting 
from the vitiated condition of blood and the Pittam, 
or in those which are of extrinsic origin, or are due 
to the effect of a poison or blow, the plaster should 
be applied cold, by day. A plaster should not be 
applied without removing the previous one, nor over 
the one applied on the day before, as this would 
increase the local heat and aggravate the pain and the 
burning sensation on account of its greater or increased 
thickness. A medicinal plaster, previously used, should 
not be moistened and applied again ; it should be held 



l66 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap, xvili. 

as absolutely ineffective owing to its virtue having been 
previously used or soaked in/ 

Articles of bandaging^ :— Now we shall 
enumerate the names of articles which are required 
in bandaging ulcers. They are as follows : — 

Kshauma (cloth woven with the fibres of Atasi 
plant), Avika (blankets made of sheeps' wool), 
Dukulum (loom-silk), Kausheya (silk), the Patroma 
(a kind of cloth made of the fibres of Naga trees, 
which grow in the provinces of Paundra and Magadha), 
the Chinapatta (Chinese cloth), Antarvalkala (the 
inner bark or fibres of a tree), Charma iskin), the 
Alfivu Shakala 'the skin of a gourd), the Lata-Vidala 
(half thrashed Shyama creepers), string or cord, 
the cream of milk, Tula-phalam (cotton seeds) and 
iron. These accessories should be used in considera- 
tion of the exigencies of each case and the time or the 
season of the year in which it occurs.! 

* This portion of the text has been omitted hy Chakrapani in his 
commentary entitled the Bhdnutniifi. 

+ In a swelling or ulcer caused by the deranged \'a\\x and Kapham, 
the bandage should consist of a piece of thick cloth; whereas in summer 
it should consist of thin linen. Similarly, a bandage, tied round anv deep 
or hollow part of the body, should consist of a piece of thick cloth. The 
contrary rule should be observed, when the seat of the bandage would be 
at any flexible part of the body. 

Similarly, in the ca.se of a snake-bite, a ligature .should be- firmly tied 
above the punctured wound with a string or twisted cord of cotton, while 
a fractured bone should be set right by twisting bunches iif half-thrashed 
shydmS creeper (LatAvidala) round the seat of fracture. A local hemorrhage 



Chap. XVIII. ] SUTRASTHAN A M. 1 67 

Bandag'es : — The fourteen different forms of 
bandage are named as the Kosha (a sheath or scabbard), 
the D^ma (a cord or chaplet , the Svastika (cross), the 
Anuvelhta a twist), the Pratoli (a winding street or 
road), the Mandala (ring), the Sthagika (a betel -box), 
the Yamaka (double or twin), the Khatta (a bedstead), 
the China (a streamer), the Vivandha (noose), the 
Vitana (canopy) the Gophana (cow-horn), the Panchangi 
(five limbed). Their shapes can be easil}' inferred from 
the meanings of their names. 

Applications :— Out of these, the Kosha or 
the sheath-shaped bandage should be tied round the 
thumb and the phalanges of the fingers ; the Dama or 
chaplet-shaped bandage, round the narrow or unbent 
parts of the body ; the Svastika or cross shaped, round 
the joints, round the articulations or the Marmas known 
as the Kurchakas (Navicular ligaments) round the 
eye-brows, round the ears and round the region of 
the breast. Similarly, the bandage, known as the Anu- 
vellita, should be used when the seat of the affection 
would be found to be situated at the extremities (hands 
and legs\ A bandage of the Protoli class should be tied 
round the neck or the penis ; the Mandalam 'ring- 



should be arrested by binding the part with milk-cream, while the aflected 
part in a case of Ardita (facial paralysis) as well as a broken tooth should be 
bound with strings of iron, gold or silver. Warts, etc. should be bandaged 
with Ela (cardamom skins), while dried ^ourd-skins should be used in 
bandaging ulcers on the head (scalp). 



1 68 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XVlil. 

shaped), round the circular parts of the body ; the 
Sthagika (betel-box), round the glans-penis and the 
tips of the fingers ; the Yamakam, round the confluent 
or contiguous ulcers ; the Khatta (bedstead-shaped), 
over and around the cheeks, cheek-bones, and the 
parts between the ears and the eye-brows ; the Vitdnam 
over the skull, the Gophana (horn-shaped), round the 
region of the chin ; and the Panchangi, round the part 
lying above the clavicles. 

In short, a bandage of any particular shape should 
be tied round the part of the body to which it would 
be found to be most suited. Now we shall deal with 
the Yantranas (fastenings of bandages) which admit of 
being divided into three different classes according as 
they are fastened above, below, or obliquely round 
an ulcer. 

Kavalika' (Tow) :— Any soft stuffing or tow 
(such as the leaves or the bark of trees of medicinal 
virtues) between the medicine applied over an ulcer 
and the bandaging linen is called the Kavalika (medi- 
cated tow). The tow or the Kavalika should be 
placed thickly (on the seat of affection) ; and then the 
physician (surgeon; having pressed it with his left 
hand should* place a piece of straight, soft, untwisted, 

* Carefully examining whether ihe applied remedy had been unifurmly 
dislributed over the diseased surface and whether tlie contemplated 
pattern of bandage would l)e actually suited to the case. 



Chap. XVIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 1 69 

and unfolded or unshrivelled linen over it, and then 
firmly tie up the bandage in a manner so as not to 
leave any knot over the seat of the ulcer, or to cause 
any discomfort to the patient. 

Introduction of lint :— A Visheshika (lint) 
saturated with hone}', clarified butter, and a medi- 
cinal paste should be inserted into the ulcer. Care 
should be taken not to introduce the lint extremely 
dry, or oily (oversoaked in a lubricating or oily medi- 
cinal preparation), inasmuch as an over-lubricated lint 
would give rise to an excessive formation of slimy 
mucus in the ulcer, whereas, its parched substitute 
would bring about the friction and the consequent 
breaking of the edges of the ulcer, like one mis- 
placed or wrongly inserted. 

A bandage should be tied in any of the three 
ways of Gadha, Sama and Shithila fastenings 
according to the shape and seat of the ulcer.* 
A tight bandage (Gadha- Vandha) should be tied round 
the buttocks, round the sides, round the arm-pits, round 
the inguinal regions, round the breast or round the 
head. A bandage of the Sama pattern should be 
fastened round the ears, round the extremities (hands 

* Additional text : — A bandage, tightly tied round an ulcerated or 
affected part of the body without causing any pain or discomfort to the 
patient, is called a GAdha-Vandha, while the one which is loosely bound is 
called Shithila, the one neither too tight nor too loose being called a Sama- 
V'andha. 
22 



170 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XVIII, 



and legs), round the face, round the throat, round 
the lips, round the penis, round the scrotum, round the 
back, round the belly and the chest. A loose bandaging 
(Shithila-Vandha) should be the rule in the region of 
the eyes and locations of important joints or unions. 

An ulcer, brought about or characterised b)^ the 
symptoms of the deranged Pittam and occurring at a 
place where a tight bandaging is indicated, should be 
fastened with one of the Sama-Vandha class, and with 
a Shithila bandage where one of the Sama type would 
be indicated ; whereas it should not be bandaged at all 
in the event of a loose bandage (Shithila-Vandha) being 
indicated. The same rule should be observed in the 
case of an ulcer caused through a diseased or contami- 
nated state of the blood. Similarl}'', in the case of an ulcer 
produced through a deranged condition of the Kapha m, 
a loose bandaging, otherwise enjoined to be adopted, 
should be substituted for one of the same pattern. 
A tight bandage should give place to a lighter one 
under the same circumstances, and such a procedure 
should be deemed as holding good even in the case 
of an ulcer caused by the action of the deranged 
Vayu. 

In summer and autumn, the bandage of an ulcer, 
due to the vitiated blood or Pittam, should be changed 
twice a day ; while the one tied round an ulcer of the 
deranged Vayu or Kapham, should be changed on each 



Chap. XVIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 171 

third day in spring and Hemanta. Similarly, an ulcer, 
marked by the action of the deranged Vayu, should be 
bandaged twice a day. " Thou shalt exercise thy own 
discretion, and vary or adopt the preceding rules of 
bandaging according to the exigencies of each case." 

A medicated lint fails to have any efficacy but 
rather tends to augment the local pain and swelling 
where a bandage, enjoined to be loosely bound, or bound 
up with moderate and uniform steadiness (Sama-Vandha), 
is replaced by a tight or deep fastened one (Gadha- 
Vandha,. A loose bandage, injudiciously used in a 
case where a tight or a moderately firm bandage 
should have been used, would cause the medicine to 
fall off from the lint and give rise to the consequent 
friction and laceration of the edges of the ulcer. 
Similarly, a moderately firm and steady bandage 
(Sama-Vandha; fastened in a case where a light or loose 
bandage should have been used, would fail to produce 
any effect. A proper bandage would lead to the 
subsidence of pain, and the softening of the edges of 
the ulcer, thus bringing about a purification of the local 
blood. 

Evils of non- bandaging :~An ulcer, 
left uncovered and untied with a suitable bandage, is 
soon assailed by gnats and flies. It is moistened by 
sweat and cold wind, etc. and stands in danger of 
being irritated by deposits of many foreign matters 



172 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XVIII. 

such as> the particles of bone, dust, weeds, etc. 
Moreover, a constant exposure to heat or cold brings on 
varied pains, the ulcer develops into one of a 
malignant type, and the applied medicinal plasters 
are dried, encrusted and speedily fall off. 

IVIetrical Texts :— A smashed, lacerated, frac- 
tured, dislocated, displaced bone, or a vein or a ligament 
similarly jeopardised, may be soon healed or set right 
with the help of a surgical bandage. The patient is 
enabled by such a means to lie down, or stand up or 
move about with ease. And an increased facility of 
rest or movement leads to speedy healing. 

Cases where bandaging is prohibit- 
ed : —Ulcers should not be bandaged at all that are 
due to the deranged condition of blood or Pittam, 
or to the effects of a blow or of any imbibed poison, 
and characterised by a sucking, burning pain, redness, 
or suppuration, as well as those which are incidental 
to burns, or to the applications of actual or potential 
cauteries marked by a sloughing or phagedenic character. 

Metrical Texts :— An ulcer due to a scald in a 
leper or a carbuncle in a diabetic patient (Pidaka) as 
well as a fleshy condylomata due to a bite from a 
venomous rat, or any other poisonous ulcer should not 
be bandaged at all. The same rule should be observed 

* Different reading :— Pricking, burning pain. 



Chap. XVIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 73 

in the case of a dreadful suppuration about the anus, or 
in that of a sloughing ulcej. An intelligent physician, 
familiar with the specific features of ulcers, should 
observe the shape of the one under treatment, and 
prognosticate the result from its seat or locality and 
the nature of the deranged bodily humours involved 
in the case. The season of the year in which an ulcer 
is first seen to appear also determines the nature of 
the pfognosis. 

Bandages may be tied up either from above, below, 
or from the sides of a diseased locality. Now I shall 
fully describe the process of bandaging an ulcer.* First 
the Kavalika or tow should be thickly laid over the 
seat of the ulcer and after that a piece of soft and 
unshrivelled linen should be placed upon it, and the 
bandage should be loosely or tightly tied up according 
to the directions laid down before.* 

The lint and the (inserted) medicine should not be 
over-lubricated and must not be inordinately oily in as- 
much as such a lint or medicine would give rise to the 
formation of excessive and abnormal slimy mucous in 
the ulcer. On the other hand, an extremely dry lint 
would set up friction and laceration of the edges of 
the ulcer, like the one wrongly or improperly inserted 

* Several authorities such as GayadAsa, Brahmadeva, etc. hold this 
portion of the text to be an interpolation. Both Dallana and ChakrapSni 
have included it within their commentaries with nearly the same remark. 



174 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, xviii. 

into its cavity, causing numbness, excessive exudation 
and unevenness of its surface. A lint, properly 
saturated with a medicinal plaster and rightly inserted 
into the cavity of an ulcer, leads to its speedy healing. 
All secreting measures in connection with an ulcer 
should be continued or stopped according to its condi- 
tion, whereby the nature and shape of the bandage 
should be determined as well. An ulcer, due either 
to the deranged condition of blood or the Pittam, 
should be dressed and bandaged once a day which may 
be extended to a number of times in the case of an 
ulcer brought about by the deranged Kapham and Vayu. 
The pus or the local morbid matter should be secreted 
by pressing the base or the bottom of an ulcer and b}- 
gently moving the hand along it in a contrary' direction 
(down, upward ; and all bandages around joints and 
Gudasandhis) should be duly tied up. 

The rules laid down under the head of adhesioning 
the parts of a bifurcated ear-lobe would hold good in a 
case of severed lips as well. The measures amply dis- 
cussed in the present Chapter should be extended by 
means of inference, analogy and judgment to apply 
mutatis mutandis to the bandaging of a fractured or 
dislocated bone. 

An ulcer, properly bandaged, has a greater chance 
of not being affected by lying down, sitting up, or any 
other movement of the patient, nor by the joltings 



Chap. XVIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 1 7^ 

of a conveyance he may ride or be carried in. An 
ulcer affecting a vein or a ligament or the skin (super- 
ficial) or the flesh or the bones cannot be healed 
without bandaging it. An ulcer situated in any of the 
internal chambers (cavities) of the bod}', or occurring 
at any junction of the limbs or organs, etc. or having 
its seat in a bone and whether of a deep, superficial, 
malignant, or corrosive character, cannot be brought to 
a successful termination without the lielp of a bandage. 

Thus ends the eighteenth Chapter of the Sutrasth^nam in the Siishruta 
Samhita which treats of the dressing and bandaging of ulcers. 



CHAPTER XIX. 
Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
the management or nursing of a patient with an ulcer 
etc. (Vranito-pa^saniya-madhyaryam). 

First of all a suitable chamber should be sought and 
selected for a patient, suffering from an ulcer. It should 
be roomy and spacious and situated in a commend- 
able site. 

IVIetrical Text :— Diseases, which are physical, 
mental or traumatic in their origin, can never attack 
a person who dwells in a clean and spacious chamber, 
protected from excessive heat, and strong gusts of wind. 

The bed should be spread clean, ample and 
comfortable, with the head of the beadstead turned 
towards the east, and provided with some kind of a 
weapon. 

rVIetrical Texts :— In a spacious and well- 
spread bed, an ulcer-patient can toss about and move 
his limbs with the greatest comfort. The reason for 
the head being turned towards the east is that the 
patient may easily make obeisance to the (demons 
and) celestial spirits, who inhabit that quarter of the 
sky. Thus the patient shall lie in comfortable posture, 
attended upon by his sweet-talking friends and relations. 



Chap. XIX. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 77 

Metrical Text :— The friends and relations 
of a patient shall alleviate , the pain of his ulcer with 
pleasant and interesting topics, and by solacing him 
with the prospect of a speedy recovery. An ulcer- 
patient should not sleep in the day time, as it 
tends to aggravate the pain, swelling and redness 
of the ulcer, increases its exudations, and gives rise 
to itching and heaviness of the limbs. 

The patient must carefully protect the ulcer when 
moving any of his limbs, such as standing up, or 
sitting down, or turning on his sides, or while moving 
about, or speaking in a loud voice. 

IVIetrical Text : — An ulcer-patient, even if 
he feels himself strong and capable, should avoid 
a standing or sitting posture, as well as locomotion, 
and day-sleep.* These acts done to excess, or a long 
confinement to bed would aggravate the bodily Vayu, 
thus causing pain in the ulcer. 

He should studiously avoid the company and touch 
of, and even conversation with, women with whom he 
can legitimately have intercourse. 

Metrical Text : — The sight of a woman etc 
might lead to the secretion and emission of semen and 

* Different reading : — Ridint; in a carriage or on horseback, and 
garrulousness. 

23 



178 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XIX. 

give rise to all the distressing symptoms, which are 
consequent upon an act of actual coitus under the 
circumstance. 

Prohibited diet :— A diet consisting of 
newly harvested Dhan3''am, Masha pulse, Sesamum_, 
Kalaya, Kulattha, and Nishpaba should be avoided 
by an ulcer-patient. The pot-herbs known as Haritaka- 
shaka, acid, saline or pungent substances, treacle and 
its modifications, cakes, dried meat, dried pot-herbs, 
goat's flesh, mutton, meat of animals which are amphi- 
bious in their habits or which live close to water, lard, 
cold water, Krishara (a composition prepared with 
sesamum, Masha pulse and rice), P^yasa (a sweetened 
preparation of rice, milk and sugar boiled together), 
curd, milk and whey should be regarded as unwholesome. 

iVIctrical Texts :— Vegetables and articles 
which belong to the groups commencing from the 
one technically known as the Nava-Dhanya-Varga, 
and ending with the one known as the Takra-Varga, 
should be understood as possessed of the property of 
' increasing the pus in an ulcer and of aggravating the 
deranged bodily humours. If in the habit of taking 
wine, an ulcer-patient will do well to avoid the use 
of spirituous liquors, such as Mairaya, Arishta, Asava, 
Sidhu, Sura and its varieties.* An ulcer may develop 

* The species of wine which are made of the expressed juice of grapes 
and are antacids in their virtues, as well as those mentioned under the head 
of Haemoptysis, may be given to an ulcer-patient. 



Chap. XIX. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



179 



into one of a malignant type through the use of a 
wine which is acid in its taste, or is sharp, dry and 
heat-making in its potency, or is followed by 
almost instantaneous intoxication. 

An ulcer-patient should avoid all things that retard 
the progress of a rapid cure, such as wind, dust, smoke, 
exposure to heat and cold, over-eating, unpleasant 
sounds and sights, envy, humiliation, fear, anger, grief, 
scheming, keeping of late hours, sitting or lying in an 
uneven posture, fasting, garrulousness, physical exer- 
cise, leaping or a standing posture, locomotion, ex- 
posure to cold winds, ingestion of unwholesome, in- 
compatible or indigestible substances, and flea-bites 
on the affected locality. 

IVIctrical Texts :— The food, partaken of by 
a weakened and emaciated ulcer-patient, is not fully 
digested owing to the above mentioned, and other 
multifarious causes. The undigested food violently 
disturbs and aggravates the bodily humours, which move 
about in the body and give rise to swelling, secretion, 
burning pain and suppuration in the ulcer. 

An ulcer-patient should always be clad in clean 
and white garments, have his hair and nails closely 
clipped and pared off, and live in humble devotion 
to the Br^hmans, to the gods and the preceptors. The 
rites of benediction and divine peace should be done 
unto him. Wherefore ? Because the monsters and 



j8o the SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XIX. 

demons of mighty prowess, who are the attendants 
of the gods Pashupati, Kuvera and Kum^ra, roam 
about in quest of prey, and visit the bedside of an 
ulcer-patient out of their fondness for flesh and blood, 
being attracted thereto by the smell of the secreted and 
morbid matter in the ulcer. These evil spirits come 
to take away the life of a patient in a case which 
is doomed to terminate fatally, while in a successful 
case their advent is due to the desire of extorting sacri- 
ficial oblations from him. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : —These honour-seeking evil spirits should be 
worshipped and propitiated with the whole heart ; 
and offerings of burning incense sticks, edibles and 
sacrifices, etc. should be made to them with the 
greatest humility. 

The evil spirits, worshipped and propitiated as 
above, spare the life of a self-controlled patient ^out 
of compassion '. Hence he shall be kept in a chamber 
furnished with flowers, garlands, weapons, fried paddy, 
and lamps kept continuously burning. His friends and 
relations should regale him with fond and loving 
topics to drive away the feeling of sleepiness with the 
prospect of a speedy cure. 

Metrical Texts :— A patient, constantly 
cheered with the suggested prospects of a speedy 



Chap. XIX.] SUTRASTHANAM. l8l 

recovery, and beguiled with pleasant and congenial 
discourses, soon gets rid of his complaint. 

Morning and evening, the physicians and the Brdh- 
mans should perform the rites of benediction, over him^ 
as laid down in the Rik, Yajuh, Saman and the Atharva 
Vedas. 

IVIetrical Texts : — For ten consecutive days, 
the room of the patient should be diligently fumigated, 
morning and evening, with the fumes of mustard, 
Arishta-leaves, clarified-butter and salt made into a 
kind of incense stick. 

Drugs such as Chhatra, Atichhatra, Languli, Jatil^, 
Bramhacharini, Lakshmi, Guh^^ Atiguha, Shata-viryaya, 
Sahasra-viryaya and white mustard seeds should be 
placed on the head of the patient. 

Metrical Texts :— The patient should be 
fanned with blowing chowries so that the ulcer 
may not be in any way thrashed or lacerated 
during the fanning. The ulcer should not be 
scratched or pressed. The patient should be carefully 
watched, while asleep. Demons, that get abroad in the 
night, fly from the presence of an ulcer-patient pro- 
tected as above, as herds of deer fly from the forest 
where lions are found. • 

Regimen of diet and conduct :— An 

ulcer-patient living on a diet consisting of old and 



igo THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XIX. 

boiled Shall rice, not extremely liquefied, and 
treated with clarified-butter, and taken with the 
cooked meat of animals of the J^ngala species, soon 
gets rid of his disease. A diet consisting of boiled rice, 
the pot-herbs known as the Tanduliyakam, Jivanti, 
Sunishannaka, V^stuka, immatme Mulaka, Vartaku, 
Patola and K^ravella, fried with Saindhava (rock-salt) 
and clarified-butter, and seasoned with the expressed 
Juice of Dhadima and Amalakam, or of Mudga soup 
treated as above, should be prescribed for the patient. 
Barley powder, Vilepi, Kulm^sha and boiled water, 
should be likewise given to the patient for food 
and drink. Fatigue or physical exercise causes 
the ulcer to swell, while the keeping of late hours 
increases the local redness. A sleep during the day 
under the circumstance would give rise to pain in the 
affected part, while a coitus may bring on the death 
of the patient. 

An ulcer-patient, not given to sleep in the day, 
and ^ing in a room protected from gusts of wind, 
and strictly following the instructions of his physician, 
(surgeon) is healed in the course of a very short time 
and will enjoy a long life through the observance of 
the abovesaid regimen of diet and conduct. This is the 
dictum of Dhanvantari. 

Thus ends the nineteenth Chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the Sushruta 
SamhitS which treats of the nursing or management of an ulcer-patient. 



CHAPTER XX. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which treats of 
the salutary and non- salutary effects of regimen, etc. 
(H ita'h itiya- madhyayam) . 

According to certain eminent medical authorities, an 
article or a substance which is beneficial in derange- 
ments of the bodily Vayu may prove positively injuri- 
ous in a Pittaja affection ; hence it is impossible 
to name an article or substance which is absolutely 
or universally wholesome (^irrespective of the nature 
and type of a disease, and of the deranged bodily 
humours involved therein}. 

But we cannot subscribe to the foregoing hy- 
pothesis, since by nature or combination, things 
(substances are, or become endued with properties, 
which prove absolutely beneficial or unconditionally 
harmful or exert a mixed virtue (both beneficial and 
injurious) according to the difference in the natu^ and 
type of the disease in which they are employed. Things 
or articles such as, clarified- butter, water, milk and 
boiled-rice, etc. may be denominated as absolutely 
beneficial owing to their congeniality to, or natural 
suitableness to the human organism. 

Similarly, substances such as fire, alkali and poison, 
may be designated as unconditionally harmful in virtue 



184 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XX. 

of their burning, suppurating lit : boiling) and fatal 
effect upon the organic bodies in general. A substance, 
which is innocuous by nature, may prove equally injuri- 
ous as any active poison through an injudicious or 
incompatible combination ; whereas a substance or an 
article, which proves beneficial in a derangement of the 
Vayu, ma}^ prove otherwise in a disorder of the Pittam. 

Articles or substances which may be safel}'- included 
within the food stuffs of all human beings are the mem- 
bers of the group Varga) known as the red Shali, the 
Shastika, the Kanguka, the Mukundaka, the Panduka, 
the Pitaka, the Pramodaka, the Kalaka, the Ashanaka, 
the Pushpaka, the Karddamaka, the Shakunahrita, the 
Sugandhaka, the Kalama, the Nivara, the Kodrava the 
Uddalaka, the Shy^maka, the Godhuma and the Venn, 
etc., as well as the flesh of the Ena, the Harina (copper 
coloured deer), the Kuranga, the Mriga, the Mriga- 
matrika, the Shvadanstra, the Karala, the Krakara, 
the Kapota (pigeon), the Lava, the Tittiri, the 
Kapinjala, the Varttira, and the Varttika, and such like 
beasts and birds. The varieties of pulse which form 
the articles of human food are known as the Mudga, 
the Vana-Mudga, the Makushtha, the Kalaya, the 
Masura, the Mangalya, the Chanaka, the Harenu, the 
the Adhaki and the Satina. Similarly, the different 
species of pot-herbs, which may be safely used by a man 
to give a greater relish to his food, are named as the 



Chap. XX.] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 85 

Chilli, the V^stuka, the Sunishannaka the Jivanti, the 
Tanduliyaka, and the Mandukaparni, etc. Clarified- 
butter, the salt known as the Saindhava, and the 
luscious juice of the pomegranate and the Amalakam, 
should be generally deemed the most wholesome articles 
of food. 

Similarly, the practise of self-control, residence in a 
room protected from the strong gusts of wind, sleeping 
only at night, tepid water, and moderate physical exercise 
should be regarded as absolutely conducive to a better 
preservation of health. 

We have already enumerated the names of sub- 
stances which are absolutely beneficial or uncondi- 
tionally injurious to human health. Things which are 
both wholesome and injurious are those, which, for 
example, may prove beneficial in a distemper of 
the bodily. Vayu though otherwise in a Pittaj a affec- 
tion. The Valli fruit, the Karaka, the Karira, the 
Amla-phala, the salt, the Kulattha, the Pinyaka, curd, 
oil, Virohi, cakes, the dried pot-herbs, goat's flesh, mutton, 
wine, the Jamboline fruit, the Chilichima fish, the flesh 
of the Godha, and the Varaha (wild boar) being eaten 
simultaneousl)^ with milk, furnish an example of articles 
which may act as deadly poisons through incompatible 
combinations. 

Metrical Texts:— An intelligent physician, 
considering the nature of the disease, the strength and 
24 



1 86 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XX. 

temperament of the patient, and the state of his diges- 
tion as well as the seat of the affection, the physical 
features of the country and the then prevailing season 
of the year, should prescribe a diet which he thinks 
the most proper and suitable to the requirements of 
the case. Since the conditions infinitely vary in the 
different types of diseases and even the same conditions 
do not obtain in one and the same type,* physicians 
generally prescribe a diet of their own selection, one 
determined with regard to its general effect on health, in 
preference to one that has been laid down in books 
of medicine. 

If asked to prescribe either milk or poison to a 
healthy person, a physician would naturally prescribe 
the former, and thereby, prove the absolute wholesome- 
ness of milk and unconditional harmfulness of poison. 
Thus is verified, Sushruta, the correctness of the dic- 
tum, that things such as water, etc., are absolutely 
and unconditionally wholesome or otherwise, by virtue 
of their respective natural properties. 

Things which are unwholesome 
through combination : — Now I shall enu- 
merate the names of substances which become positively 
unwholesome through incompatible combinations. The 

* The propriety and improprietyof a particular diet should be deter- 
mined with a full regard to the antecedent and attending circumstances 
of a particular malady. 



Chap. XX. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 1 87 

flesh of any domestic (Gramya) or aquatic (Anupa) 
beast or bird, as well as the flesh of those which live in 
marshy ground (Audaka), should not be eaten with 
boiled rice prepared from paddy which has com- 
menced sprouting, or with lard, honey, milk, treacle 
or Masha-pulse. The pot-herbs,, known as the 
Rohini and the J4tu-shaka, should not be partaken 
of in combination with milk and honey ; nor the 
flesh of a heron, eaten simultaneously with Kulm^sha 
and the spirituous liquor known as V^runi. Maricha 
(black pepper) and Pippalis should not be eaten in 
combination with the pot-herbs known as the Kakam^chi. 
The pot-herbs known as the Nadima and Siddhi should 
not be simultaneously eaten with curd, and the flesh of 
a cock. Honey should not be taken immediately after 
drinking warm water, nor meat and bile should 
be simultaneouly eaten. Sura (wine), Krishara and 
Payasa should not be taken in combination. Similarly, 
Souviraka and sesamum paste, fish and modifications 
of sugarcane juice, treacle and Kdkam^chi, honey 
and Mulakam, treacle and the flesh of a wild boar, 
or honey and boar's flesh should not be taken in 
combination. 

Similarly, milk and Mulakam, mango fruit and 
Jamboline fruit and the flesh of Godh^, Porcupine and 
hog should not be eaten together. All fish, specially 
those of the Chilichimi species, should not be taken with 



1 88 I'HE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XX. 

milk, nor the fruit of a plantain tree should be simulta- 
neously eaten with Tila fruit, milk or whey. The fruit 
known as Lakucha should not be taken with milk, curd 
or meat soup, nor with honey and clarified-butter, nor 
immediately before or after the drinking of milk. 

I ncompatible preparations of food:— 

Now we shall enumerate the names of sub- 
stances, which become unwholesome through incom- 
patible preparations. Flesh of pigeon fried with mustard 
oil should not be eaten. The flesh of a Kapinjala, 
Myura (peacock, L^va, Tittira, and Godha, boiled 
with castor oil and on a fire of the twigs of castor 
plants, should not be eaten. Clarified-butter, kept 
in a vessel of Indian bell metal for ten consecutive 
days, should be rejected as unwholesome. Honey 
should not be used in combination with an article 
or substance heated by fire, nor in the seasons of 
spring and autumn. The pot-herbs known as the 
Kakam^chi, boiled in a bowl in which fish or ginger 
had been previously boiled or prepared, should be 
rejected as positively injurious. 

Similarly, the pot-herbs known as the Upodika 
should not be eaten by boiling them with the levigated 
paste of sesamum. The flesh of a heron prepared 
with hog's lard should not be taken with the pulp 
of the cocoanut fruit. The flesh of a Bhasa bird, roasted 
on a spit over a charcoal fire, should not be eaten. 



Chap. XX. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



189 



Objectionable proportions :— Now we 

shall enumerate the names of substances which become 
unwholesome by being mixed in objectionable pro- 
portions. Two oily substances (such as oil and 
clarified butter) or honey and any of the oily 
substances, mixed in equal proportions, should not be 
taken ; nor should rain water be drunk immediately 
after having taken honey and clarified-butter. 

Incompatible tastes, potencies and 
chemical actions :— Now we shall describe 
the substances enumerated in couples, and possessed of 
different tastes, which prove incompatible to each 
other through their respective tastes, potencies and 
chemical actions Vipaka). Sweet and acid tastes, 
or sweet and saline tastes should be deemed incom- 
patible to each other in respect of their potencies and 
inherent properties. Sweet and acrid tastes are incom- 
patible to each other in all the above three respects. 

Similarly, sweet and bitter, or sweet and astringent 
things should be deemed incompatible to each other in 
respect of their tastes, and chemical action. Acid and 
sahne things are incompatible to each other as regards 
their flavours. Acid and acrid things are incompatible 
as regards flavour and chemical action. Acid and 
bitter, or acid and astringent things, are incompatible 
to each other, both as regards their respective flavours, 
potencies, and digestive or chemical transformations. 



IQO THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XX. 

Saline and pungent things are incompatible to each 
other as regards their respective flavour (Rasa) and 
digestive (chemical) transformation. 

Similarly, saline and bitter things or saline and 
astringent things are incompatible to each other 
in respect of all the three abovesaid relations and cate- 
gories. Pungent and bitter tastes are incompatible 
to each other in respect of flavour and digestive 
transformation, whereas substances of pungent and 
astringent or bitter and astringent tastes are in- 
compatible to one another as regards their re- 
spective potencies, flavours and digestive chemical) 
action or transformation. 

Degrees of incompatibility : -Sub- 
stances that are incompatible with, or antagonistic to, the 
system through a difference of degree or intensity, as 
well as things which bring about an extreme dryness 
of the organism, or those which are extremely oily in 
their composition or are characterised by extreme 
cold or warmth, should be categorically rejected. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :— Things or substances which are incompatible 
to one another in their respective tastes, potencies and 
reactionary transformation should be denied as abso- 
lutely unwholesome, while the rest should be consi- 
dered as possessed of mixed virtues ^wholesome or 



1 



Chap. XX. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 191 

injurious under certain circumstances' as described 
before. 

By taking substances which are incompatible to one 
another as regards their tastes, potencies and digestive 
transformation, a greed}^ and intemperate person 
becomes afflicted with disease and weakness of the 
sense-organs, and ultimately meets with his doom. 

Anything, which being taken enrages or agitates the 
bodily humours without causing the assimilated food 
( effete matter) to be evacuated out of the bowels, or is 
possessed of a taste contrary to, or other than what is 
necessary for the purposes of vitalization, should be 
looked upon as the primary source of all bodily dis- 
tempers. 

Diseases, brought about by a food or drink composed 
of incompatible substances, are amenable to the use of 
purgatives, emetics, or pacifying (corrective of the 
deranged humours) medicines ; and such a diet, even 
when found unavoidable, should be preceded by the use 
of drugs or substances potent enough to neutralise its 
baneful effect.* 

A meat, in the composition of which substances of 
incompatible virtues and potencies largely enter, fails to 
develop any distressing or harmful symptoms in subjects 
who are habitually addicted to it, or who takes it in 

* This couplet occurs also in the Charaka Samhita. 



192 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. xx. 

small quantities, as well as in persons of youthful vigor 
and strong iappetite, or in those who have become 
invigorated by the use of oily and albuminous food and 
healthful physical exercise.* 

The effects of the winds :— Now we shall 
describe the effects of the winds on the body, (as they 
blow from the dfferent quarters of the heaven) . 

The East wind :— The East wind, which is cool 
and sweet in its potency, is heavy and charged with salt; 
it aggravates blood and Pittam and gives rise to an acid 
digestive reaction. It specially aggravates the disease 
in a patient suffering from a wound or an ulcer, or from 
the effect of any poison, and affects persons of Shleshmdla 
temperament. It is highly efficacious to fatigued 
persons, as well as to those of a Vatala (nervous) tem- 
perament, or who are afflicted with any sort of Kaphaja 
disease ; though it increases the slimy secretion in their 
ulcers if there be any. 

The South wind : — The South wind is light, 
sweet ('produces the same soothing effect on the 
organism like a thing of sweet taste) and is followed by 
an astringent after-taste (Anurasa) being antacid in its 
reaction. It is the best of winds, gives vigour to the 
eyes, increases the strength, and soothes the blood and 
the Pittam without aggravating the bodily Vayu. 

' Different Reading—In a child or in a man of voracious appelitc. 



Chap. XX. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



193 



The West wind :— The West wind is pure, 
non- slimy, dry, rough to the perception, and keen. It 
absorbs the albumen or oily principle of the body. It 
absorbs or dries up fat and Kapham, produces a 
parched condition in the body when exposed to it, 
and speedily diminishes the strength of a person. 

The North wind :— The North wind is cold, 
crisp, mild, of a sweet taste terminating in an astringent 
one. It does not in any way enrage or agitate the 
deranged bodily humours. In healthy subjects it 
increases the strength and the running secretions from 
the different orfices of the body (such as the nostrils 
etc.). It proves extremely salutary to patients suffering 
from consumption, cachexia and the effects of poison. 



Tims ends the twentieth Ch.ipter of (he .Siitiasthanrtiii in the.Sushiuia 
sanihila wliich iieals (if snlutarx' and nonsnlutai^- efiVrts of the reginien. 



25 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Now we shall discuss the Chapter which investigates 
the nature of bodily humours, as exciting causes of 
ulcers (Vrana-prashna-madhyayam). 

The Vayu, Pittam and Shleshma should be considered 
as the primary and the most essential factors in the con- 
stitution of human organism. These fundamental and 
vital humours, occupying respectively the lower, middle, 
and upper parts of the body, maintain its integrity. The 
human body is supported by the three fundamental 
humours in the same way as a dwelling house is 
propped up by three supporting poles or stays ; from 
which fact, the body is called the three-supported one 
(Tristhunam) by certain authorities. A deranged con- 
dition of these three fundamental humours may bring 
about its dissolution or death, while on their con- 
tinuance in a normal state depends the vitality of the 
organism. These three humours, in combination with a 
fourth, the principle of blood, determine the origin, 
preservation, and dissolution of animated organism and 
permeate it with their respective properties till the 
moment of death. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — There can be no organism without Vdyu, 
Pittam, Kapham and blood, which are necessary to 



Chap. XXI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 195 

constantly maintain its integrity. The terms Vata 
(Vayu), Pittam and Shleshma (Kaphami are respec- 
tively derived from the roots 'Va', to move or smell, 
' Tapa,' to burn or to heat, and " Shlisha," to embrace, 
with the suffix 'Ta' thereto added.* 

Seats of the bodily humours :— Now 

we shall describe the locations of the foregoing vital hu- 
mours. The Vaj'^u may be briefly described as located 
in the regions of the pelvis (Shroni), and the rectum 
(Guda . The Pittam has its seat in the region between 
the stomach 1 Amashaya) and the intestines (Pakvashaya) 
which is above the pelvis and the rectum and below 
the umbilicus, while the Kapham is ensconced within 
the cavity of the stomach (Amashaya. j 

Xow we shall divide the locations of each of the 
vital humours into five parts : — The five localities of 
the Vayu will be described under the head of Vata- 
Vyadhis (nervous diseases), while those of Pittam are the 
liver and the spleen, the heart, the pupils of the eyes, 
the skin and the intestines (Pakvashaya\ The Kapham 
is located in the region of the breast, the throat, the 
head, the joints and the stomach (Amashaya). The fore- 
going regions are the seats of the vital humours in their 
normal state. 



* From this shiiuld he infenetl that niotion and sim-ll arc ilic nalural 
allriljutes of ihe viud \^yu, heal and ImininL; arc lliosc uf I'iUam, and 
union and inlegraliun arc iho.sc of Kapham. 



196 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. xxi. 

IVIetrical Texts :— The vital humours ^Vayu, 
Pittam and Kapham maintain the integrity of the 
animated organism by creating, assimilating and 
diffusing strength in the same way as the moon, the sun, 
and the winds maintain the integrity of the terrestrial 
globe.* 

The Pittam :— Now it may be asked whether 
the Pittam is identical with the elemental fire, or is it 
something other than that ? The question may be 
answered by stating that the Pittam is the same as 
fire. Since such symptoms, as a burning sensation, 
digestion (boiling , and all other characteristics of fire 
can never exhibit themselves in the human body with- 
out the intervention of Pittam. Pittam therefore is called 
internal fire.t 

Consequently, an enfeebled action of Pittam is re- 
medied by the administration of drugs and substances 
which are akin to the elemental fire in their attributes, 
while an abnormal or excessive action (secretion) of 
Pittam is subdued by cooling measures as an over- 
kindled fire is subdued by moisture. There is no other 
fire (heat making factor) in the organism than Pittam. 

* The moon laves the ea.rlh and imparls lo it the vitaHsing principle 
with her own ambrosial lii^ht. The sun draws off the moisture in virtue 
of his own attractive force, and the Vdyu distributes the heal and moisture 
over its surface. 

t The analogy is based on the healing (and metabolic) actions of 
Pittam, and does not extend to its liquid secreli<jn ,'bile). Bui since the 
former attributes permeate in its entirety, it is designated the Inlernal fire- 



Chap. XXI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 1^7 

The Pd'Chakygni :— By the ordination of fate 
or necessity (unfathomable natural cause \ the Pittam, 
located in the region between the stomach (Am^shaya < 
and the intestines (Pakvashaya), helps the digestion 
of the four kinds of food such as drink and edibles 
etc. 1 partaken of by a living subject, and purges off the 
residue or impure morbiferous matter in the shape of 
urine and excreta after the completion of the process. 
Even thus located, it keeps up the temperature in 
its other distant locations (skin, etc.) in virtue of its 
native heat-giving attribute. Hence this Pittam is 
called the Pachakagni (digestive fire or heat) in an 
animated organism. 

The Ranjaka'gni :— The function of the 
Pittam, which has its seats in the liver and the spleen, 
consists in imparting its characteristic pigment ( Ragakrit i 
to the lymph-chyle and is hence known as Ranjakagni 
(lit : — dyeing fire or pigment bile.) 

The Sa'dhaka'gni :— The Pittam seated in the 
heart is denominated as the Sadhakagni (performing 
or operating heat or fire; inasmuch as its action 
is to bring about the fruition or realisation of 
one's desires. 

The Alochaka'gni :— The Pittam, which is 
located in the pupils of the eyes, is called the Alocha- 
kagni (the Pittam or fire of sight) as its office is to 



igS THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXI. 

catch the image of any external object presented to 
the e5'es. 

The Bhrarjaka'gni :-The Pittam, which has 
its seat in the skin, is called the Bhrajakagni (illuminat- 
ing or irradiating heat) inasmuch as it absorbs the 
substances used in the shape of imguents. lubrications, 
etc. and irradiates the glow of one's natural complexion. 

IVIetrical texts :-The Pittam is a keen, sharp 
and warm liquid, of a blue colour (in its normal state), 
or yellowish (in its deranged condition). It emits a 
kind of fleshy smell and is possessed of a pungent taste 
which is transformed into an acid one when deranged or 
vitiated. 

Seats of Shiesh ma' Kapham :— Xow we 
shall describe the locations of Kapham. The stomach 
(Amashaya), which is the seat of Kapham, occupies the 
same position as regards its location to that of Pittam 
as the sun holds in relation to that of the moon. And 
since the stomach (Amashaya; is situated above the 
pancreas (Pittashaya^-, and is endowed with a property 
(cooling) contrary to the primary virtue (heating) of Pit- 
tam, and, since the heat emitted by the receptacle of Pit- 
tam is naturally radiated in an upward direction, the four 
kinds of food, brought in to the stomach (Amashaya), are 
boiled and transformed into a soft placid mass (chyme;, 
like rice boiled in a bowl full of water placed over a 



Chap. XXI. 1 SUTRASTHA'NAM. 1 99 

burning oven. The food, thus brought down into the 
stomach, is easily moistene'd, disintegrated and digested 
by coming into contact with the oily secretions of the 
stomach (Amdshaya). 

IVIetrical Texts :— The Kapham is originated 
through the sweet, slimy, watery, exudating character 
of the food brought into the stomach (Amashaya) ; 
and hence the Kapham becomes endued with similar 
attributes. 

The Kledakam :— The Kapham, even though 
principally located in the stomach, permeates its four 
other distant localities with its peculiar watery or 
humid essence in virtue of its inherent attributes. 

The Avalamvaka :— The Kapham, located in 
the region of the chest, protects the joints of the arms, 
the neck and the sternum, and enables the heart to 
perform its natural functions with the help of the 
lymph-chyle derived from the assimilated food and its 
own intrinsic potency. 

The Vodhakam :— The Kapham, situated in 
the throat and at the root of the palate, lends its aid to 
the perception of tastes by maintaining the moist or 
humid character of the tongue. 

The Tarpakam :— The Kapham, situated in 
the head, cools and bathes the different sense organs 



200 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXi. 

with its own humid essence, in virtue of its natural 
humid attributes. 

The Shimcshakam :— The Kapham, situated 
in the joints, keeps them firmly united, protects 
their articulation and opposes their separation and 
disunion. 

Metrical Texts :— The Kapham is white, 
heavy, oily, slimy and cool. In its normal state, it 
is possessed of a sweet taste, which is followed by 
a saline one in its reactionary transformation (chemical 
reaction when deranged or vitiated. 

Seats of blood :— The seats ot blood are 
in the liver and the spleen, as stated before, whence 
it helps its other receptacles to serve their proper 
functions. 

Metrical Texts :— The blood is red, oily or 
glossy, a little warm, and is possessed of an attribute 
similar to something of a sweet taste. It is heav)', and 
it emits a fleshy smell and resembles the Pittam in its 
reactionary process, or in other words, those factors, 
which derange the Pittam, vitiate the blood as well. 

These are the locations of the deranged humours, 
which are respectively accumulated in them on account 
of the aforesaid causes. The deranged humours exhibit 
such symptoms as, fullness and stuffedness of the abdo- 
men, or of any of the viscera (due to the action of the 



Chap. XXI. ] SUTRA8THANAM. 20I 

deranged Vayu ; yellowness of the affected part (due 
to the action of the deranged Pittam , and diminution 
of the bodily heat, heaviness of the limbs, and a sense 
of languor .^due to the action of the diseased Kapham), 
and a natural repugnance for causes (factors) which 
lead to their respective aggravations or accumulations. 
The medical treatment should be commenced as soon 
as the symptoms, peculiar to their accumulation, would 
become manifest. 

Humours and their aggravations :— 

Xow we shall enumerate the causes which agitate and 
(aggravate) the deranged humours. The bodily Vayu 
is aggravated by such factors (conduct, practices and 
diet, etc.) as, wrestling with a wrestler of superior 
strength, violent gymnastic exercises, sexual excesses, 
excessive study, a headlong plunge into water or a leap 
from an inordinate height, running, a violent pressing 
blow, leaping over a ditch, a bounding gait, swimming, 
keeping of late hours, carrj'ing of heavy loads, excessive 
riding, walking a long distance and the partaking 
of a food into the composition of which pungent, 
astringent, bitter, light or parchifying articles, or sub- 
stances of cool potency, largely enter. Diets consisting 
of dried pot-herbs, Vallura, Varaka, Uddalaka, Kara- 
dusha, Shyamaka, Xiv^ra, Mudga, Masura, Adhaki, 
Harenu, Kalaya, and Nishpava tend to aggravate the 

bodily V^yu. 
26 



202 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XXI. 

Fasting, unequal or irregular meals, over-eating, 
voluntary suppression of urine, semen, and tears, or of 
the mucous secretions from the nose as in a fluent 
coryza, a forced stoppage of defecation, eructation 
or sneezing are the factors, which may be set down 
as the aggravating causes of the bodily Vayu. 

Metrical Text :— The bodily Vayu is naturally 
aggravated in a cold, cloudy or windy day, in winter, 
during the rains, in the morning and evening and 
especially at the close of digestion. 

Symptoms of aggravated Pittam :— 

The Pittam is aggravated by anger, grief, fear, fatigue, 
fasting, acid transformation (reaction) of the assimilated 
food, or deficient gastric digestion, unnatural sexual 
indulgence, partaking of a food consisting of pungent, 
acid or saline, keen, heat making or light substances, as 
well as of those whose digestion is followed by a 
reactionary acidity. It is aggravated by the use of 
sesamum oil, or of sesamum paste. Kulattha, Sarshapa, 
Atashi, the pot-herbs known as Haritaka, fish, the 
flesh of a Godha or a goat or mutton may lead to 
its aggravation, if taken iniudiciously. 

Similarly, the use of curd, whey, Kurchika, (in- 
spissated milk), Sauviraka, different kinds of wine, 
Amla-phala (sour fruits), or Katvara i.curd mixed with 
oil) and excessive exposure to the sun, may be followed 
by the same consequences. 



Chap. XXI. 1 SUTRASTHA'NAM. 203 

Metrical Texts :— In addition to all these, 
the Pittam is spontaneously and abnormally aggravated 
in summer, in autumn, at noon, at mid-night and 
during the process of digestion, as well as by the 
partaking of hot or warm substances. 

Symptoms of the deranged Ka- 
pham : — The deranged Kapham is aggravated by 
sleep in the day time, or b}' the following of lazy or 
sedentary habits. The partaking of food, composed 
of substances which are heav)', slimy, sweet, acid 
or saline in their taste, or of one consisting of substances 
which increase the mucous secretions from the fissures 
of the body^ ma}' be likewise set down as aggra- 
vating factors. The use of food grains, which are 
called the Hayanaka, the Yavaka, the Naishadha, 
the Itcata, the Masha, the Mahamasha, the Godhuma, 
the Tilam, or of rice cakes ma}-- lead to its aggravation. 
Curd, milk, the Krishara, the Payasha (sweetened rice 
porridge^ the various preparations of cane-sugar are 
things which produce the same result. The flesh of 
beasts and birds that are aquatic in their habits or live 
in swampy lands, as well as lard, have the same effect, 
if used as food. The use of bulbs and lotus stems 
or of Kasheruka, Shringataka, Madhura-phala, Valli- 
phala as well as eating before digestion or the par- 
taking of food consisting of both wholesome and un- 
wholesome substances may aggravate this bodily humour. 



204 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXI. 

lYIetrlcal Texts :— The Kapham is naturally 
and spontaneoush' aggravated in the morning and 
evening, in Hemanta, and specially in Spring, and just 
after a meal. Likewise, it is aggravated by the use of 
cold food or drink, etc. 

Symptoms of the aggravated 
blood: — [Owing to a natural similarity between blood 
and the Pittam, and through a natural affinity between 
their attributes], causes, which tend to aggravate the 
deranged Pittam, tend to aggravate or agitate the blood 
as well. Moreover, frequent meals or repeated use of 
food, into the composition of which cool, liquid and 
heavy substances largely enter, are followed by a dis- 
turbed or aggravated condition of the blood. Sleep in 
the day time, anger, exposure to the glare of the sun 
or fire, over- fatiguing labour, an external blow, ingestion 
of indigestible or incompatible substances, and eating 
before the full digestion of a previous meal, may as 
well be set down as causes which tend to aggravate 
blood. 

IVIetrical Texts:— As the bodily humours are 
never aggravated independently of the blood, their 
aggravation goes together with a disturbed or agitated 
condition of the blood. The aggravated condition of the 
humours gives rise to pain and moves the wind A'ayu) 
in the bowels ; it further occasions acid eructations, 
thirst, burning sensations, aversion to food, vomiting 



Chap XXI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



205 



and nausea. Any of these symptoms should be regard- 
ed as the second occasion which calls for medical aid. 

Expansion of the deranged hu- 
mours : — Now we shall describe the expansion 
(Prasaram) of the deranged humours. The deranged 
humours, aggravated b}- the above mentioned causes, 
expand and overflow the limits of their respective 
localities in the same manner as, cakes, soaked in 
any ferment or enzyme and kept standing over 
night, ferment and rise through the acquisition 
of new and unseen attributes. The V^yu, which 
is possessed of locomotion or extreme mobility, should 
be looked upon as the cause of their expansion 
or over-flowing. The Vayu, though an inanimate thing, 
in reality is possessed of the quality of "Rajas" 
(creative or cohesive energ}'), and the qualit}' of the 
Rajas is the only essential or motive principle in the 
universe. 

As a vast and mighty expanse of water, which 
has been divided into two expanses by a dam or 
barrier, will sweep away the latter and unite again 
to form one sheet of water ; so the deranged humours, 
sometimes singly, sometimes in combination with two 
or all of their species, or in unison with blood, expand 
and over-run the organism in all directions. As for 
example, the Vayu, the Pittam, the Kapham and 
the blood are singlv expanded, whereas the bi-hu- 



2o6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. xxi. 

moural expansions involve the simultaneous overflow 
of the two deranged humours, or of any deranged 
humour and blood, as the Vayu and Pittam, Vayu and 
Kapham, Vayu and blood, Pittam and blood, and 
Kapham and blood. The tri-humoural expansions, 
which involve the blood and any two of the deranged 
and enraged humours, may be classified as the expansion, 
of fi) the Vayu, Pittam and blood, {2) the expansion of 
the Vayu, Kapham and blood, (3) the expansion of 
Pittam, Kapham and blood, (4) the expansion of Vayu, 
Pittam and Kapham, (5,1 the expansion of Pittam, 
Kapham and blood, the different types of expansion 
numbering fifteen in all. 

Metrical Texts:— The aggravated, or the 
abnormally irritated deranged humours, whether per- 
meating the whole or half of the system or restricted 
to any particular part or member of the body, give rise 
to disease in the place of their incarceration, like rain 
clouds pouring down in the quarter of the sky where 
they are formed. The deranged humours, not excessively 
slightly; aggravated, lie inoperative coating the internal 
passages (Margas) of the body and thus bring about a 
fresh disease, if subsequent!}' agitated by any disturbing 
causes. 

The deranged and aggravated Vayu, ha\ing moved 
into any specific seat of Pittam, should be medicinally 
treated as a case of Pittaja aggravation. Similarly,- the 



[Chap. XXI. SUTRASTHANAM. 207 

deranged and aggravated Pittam, or Kapham, changing 
their respective places with. each other, should be medi- 
cinally treated as the humour in whose location it is 
lound. The Vayu, thus aggravated and expanded, tends 
to deviate from its right passage and gives rise to a 
swelling or distention of the abdomen, accompanied by 
a rumbling sound in the intestines. The Pittam, under 
the similar condition, gives rise to heat, and a sort of 
sucking, burning pain in the affected part, together with 
a sensation of radiation or evaporation of heat from its 
surface. The Kapham, under the circumstance, would 
usher in a complete aversion to food, inertness of the 
limbs, ^•omiting and impaired digestion. The preceding 
symptoms, caused by the aggravation and expansion 
of the bodily humours, should be the third occasion 
for medical treatment 

Stha'na-Samshrayam :— Now we shall 
enumerate the names of the peculiar diseases, which are 
originated by the deranged and expanded humours, 
incarcerated in the different parts of the body. 
These humours, confined in the abdomen, give rise to 
Gulma abdominal glands) tumours, internal abscesses 
(Vidradhi), abdominal dropsy, impaired digestion 
in the bowels, constipation (Anaha', cholera fVisu- 
chikai and dysentery. 

Lodged in the bladder, these humours usher in 
Prameha (morbid urethral discharges), Ashman (stone in 



2o8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXI. 

the bladder), Mutrakrichchhra (stricture of the urethra) 
and Mutraghata 'retention of urine), and diseases 
affecting the renal secretion, etc. Restricted to the 
penis they tend to bring in syphilis, Xirudha-prakasha 
(phymosis and the local inflammatory diseases 
known as the Shuka-dosha, etc. 

Similarly, lodged in the region of the anus, these 
deranged and expanded humours beget fistula in ano, 
hccmorrhoids and polypus growths about that 
locality. Confined in the region of the scrotum, 
they give rise to hydrocele and other types of scrotal 
tumours, etc. Restricted to the region above the 
clavicles, these humours originate diseases peculiar to 
that locality, while erysipelas, cutaneous affections 
(Kushtha . and other minor diseases supervene, when they 
restrict themselves to the flesh and the skin (lymph- 
chyle) and blood. Affecting only the fat, these 
humours tend to originate Granthi (Aneurism), Apachi 
(scrofula), Arvuda (tumour', Galaganda (goitre) and Alaji 
(inflammation of the eye at the edge of the cornea.* 

Lodged in the lower extremities, they bring on 
elephantisis, Vata-Rakta (a kind of leprosy , Vata- 
Kantaka, etc. Permeating the whole organism, they 
irive rise to such diseases as fever, SarAangaroga, etc. 
which invade the entire system. 

* Additional text:— Reaching down and confined in the bone -systems of 
ihe body, ihey produce Vidradhi (abscesses), Anushayi, cte. 



Chap. XXI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 209 

The aggravated and expanded humours, thus firmly 
ensconced in the different parts of the body, exhibit 
the premonitor}'' symptoms of diseases which will be 
fully dealt with under their respective heads. The 
manifestation of these premonitory symptoms should 
be considered as the fourth occasion for medical 
treatment. 

Disease- Its Development :— Now we 

shall deal with the full development or manifestation 
of a disease. The full manifestation of a disease, such as a 
swelling, tumour, aneurism (Granthi), Vidradhi (abscess) 
and erysipelas (Visarpa) etc., fever or dysentery, signifies 
the complete development of the characteristic symp- 
toms, which should be regarded as the fifth occasion for 
medical treatment. 

The sixth occasion for the calling in of medical aid 
should be considered to have arisen when a swelling 
(abscess, tumour, etc.) would burst and exhibit the charac- 
teristic symptoms of an open ulcer. A persistent 
lingering or continuance of a fever or dysentery, etc., 
should be considered as marking, or forming one of its 
particular stages, and which may run into one of an 
incurable type, if neglected or not sufficiently cared for 
at the outset. 

Authoritative verse on the subject:— 

The physician, who fully knows about the accumula- 



2IO 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXI. 



tion (Sanchaya), disturbance or aggravation rPrakopa}, 
expansion ( Prasaram), and differentiating traits of the 
deranged humours (Bheda), and is well conversant with 
the specific localities in which they are respectively 
confined in the course of their expansion (Sthana- 
samshrayam), and with the symptoms which they respec- 
tively exhibit in connection with the incidental disease 
(Vyakti), is alone worthy of that epithet. 

The deranged humours, checked or subdued in their 
accumulating stage, fail to exhibit any further or subse- 
quent development, but, if left unremedied, they gain 
in strength and intensity in the course of their further 
development. The humours, deranged either singly, or in 
couples, or in a triple combination as regards one or two 
of their virtues, push on, follow and blend with humours 
similarly deranged as regards their qualities and com- 
binative numbers. 

The medical treatment in a case, where two or all 
(three) of the deranged humours are involved, consists 
in conquering the strongest one in the combination, but 
so as not to enrage or aggravate the minor or the weaker 
humours in the group and specially so in a case of 
Sannipata." 



* THl- cuniliinaiinii nfany iwnot ihc IkkIIIv liuiiKiuis wiih the viiiaied 
hlond niav liki'wisf Uc iiiicrpiL-tL-d in signify a SAnnip^tika (tiihuninuial) 
conil.iTiaticin. 



Chap. XXI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 211 

A concourse of deranged humours, affecting and ap- 
pearing in a particular part of the body, is called a boil 
or an ulcer (Vrana) which "is derived from the root 
"Vri" to cover and is so called from the fact of its 
covering a particular part of the body or from its 
leaving a cicatrix which remains the whole life-time 
of the patient. 

Thus ends ihe l\vcnl\-Hisl chapter uf the Sulraslh^nam in the Sushnila 
Samhili which treats of investigation into the nature ol the humours giving 
rise to an ulcer. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Now we shall discuss the chapter, which 
treats of secretions from boils or ulcers of 

different types. (Vranasra'va-Vijna'niaya- 
madhya'yam). 

A boil or an ulcer has its seat generally in one of 
the eight following components or principles of the 
body such as, the bone, the skin, the flesh, the veins, 
the ligaments, the joints, the viscera and the Marmas 
(vital parts of the body). A boil or an ulcer of any 
type may crop up or appear in any one of the above 
mentioned localities. 

A boil or an ulcer, which is confined onl)' to the 
skin, readily yields to medical treatment, while the 
remaining types, as well as those, which spontaneoush' 
suppurate and bursty are hard to cure. A boil or an 
ulcer usually assumes a shape which is either diffused^ 
rectangular, spheroidal or triangular ; while those, 
which are irregular or indefinite in shape, (or have forms 
other than the preceding ones , should be looked upon 
as belonging to types which can be cured only with 
the utmost difficulty. Any Vrana (burst or incised 
abscess) in a patient, who observes a strict regimen, and 
who, from the outset, is placed under the medical treat- 
ment of an experienced physician (surgeon), will be 
speedily healed ; while an ulcer, affecting a person of 



Chap. XXII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 213 

irregular habits and treated by a quack or an ignorant 
physician, will dcNelop into one of a malignant type, 
which can be healed only with the greatest difficulty, 
on account of it becoming aggravated b}' the deranged 
bodily humours involved therein. 

Symptoms of Dushta-Vranas :— Malig- 
nant ulcers (Dushta Vranas) are known by the following 
indications : — They are either too narrow or too wide- 
mouthed. They feel either extremely hard or soft to the 
touch and present either a raised elevated or a de- 
pressed aspect. They are of either a black or red, yellow 
or white colour, and are characterised by extremes 
of temperature. Exhibiting strange and unusual fea- 
tures, they are checkered with networks of veins, 
hgaments, etc., and are filled with putrid and sloughing 
flesh and fetid pus. Indefinite and irregular in shape, 
they are found to exude a sort of dirty, fetid pus, 
which runs into fissures and cavities, following an 
oblique or upward course. They have a cadaverous 
look and smell and are characterised by extreme pain 
and burning sensation, attended with swelling, redness, 
itching and suppuration. Pustules crop up round these 
ulcers, which largely secrete vitiated blood, and linger 
unhealed for an inordinate length of time. 

These ulcers may be divided into six classes [accord- 
ing as, they are severally caused by the deranged 
bodily humours fVayu, Pittam and Kapham), or are 



214 ^^^ SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXli. 

due to their concerted action '^Sannip^ta), or to the 
effects of a blow (traumatic) or to vitiated blood.], 
and should be medically treated according to the nature 
of their respective exciting factors. 

Secretions from ulcers :— Now we shall 
describe the characteristic secretions from all types of 
ulcers. Secretions from a contused or lacerated skin, 
as well as from an ulcer confined only to it), whether 
spontaneously bursting or surgically opened, are thin 
and watery in their consistency. They are character- 
ised by a raw (fleshy) smell and a yellowish colour. 
An ulcer, affecting the flesh, exudes a slimy, thick and 
white secretion like clarified-butter. A copious quantity 
of blood flows out of a vein recently cut, while the 
incidental ulcer, in its suppurating stage, secretes a 
copious secretion, like water flowing out of a hydrant, 
which is moreover detached, thin, pendent (ropy), 
and slimy in its character and has a brown or frosty 
hue. An ulcer, confined only to a ligament, secretes 
a sort of cold and thick secretion, like expectorated 
mucous, though sometimes marked with streaks of 
blood. 

A bone, mjured, tractured, or suddenly cracked by 
idiopathic causes (derangement of the bodily humours), 
loses its internal marrow and appears as if washed (loses 
its natural gloss\ It assumes the colour of an oyster shell, 
whereas the secretions from an ulcer, which is seated in 



Chap. XXII. 1 SUTRASTHA'NAM. 215 

a bone, are cold and marked b}^ streaks of Mood and 
lumps of marrow. An ulcer, 'situated in an}' of the bone- 
joints, does not exude any secretion under pressure, 
but secretes a sort of slimy, pendent, frothy and blood- 
streaked pus, when the affected limb or part is flexed, 
expanded, raised or lowered, as in running (moving 
about), sitting or standing erect, or at defecation. 

An ulcer, seated in the abdominal cavity (Koshtha), 
exudes a secretion, which is mixed with urine, fecal 
matter, pus or blood, and a thin or watery (serous) 
fluid. The secretions from an ulcer, affecting any vital 
part of the body, need not be separately described, as 
such a part naturally involves the organic principles of 
skin, flesh, etc. ; and hence an ulcer, invading it, must 
necessarily exude a secretion, which is peculiar to any 
of the aforesaid bodily principles (skin, flesh, etc.) that 
has become affected. 

The deranged V^yu makes the secretions from an 
ulcer, seated in an}^ of the seven abovesaid principles 
such as, the skin, flesh, veins, ligaments, bones, joints 
and the abdomen, respectively coarse, and rough to 
the touch, brown, grey, frosty, or white like the cream 
of curd, and coloured like the washings of an alkali, like 
that of meat or paddy husks. Similarly, the action of 
the deranged Pittam should be inferred from the secre- 
tions assuming the colours of a Gomedha (a species 
of bluish yellow agate;, or that of the urine of 



2,6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XXII. 

a cow, or that of water saturated with the burnt ashes 
of conch-shells or that of Kashaya water or that 
of the wine known as the Madhvika or that of oil, 
according as the skin, flesh, etc. are respectiveh^ affected. 
The action of the deranged blood, in changing the 
nature of the secretions of ulcers in the seven above- 
sajd locations, is identical with that of the deranged 
Pittam with the exception, that the secretions are 
characterised by an extremel}'' fishy smell. 

In an epidermic (confined onl}' to the epidermis 
of a part) or superficial ulcer the action of the 
deranged Kapham manifests itself by imparting a 
butter-like or a Kasisha (sulphate of iron) colour 
to the secretions. They have lard-like hue or a 
colour like that of rice paste, or that of water tinged 
with sesamum, or a colour like that of the internal 
juice or water of a cocoanut, or a colour like that of 
hog's lard, according as the flesh, a vein, a ligament, 
a bone or a joint is attacked. On the other hand, 
through the combined action of all the three deranged 
humours of the body (Sannipata), those secretions 
become coloured like the water tinged with the 
soakings of sesamum seeds, or the internal sap or 
water of a cocoanut, or the juice of the Ervaruka or the 
transparent surface layer of rice gruel, or the washings 
of the Aruka fruit, or the water tinged with the fruits 
of the Priy^ngu, or like the liver or the Mudga pulse. 



Chap. XXII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 217 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — An ulcer, situated in the cavity of the ab- 
domen and secreting an exudation resembling paddy 
husks in colour, as well as one located in the viscera 
of blood (spleen or liver — Raktasha^'am) and exuding 
a secretion like alkaline water, should be deemed 
incurable. Similarh', an ulcer having its seat in the 
cavity of the stomach (Amashaya), or in the region 
of the Trika, (articulation of the clavicle with the 
intraclavicular notch) and exuding a thin, watery 
secretion, coloured like the washings of Kalaya pulse, 
should be regarded as belonging to the same type 
(incurable). A physician should only take in hand the 
treatment of an ulcer-patient after having examined 
the abovesaid nature of the discharges. 

Pain and its character :- Now we shall 
describe all the different kinds of pain, which are 
experienced in the several types of Vrana (ulcers) 
described before. 

Vartaja pain : — Pains of pricking, piercing, 
thrashing, cutting, expanding, gnawing, churning, shoot- 
ing, tingling, burning, breaking, bursting, pinching, 
uprooting, uplifting, quivering, aching of different 
types, shifting, stuffing, benumbing, indurating, contract- 
ing, and pains of a spasmodic character are usually 
felt in ulcers. A pain, which comes on or vanishes 

without any apparent cause, or is varied and shifting 
28 



2i8 'I'HE SUSHKUTA SAMHITA. f Chap. XXII. 

in its character, should be ascribed to the effects 
of the deranged Vayu. 

Pittaja pain : — A sensation of burning is felt in 
the ulcer accompanied by a sort of sucking pain. A 
feeling of inhaling heat or vapour, and a burning sensa- 
tion running through the whole body, should be looked 
upon as the resultant of the deranged Pittam. At 
the same time the body seems as if it had been 
strewn over with bits of glowing charcoal. The 
heat or (the temperature of the affected locality) 
shows a steady rise, and a pain like the one 
incidental to the application of alkaline water (caustic 
solution is experienced in the ulcer. 

Raktaja pain : — The pain and other specific 
features of an ulcer due to the vitiated condition 
of the blood are identical with those developed by 
one of the Pittaja type. 

Kaphaja pain : — An ulcer, characterised by 
numbness, heaviness, coldness, itching and a slight pain 
in the affected part, and which seems as if it has been 
plastered over with a paste, and which proves insensible 
to touch, should be ascribed to the action of the 
deranged Kapham. 

Sannipai:ika pain -.—The symptoms, de- 
scribed under the head of each of the preceding 
humoural types of ulcer, simultaneously exhibit 



Chap. XXII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 219 

themselves in the one brought about by the concerted 
action of all the deranged ^ humours 1 Sannipatikam). 

Colours of Vranas : — Now we shall de- 
cribe the colours assumed by the several types 
of ulcers. An ulcer, due to the action of the deranged 
\'ayu, is rough and black, red, or ash- coloured, or 
is of the colour of a bone, or a pigeon. An ulcer, caused 
by the action of the deranged blood or Pittam, 
is coloured either blue, yellow, greenish-brown, black, 
reddish-tawny or flame-coloured. An ulcer due to 
the action of the deranged Kapham is white, grey 
and gloss)'. An ulcer, due to the combined action 
of the three deranged bodily humours, may assume any 
colour peculiar to them. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — Not only in the cases of Vrana, but in all 
(inflammatory) swellings of whatsoever type, the 
physician should carefully observe the nature of the 
local pain, and the colour of the epidermis. 

Thus ends the t\vcnl_\--second Chaplcr of the SulraslliAnam in llic 
SushruUi Sanihila which Heats of secretion from different types of ulcers. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

Now we shall discuss the chapter which deals 
with the Prognosis of an ulcer (Kritya'kritya- 
Vidhi-madhya'yam). 

A boil or an ulcer appearing in a patient who is 
young, muscular (in frame\ strong, or is possessed of an 
indomitable courage and fortitude, proves readily amen- 
able to healing measures and applications ; how much 
more so when one appears in a patient in whom all 
these four conditions simultaneously obtain. 

An ulcer in a young patient is speedily healed 
owing to the fresh and vigorous vitalizing principles 
of the body ; whereas the one, which appears in a person 
of strong and muscular build, finds a speedy and success- 
ful termination owing to the inability of the incising 
instrument to cut deep into the hard and tough muscles 
of the affected part and to reach down, or in any way 
destro}" the underl3nng veins and nerves, etc. A strong 
and vigorous patient can easily endure a considerable 
amount of burning pain, etc. and does not feel distressed 
b)' a strict regimen of diet. A man of stupendous 
endurance and fortitude can sustain the fatigue and 
worry of even the most painful surgical operation. 
Accordingly, a boil or an ulcer, appearing in a patient of 
the above said description, is easily and speedil)' healed ; 



Chap. XXIII. 1 SUTRASTHANAM. 221 

whereas the one, which affects either an old, emaciated, 
or timid person or one of small strength and endurance, 
takes time to heal. 

Boils or ulcers, which appear in the regions of the 
buttocks (Sphik), or about the anus, and the organs of 
of generation, or on the back, forehead, cheek, or 
lips, or in the region of the external ears, or on 
the testes or the abdomen, or in the cavity of the 
mouth, or about the nape of the neck, or above 
the clavicles, can be easily healed. Those, that are 
seated in the eyes, or in the gums, the nostrils or the 
exterior angle of the e3^e, or in the cavity of the ears, 
abdomen or the umbilicus, or about any suture of the 
body, hips, ribs, arm-pits, chest, breasts, sides, or the 
joints, as well as those, that secrete frothy blood or pus 
with a gurgling sound, or contain any foreign matter em- 
bedded in their inside, are healed only with the greatest 
difihcult3\ 

Similarl}^ an abscess or an ulcer appearing in the 
nether region of the body and pointing upward, or 
the one appearing on the extremity of scalp (Romanta) 
or about the end of a finger-nail, or in an)" of the 
vulnerable parts of the body, as well as the one 
affecting either of the thigh bones (femurs), should be 
looked upon as equally hard to cure. Likewise an 
abscess or an ulcer affecting a bone of the pelvis 
'Shronikanda- Acetabulum), as well as a fistula 



222 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap, xxill. 

in ano opening inward should be regarded as hard 
to cure. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — An ulcer (Vrana) appearing in a leper (Kushthi 
or in a person suffering from diabetes iMadhu- 
meha , or from Shosha (lit : pulmonary- consumption) 
or from the effects of poison, as well as the one 
appearing in a pre-existing ulcer, should be looked upon 
as curable only with the greatest difficulty. 

Ya'pya ulcers :--An ulcer incidental to, and 
affecting the seat of any of the following diseases, 
viz. Avap^thika ( paraphimosis , or Niruddha-Prakash 
(phimosis), or Sanniruddha-guda (constriction of 
the anus), or Jathara abdominal-dropsy), or Granthi 
(glandular inflammation), and characterised by the 
germination of parasites in its interior, as well as 
the one appearing in the cavity of the abdomen _, or 
affecting the mucous linings of the intestines, or brought 
about by the corrosi>'e secretions of a nasal catarrh 
(Pratishyaya), and infested with parasites, should be 
considered as onh- admitting of a palliative treatment. 
Similarly palliation is the only remedy in the case of 
an ulcer which appears in a patient suffering from any 
morbid secretion from the urethra (Prameha) or from 
any form of cutaneous affections, marked by worms in 
its inside. 

Likewise a case of gravel Sharkara , or urinary 



Chap. XXIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 223 

calculi ■ Shikata ) in which the urine is found to be 
charged with concretions, or leaves a deposit of sandy 
sediment, can not be radicalh' cured by medicine alone. 
A case of V^ta-kundalika, Asthila, Upakusha, Kantha- 
saluka, Danta-sharkar^, Danta-veshta, ^'isarpa, Asthi- 
kshata, Uru-kshata, or Vrana-Granthi, may not perfectly 
yield to medicine alone. In an inflammation of the gums 
resulting from the use of poisonous twigs as brushes 
for teeth Xishkoshana) a temporary amelioration is all 
that can be expected from a good and efficient 
treatment. 

IVIetrical texts :— In a patient neglecting a 
disease at its preliminary stage, (or otherwise not 
observing a strict regimen) even a curable malady ma}' 
speedily develop into one which admits only of pallia- 
tive measures, while a disease of the last named type is 
soon transformed into an incurable one. An in- 
curable disease under the circumstances speedily finds 
a fatal termination. A patient laid up with a disease, 
which only admits of a palliative treatment, lives so long 
as the course of the medical treatment is continued, and 
will die almost simultaneously with its discontinuance. 
Just as a prop or a pillar can prevent the collapse of 
a tumbling edifice, so palliative measures, judiciously^ 
applied by a skilful physician, may keep off the 
inevitable in a disease which knows no radical cure. 

Incurable diseases :— Now we shall de- 



224 '^^^ SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap, xxili. 

scribe the types of diseases which are usually held as in- 
curable. An ulcer (\'rana) cropping up like a fleshy 
tumour, painful and containing pus in its inside, and 
which is characterised by a copious secretion, with its 
edges raised like those of the genital of a mare, should 
be understood as belonging to the incurable type. A 
condylomatous (papillomatous ) ulcer which is soft and 
raised like the horn of a cow, or the one which is 
moderately raised or elevated at its base, and secretes 
an exudation of vitiated blood, or a thin slimy secretion, 
should be likewise regarded as incurable. An ulcer 
with an embossed or heaved up centre, and one dipped or 
fissured at its extremity should be regarded as past all 
remedy. An ulcer covered over with shreds of ligaments, 
and looking as if studded with loose shreds of hemp, 
should be given up as incurable. Similarly, an 
ulcer due to the deranged condition of any of the funda- 
mental humours, and secreting an exudation composed 
of coagulated blood, fat, marrow and brain-matter 
should be deemed incurable. 

Likewise, an ulcer, in a weak and emaciated person, 
which is located within the cavity of the abdomen, 
(Koshtha: and which assumes either a black or yellow- 
ish colour, and exudes a secretion composed of urine, 
pus, blood and fecal matter, which finds its outlet both 
through the upward and downward fissures of the body 
(the mouth and the anus) making a rumbling, gurgling 



i 



Chap. XXIII. ] SUTKASTHANAM. 225 

sound, or which simultaneously secretes pus and blood 
through both the channels, should be regarded as belong- 
ing to the incurable class. An ulcer in an emaciated 
patient, which is situated either on the head or in the 
throat, and which is narrow-mouthed and is tra\ersed 
by a network of capillaries, and studded with 
fleshy or papillomatous eruptions, should be regarded 
as incurable. A distinctly audible sound or report is 
heard in these ulcers which are found to be charged 
with wind. 

An ulcer in an emaciated patient, which secretes 
blood and pus, and is attended with indigestion, cough, 
painful respiration and non-relish for food, as well as a 
case of fractured skull, attended with cough, dyspnoea, 
secretion of brain-matter, and symptoms peculiar to the 
concerted action of the three deranged humours of the 
body, should be given up as past all remedy. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — A traumatic ulcer, which exudes a secretion 
of fat, marrow or brain- matter, may prove amenable 
to medical treatment, whereas a humoural ulcer under 
the circumstance will prove incurable. • 

An ulcer appearing at an}' part of the body other 

than a vital one (Marma), and which is found to invade 

its successive elements though without affecting any 

vein, bone, joint, etc. should be regarded as incurable. 

29 



226 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap, xxili. 

Just as a tree, that has grown old and that has spread its 
roots deep into the soil, can not be uprooted, so a disease 
can not be eradicated that has gained in strength and 
maturity with the process of time, and that has gradually 
invaded the different essential principles of the body. 
A disease, which, having been neglected at the outset, 
has run on to one of a lingering or persistent type 
by invading the successive elements of the bod}', 
and has thereby gained in strength and intensity, 
baffles medicines, (of tested and marked eflicac)^, 
just as malignant astral combinations tend to nullify 
potent incantations. 

Symptoms of cleansed Fiealthy 

ulcers : — An ulcer, not belonging to any of the 
above said types, may prove easily amenable to the 
curative efficacies of medicines. In other words, an ulcer 
of recent origin is easily uprooted like a tender sapling 
of recent gi^owth. An ulcer, which is unaffected by any 
of the three deranged bodily humours, and which assumes 
a dark brown hue along its edges, and is characterised 
by the absence of any pain, pustular eruptions or 
secretions, and which is of an even or of an equal 
elevation throughout its length, should be regarded as 
cleansed (asepsised or healthy), and divested of all 
morbid matter or principle (Shuddha-Vrana). 

Symptoms of Healing Ulcers:— An 

ulcer, which is dove-coloured (yellowish dusky), and is 



Chap. XXIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 227 

not lardaceous at its base, and is further characterised by 
the absence of any muco-piirulent secretion along its 
margin, and which has become hard and surrounded 
b}' shreds of dead skin, and presents symptoms of 
healthy granulation, should be looked upon as in 
course of healing. 

Symptoms of Healed Ulcers:— An ulcer, 
with its edges firmly adhered and characterised by the 
absence of any pain and swelling and not appearing 
knotty or glandular to the touch and that has left a 
cicatrix of the same hue with the surrounding skin, 
should be considered as perfectly healed. 

Causes, such as mental excitements, as excessive grief 
and ecstacies of joy, anger or fright, as well as an exter- 
nal blow, or excessive physical exercise, or an abnormal 
excitation of any of the deranged humours, or an 
impaired digestion, may tend to reopen an ulcer 
recently adhered and healed. Accordingly such acts 
and conditions should be avoided by an ulcer-patient. 

Thus ends the twenty-third Chapter of the Sutrasth^nam in the 
Sushruta Samhita, which treats of the prognosis of ulcers. 



C H A P i E R XXIV. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter^ which deals 
with the classification of diseases according to their 
specific nature (Vya'dhi-Samudcihcshiya- 
madhya'yam). 

Diseases may be grouped under two broad sub- 
divisions, such as Surgical, and Medical, that is those 
that yield to the administration of purgatives, emetics, 
oils, diaphoretics, and unguents. 

The use or administration of medicated oils and 
unguents, etc., is not prohibited in a surgical disease, 
while a case, which is exclusively medicinal in its 
character, does not admit of the adoption of any surgical 
remedy. Onl}^ a general outline of the nature 
and S3miptoms of all diseases will be found to have 
been briefly laid down in the present work. This work 
includes within its scope subject matters which have 
been fully dealt with in other books (having only a 
general bearing upon all the several branches of the 
science of medicine). 

It has been stated before that anj^thing that afflicts 
either the body or the living personality— self, or 
both, is called disease. This pain or affliction 



Chap. XXIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 229 

ma}^ be either physical* in its character (Adhyat- 
mikam), or due to an}'- disturbance in the physical 
environments of a man (Adhibhautikam), or to the 
acts of God (Adhidaivikam) etc. This three- fold 
pain may be ultimately transformed into an)' of 
the seven kinds of diseases such as, the Adi-vala-pravritta, 
Janma-vala-pravritta, Dosha- vala-pravritta, Sanghata- 
vala-pravritta, Kala- vala-pravritta, Daiva-vala-pravritta 
and Svabhava- vala-pravritta. 

A'di -vala-pravritta :— The disease termed 
Adi-vala-pravritta is ascribed to any inherent defect 
in the semen or the ovum of one's parent, which forms 
one of the original and primary factors of " being " and 
includes leprosy (Kushtham), hemorrhoids, phthisis etc. 
This type may be divided into two subdivisions, 
according as the disease is generated by the deranged 
paternal or maternal factor at the time of incubation. 

J an ma -vala-pravritta :— The Congenital 
or the Janma-vala-pravritta type usually follows 
such causes as an improper conduct on the part 
of the mother during the period of gestation, etc., and 
embraces such defects or maladies as (congenital) 
blindness, deafness, dumbness, nasal-voice, and such 
monstrous aberrations of nature as congenital cretinism, 

* Certain commentators interpret the term "Atman" in "AdhyStmikam" 
to mean body only, and accordingly designate all phenomena that may be 
manifest in the body as AdhyAtmikam, 



230 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXIV. 

and the births of dwarfs and pigmies. This type, 
in its turn, admits of two sub-divisions, according as 
the disease is due to the action of the deranged lymph- 
chyle (Rasa-krita), or to an ungratified desire of the 
mother during gestation, or to her gratification • of 
any improper longing or conduct during pregnancy 
(Dauhridyam). 

Dosha-vala-pravritta -.—The Dosha-vala- 
pravritta (idiopathic) type is due to the action of 
any of the fundamental bodily humours deranged by an 
improper diet, or resulting from the dynamical energies 
of the mind, such as (Rajas and Tamas, etc). This 
type may be classified under two sub-heads, according 
as the disease is found to have its origin in the Amashaya 
(stomach), or in the Pakvashaya (intestines), and each of 
these again may be further divided into two main 
sub-divisions such as the physical and the mental. The 
three preceding kinds of diseases include within their 
category disorders which are called mental or psychical 
(Adhyatmikam). 

Samghala-vala-Pravritta :— The Trau- 
matic type (Samghatha-vala-pravritta) includes diseases 
that are caused by an external blow or are due 
to wrestling with an antagonist of superior strength. 
They may be sub-divided into minor divisions, 
according as the disease is due to an external 
wound, or to the bite from any fierce beast or 



Chap. XXIV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



231 



poisonous reptile, etc. These types belong to the Adhi- 
bhautikam t5'pe, i. e. (brought about by physical 
causes). 

Ka'Ia-vala-pravritta:— The Periodical type 
(K^la-vala-pravritta) includes diseases that are brought 
about by the variation of atmospheric heat or humidity 
with the change of the seasons, and admits of being 
grouped under two different sub-heads, according as the 
seasons, which usher these changes in, exhibit natural 
or contrary features. 

Daiva-vala-pravritta :— The Providential 
('Daiva-vala-pravritta^ type includes diseases that are the 
embodiments of curses, divine wrath or displeasure, or 
are brought about through the mystic potencies of charms 
and spells, as described in the Atharva-Veda. This 
type may be divided into two minor divisions according 
as the disease is due to such acts of God as when a 
man is struck by lightning, etc., or to the malignant 
influences of demons and monsters, and these may be 
further grouped under two main sub-heads, according as 
the disease assumes a contagious character (epidemic), or 
is purely accidental, and restricts itself to isolated 
cases (sporadic). 

Svabha'va-vala-pravritta:— The Natural 

or the Spontaneous (Svabhava-vala-pravritta) type 
includes such natural organic phenomena as, 



232 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXIV. 



decrepitude, death, * hunger, thirst, sleep, etc. 
These phenomena are either Kalakrita (timely) or 
Akalakrita (untimely). They are called Kalakrita when 
the}^ occur at the proper time in persons who strictly 
observe the rules of health, and Akalakrita, when they 
appear at the improper time (morbid or premature) 
as the effects of unhealthy living. These diseases belong 
to the Providential or Adhi-daivikam typet. Thus we 
have classified diseases into their several types. 

The deranged bodily humours such as, Vayu, Pittam 
and Kapham should be looked upon as the primary 
sources of all diseases, inasmuch as symptoms charac- 
teristic of each of them may be detected in the case of 
a disease of whatsoever type, (which usually abates 
with their corresponding subsidence), and also because 
the Shastras have ascribed to them the fatherhood 
of all maladies that assail the human frame. 

As the three qualities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamasi 

are inherent in, and inseparable from, all the pheno- 
menal appearances in the universe whicli are, in reality, 

* Accord. ng lo certain aulhorilies "Death" may also mean death 
of tissues. 

+ Several authorities on the other hand include such diseases as thirst, 
hunger etc., within the Adhy^tmika class inasmuch as they are but the 
indications of the want of certain vital principles in the body and 
appear in the mental plane (Adhy^tmika) only as longings for 
water, food, ttc 

X The Sattva :— Illuminating or psychic principle. Rajas : — Prin- 
ciple of Action and Co-hesion. Tanias -.—Principle of Nescience or Illusion. 



Chap. XXIV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 233 

but modifications of their own qualities, so the three 
fundamental bodily hum'ours underlie at the root 
of, and run through, the course of all known forms of 
bodily distemper. 

The deranged bodily humours (Dosha" in contact 
with the different elements, Dhathu) and excrements 
(Mala) of the body, together with the difference of 
their locations and pathological effects, give rise to 
the different forms of disease.* 

The nomenclature of a disease depends upon where 
the affection of the several elementary principles of the 
body by the deranged bodily humours lies, and which is 
accordingly styled as it is seated in the lymph- chyle, or in 
the blood or the flesh, or it is in fat, bone, or in the semen. 

Rasaja Distempers :— Distempers such as 
aversion to, and loss of relish for ' food_, indigestion, 
aching in the limbs, fever, nausea and a sense of reple- 
tion even without food, heaviness of the limbs, diseases 
affecting the heart, jaundice, constriction of any in- 
ternal passage of the body (Margo-parodha), emaciation 
of the body ^cachexia), bad taste in the mouth, weak 
feelings in the limbs, premature whiteness and falling off 
of the hair, and s)^mptoms indicative of senile decay, 
should be regarded as having their seat in the deranged 
l5"mph- chyle (Rasa). 

* This answers the question, "how can the deranged bodily hmnours 
bring about a disease of the Adhi-vala-type — a disease which is specifically 
due to the derangement of the innate and primary factors of life." 

30 



234 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XXIV. 

Raktaja Diseases : — Maladies such as Kush- 
tha (cutaneous affections in general , Visarpa (erysipe- 
las), Pidaka (pustular eruptions, Mashaka, Nilika, 
Tilakalaka (specks), Nachhya (tans), Vyanga (stains), 
Indralupta alopecia), enlarged- spleen, Vidradhi (ab- 
scess*, Gulma abdominal glands), Vata-shonita (a kind 
of leprosy), Arsha (piles), Arvuda (tumours), aching of 
the hmbs^ menorrhagia, h£emopt3'sis, etc. as well as 
suppuration in the regions of the anus and the penis 
should be deemed as having their origin in the 
blood Raktaja contaminated by the deranged bodily 
humours. 

IVSa'nsaj a- Diseases :— Similarly Adhi-mansa, 
Arvuda, Arsha, Adhi-jihva, Upa-jihva, Upakusha, 
Gala-sunthika, Alaji, Mansha-sanghata (condylomatous 
growth), Astha-prakopa, Gala-ganda, Garjda-mala 
(scrofula), etc. should be regarded as diseases having 
their seat in the flesh, vitiated by the deranged bodily 
humours. 

IVledaja- Distempers :— Diseases, such as 
Granthi, \'riddhi, Gala-ganda, Arvuda, and Ostha-prakopa 
are due to tlie action of the deranged fat. Madhu-meha 
(diabetes), obesitv and abnormal diaphoresis, etc. should 
be regarded as having their origin in the humour- 
deranged fat of the body. 

Asthija- Disease :— Adhyasthi, Adhi-danta, 
Asthi-toda, Asthi-shula and Ku-nakha, etc. are the 



Chap. XXIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 235 

diseases which should be regarded as the outcome of 
the deranged bodily humours affecting the bones. 

IVIaJJadoshaJa Diseases :— The vanishing 

of sight, epileps}'; vertigo, conjunctivitis and the appear- 
ance of a broad-based ulcer about the Parva- 
sthanam and a sense of heaviness in the thighs and 
knee-joints should be regarded as having their seat in 
the deranged marrow. 

Shukra-doshaja :— Diseases such as, im- 
potency, entire aversion to sexual intercourse, Shukra- 
shmari fseminal concretions). Spermatorrhoea, and other 
seminal affections, should be regarded as having their 
seat in the deranged semen. 

Cutaneous affections, constipation or looseness of the 
bowels, and diseases impeding or arresting the proper 
functions of the sense-organs or in an}" wa}" bringing 
about their aberrations, should be regarded as respec- 
tively located in the receptacle of the faeces and the 
sense organs. 

Thus we have briefl}' enumerated the names of 
diseases, the specific nature and symptoms of which 
will be full)' discussed later on under their respective 
heads. 

Authoritative verse on the Sub- 
ject :— The deranged and aggravated humours, freely 
coursing through the body, give rise to a disease at the 



:J36 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. xxiv. 



place in which they are incarcerated owing to an 
obstruction in their natural passage. 

Now it may be again asked, whether the relation 
of a disease, such as fever, etc. with the deranged bodily 
humours is constant and inseparable, or otherwise. All 
human beings would be in danger of perpetually 
falhng ill in the event of the said connection relation; 
being constant and unseparable ; but in case of their 
separate existence, it is but natural that their charac- 
terstic symptoms should separately manifest them- 
selves instead of being simultaneously present with 
fever, etc. as they are found to be in reality. And 
accordingly the theor)', that diseases (such as, fever, etc.) 
and the deranged bodily humours have a separate 
existence, and are not pritna facie intimately co-related 
with one another falls to the ground. On the 
other hand, the assumption of their separate existence 
invalidates the incontestable conclusion, that diseases 
such as, fever, etc. are fathered by the deranged humours 
of the body. 

Hence it may be safely asserted that no disease can 
occur without the direct mediation or intervention of 
the deranged bodily humours. Yet the connection 
(relation) which exists between the two is neither 
constant nor separable. As the physical phenomena of 
lightning, storm, thunder and rain can not happen 
independently of the sky (cloud) ; and yet they 



Chap. XXIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 237 

sometimes do or do not occur with the presence of a 
cloud ; again as bubbles^ though in reality but the 
modifications of the underlying water, do not swell 
up on its surface at all times, so the connection 
between a disease and the bodily humours is neither 
universally separable or inseparable. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : —We shall describe the nature, intensity and 
quality of diseases with their complications and give 
the number of their different t3'pes. Diseases 
[omitted to be mentioned in the chapter on Xidanam 
(aetiology)] will be found fully dealt with in the sup- 
plementary part of the present work (Uttara-tantram). 

Thus ends the Iwenty-fourlh Chapter of the SulrasthSnam in the 
Sushruta SamhitA which treats of the classification of diseases according 
to their specific nature. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which deals 
with the eight different forms of surgical operations 

(Ashtavidha-Shastra- Karmanya - ma- 
dhya'yam). 

Metrical Texts :— Bhagandara, Shlaishmika 
Granthi, Tilakalaka, Arvuda, Arsha, Charma-Kila, 
Jatumani, Mansa-Samgh^ta, Gala-Sunthik^, Valmika, 
Vrana-Vartma, Shataponaka, Adhrusha, Upadansha, 
Mansakandha, Adhimansaka, as well as ailments due to 
the lodgment of a foreign body in the flesh or a bone, 
and a sloughing of ligaments, flesh or veins are the 
diseases in which incision i Chhed)^am should be made. 

Bhedyam : -Excision (Bhedyam) should be 
resorted to in the following diseases, viz., Vidradhis, the 
three types of Granthi other than the Sannipatika one, 
Visarpa due either to the deranged Vayu, Pittam or 
Kapham, Vriddhi, Vidarika, Prameha-pidaka, swellings 
in general, diseases affecting the mammary organs, 
Avamanthaka, Kumbhika, Anushayi^ Nadi, the two 
types of Vrinda, Pushkarika, Alaji, Kshudra-roga (all 
minor cutaneous or pustular diseases), the three 
types of Puppata, Talu-puppata, and Danta-puppata ; 
Tundukeri, Gil^Cyu, and the diseases which are caused 
by suppuration in the local flesh or any soft part of the 



[Chap. XXV. SUTRASTHANAM. 239 

body ^siich as fistula in ano), as well as stone ni the 
bladder and diseases due to a derangement of fat.* 

Lekhyam : — The surgical operation known as 
scarification Lekhya; should be resorted to in the follow^- 
ing diseases, viz, the four types of Rohini, Kilasa, Upaji- 
hva, diseases having their seat in the deranged fat, 
Danta-Vaidarbha, Granthi, Vrana-Vartma, Adhi-Jihva, 
Arshah, Mandala, Mansa-kandi, and Mansonnati. 

Vyadhanam : — The Surgical operation known 
as Vyadhanam (aspiration; should be made use of 
in connection with a vein, or a case of Dakodaram 
(abdominal dropsy), or Mutra-Vriddhi (hydrocele). 
Diseases, in connection witli which the probe or the 
director should be used, are Nadis ( sinus) and ulcers 
wMth an}^ extraneous or foreign body lodged in their 
inside, and those which follow abnormal (lateral or 
oblique' directions. 

A'harryam :— The process known as Aharanam 
(extraction or drawing out) should be adopted in the 
three types of Sharkar^,t in drawing out anj^ morbid 
matter from between the teeth or from the cavity 
of the ears, or in extracting any foreign matter from its 
seat of lodgment in the body, or a stone from the 

* Granthi (gland), Galaganda (goitre), \'riddhi (scrotal tumour) Apachi 
(scrofula) and Arvuda (tumour) are the fat-origined diseases contemplated 
as instances. 

t Such as urinary calculi, calcareous deposits on the teeth, and P5da- 
SharkarS. 



240 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XXV. 

bladder, or in drawing out feces from the constricted 
anus, or a foetus from the uterus, (as in the case of a 
false presentation or difficult labour). 

Srarvyam :— Secreting or evacuating measures 
(Srav5'^am) should be adopted in the following 
diseases, viz, the five types of Vidradhi excepting the 
Sannipatika one, Kustha of whatsoever type, derange- 
ment of the bodily V^yu with pain in the affected 
region, inflammatory swellings restricted to any particu- 
lar part of the body, diseases affecting the ear-lobes, 
Shleepada (elephantiasis^ blood poisoning, Arvuda 
(tumours), Visarpa Terysipelas), Granthi (glands due 
to any of the deranged Vayu, Pittam, or Kapham) the 
three types of Upadansha (syphilis), Stana-roga (in- 
flammation! of the mammae), Vidarika, Shaushira, Gala- 
Shaluka, Kantaka, Krimi-dantaka worm-eaten teeth), 
Danta-veshta (inflammation of the gums), Upakusha, 
Shit^da, Danta-puppata, diseases of the lips originated 
through the action of the deranged blood, Pittam or 
Kapham, and a variety of other diseases passing under 
the denomination of Kshudra-Roga (minor ailments\ 

Sccvyam : — Suturing rSeevya* should be 
resorted to in the case of an open ulcer due to 
the action of the deranged fat after its vitiated 
contents (morbid matter) had been fully scraped out, as 
well as in the case of an uncomplicated (curable"^ Sadya- 
Vrana (wound or instant ulcer) at any of the joints 



Chap. x.w. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 24 r 

which are connected with the acts of movement or loco- 
motion. 

Conditions of Suturing:— An ulcer in- 
cidental to the application of fire (canter}'), or any al- 
kaline preparation (caustic), or treated with any poison- 
ous drug or substance, or from whose inside the em- 
bedded Shalyam (foreign matter) has not been removed, 
should not be sewed up without being thoroughly 
cleansed and purified asepsised = inasmuch as any foreign 
matter, whether a hair, nail or a particle of dust or bone, 
lying embedded in its cavity, might set up an abnormal 
suppuration, accompanied by extreme pain and excessive 
secretion. Hence such ulcers should be thoroughly 
cleansed (and all foreign or indigenous morbid matter 
should be extracted therefrom) before being sewed up. 

Mode of Suturing :— Then having pressed 
the ulcer up into its proper position, it should be 
sutured with strings of any of the following kinds, viz. 
of thin cotton thread, of the fibres of the Ashman- 
taka tree or hemp plants, or of the Atasi, Murva or 
Guduchi, or with strips of leather, plaited horse- 
hair or animal sinews, into any of the officinal 
shapes (of suturing) known as the Gophana, Tunna- 
Sevani and Riju-Granthi, etc. or as suited to the 
shape and position of the ulcerated part. The margin 
of the ulcer should be gently pressed close with 
the fingers during suturing. A round needle to 



242 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXV. 

the length of two fingers' width should be used in sew- 
ing up an ulcer occurring about any joint or in a part of 
the body where the flesh is thin and scanty. A needle 
of a triangular body tri-hedral), and measuring three 
fingers' width in length, is recommended in the case of 
an ulcer appearing at any flesh}' part of the body. 
A semi-circular or bow-shaped needle should be used 
in a case where the seat of the ulcer would be found 
to be on the scrotum, or on the skin of the abdomen, or 
about any of the Marmas (vital parts). 

Needles of these three shapes should be so construc- 
ted as to be fitted with sharp points capable of being 
handled with the greatest ease, having a girth equal 
that of the stem of a Malati flower. 

The needle should not be pricked into a part too near, 
or too remote from the fissure, or the mouth of an ulcer, 
as there might be the danger of the suture being broken 
off (at the least pressure or movement) in the first 
instance and of genesis of pain in the second. xAn 
ulcer, thus properly sutured, should be covered 
over with cotton and dusted over with a pulverised 
compound consisting of the powders of Priyangu, 
Anjanam, Yasthyahva and Rodhra, or with the ashes 
of a burnt piece of Kshauma cloth, or with the powders 
of the Shallaki fruit. Then the ulcer should be properly 
bandaged, and measures and rules regarding the regimen 
of diet, and conduct previously laid down in the chapter 



Chap. XXV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 243 

on the nursing of an ulcer- patient (Ch. XIX. ) should 
be adopted and observed. 

The eight kinds of surgical operations have thus been 
briefly described. They will be dealt with later on in 
the Chikitsitam. 

Defective Surgical Operations:— These 

eight forms of operations may be attended with dangers 
of four different kinds such as those arising from an 
insufficient or over performance, or from the slanting 
or oblique deviation (of the knife or the instrument), 
or from an act of self-injury on the part of the 
physician. 

A physician ( surgeon ; making a wrong operation on 
the body of his patient either through mistake, or 
through the want of necessary skill or knowledge, or 
out of greed, fear, nervousness or haste, or in conse- 
quence of being spurned or abused, should be condemned 
as the direct cause of many new and unforeseen maladies. 
A patient, with any instinct of self-preservation, would 
do well to keep aloof from such a ph\sician, or from one 
who makes a wrong or injudicious application of the 
cautery, and should shun his presence just as he would 
shun a conflagration or a cup of fatal poison. 

On the other hand, a surgical operation, carried to 
excess, (or a surgical instrument inserted deeper than 
what is necessary , is attended with the danger of 



244 THE SUSHRUTA SAiMHlTA. L Chap. xxv. 

cutting or destroying a vein, ligament, bone, joint, or 
any vital part of the body. ' A surgical operation by 
an ignorant surgeon brings about, in most cases, the 
instantaneous death of the patient, or consigns him to 
the pangs of a life-long death. 

The symptoms which generally manifest themselves 
in connection with the injudicious hurting of any of the 
five vital parts or principles of the body (such as the 
joints, bones, veins, ligaments, etc.) are vertigo, delirium, 
loss of bodily functions, semi-insensibility ( comatose 
state), incapacity of supporting oneself, cessation of 
mental functions, heat, fainting, looseness of the limbs, 
difficult respiration, excruciating pain or pain peculiar to 
the deranged Vayu, secretion of blood or a thin watery 
secretion like the washings of meat from the injured 
part, or the organ, with coma or inoperativeness of all 
the senses. A vein* iShira) any wa}' severed or injured is 
attended with a copious flow (haemorrhage of deep red 
blood, resembling the hue of the cochineal insect, from 
the ulcer ; and the deranged local Vayu readil}' exhibits 
all its essential characteristics, and ushers in diseases 
which have been enumerated under that head in the 
chapter on the description of blood.) 

Similarly, an injured ligament gives rise to a crooked- 
ness or bending of, as well as to a gone feeling in the 

* Other than ihc one silualcd in any of the abovesaid vital parts of 
the body. 



Chap. XXV. ] SUTRASIHA'NAM. 245 

injured limb or organ, attended with pain and loss of 
function, and the incidental ulcer takes a long time 
to heal. 

An abnormal increase in the local swelling, together 
with an excruciating pain, loss ol strength, breaking 
pain in the joints, and in-operativeness of the affected 
part, mark the wounding of a flexible or immovable 
joint. Similarly, in the case where a bone is hurt or 
injured in the course of a surgical operation, the patient 
is tormented with indescribable pain, da}' and 
night, and finds no comfort in any position what- 
soever. Pain and swelling specifically mark the affected 
locality, and thirst and inertness of the limbs add to 
the list of his sufferings. 

A case of any injured Sira-Marma ( vital venal or 
arterial combination or plexus exhibits the same 
symptoms which characterise the hurting of a single 
vein, as previously described. Loss of actual perception 
(anaesthesia^ and a yellowish colour of the skin mark 
the case where the injury is confined to the vital 
principle of the flesh. 

A patient, who is discreet, and is not in a special 
hurry to end his earthly sojourn, would do well to 
shun the presence of a bungling, unskilful surgeon, 
who can not even keep himself unhurt in the 
course of a surgical operation. 



246 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. LChap. xxv. 

The evils, which attend the obhque insertion of a 
surgical instrument, have been described before ; and 
accordingly care should be taken not to leave any room 
for the occurence of those evils in connection with a 
surgical operation. 

The patient, who may mistrust his own parents, sons 
and relations, should repose an implicit faith in his own 
physician, and put his own life into his hands without 
the least apprehension of danger ; hence a ph5'sician 
should protect his patient as his own begotten child. A 
surgical case may yield to a single incision, or may 
require two, three, four or more than that number to 
effect a cure. By doing good to humanity with his pro- 
fessional skill, a physician achieves glory, and acquires the 
plaudits of the good and the wise in this life, and shall 
live in Paradise in the next. 

Thus ends the twenly-fiflh Chapter of the Sulrasthimim in the Sushruta 
Samhita which tieats of the eight forms of Surgical operations. 



I 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which treats 
of the exploration of splinters lost or deep-seated in the 
organism (Pranashta-Shalya-Vijna'niya'- 
madhysryam). 

Definition : — The term Shalyam is derived 
from the root "Shala" or Shvala" (to go swiftly) joined 
to the Unadi affix "Yat." Shalyas may be divided into 
two kinds according as they are extrinsic Agantuka) 
or idiopathic (Sharira) in their origin. 

A Shalyam usually serves to act as an impeding or 
obstructing agent to the entire organism, and, hence, the 
science which deals with its nature and characteristics 
is called the Shalya-Shastram (Surgery). An idiopathic 
(Sharira) Shalyam may be either a hair, nail, embohsed 
blood (Dhatus)*, etc., excrements (Mala), or deranged 
humours of the body (Dosha), while an extrinsic 
Shal3'am should be regarded as one which afflicts the 
body and is originated from a source other than any 
of the preceding ones, including particles of iron and 
bone, stems of grass, scrapings of bamboo, and bits 
of horns, etc. But an Agantuka (extrinsic) Shalyam 
specifically denotes an article of iron, inasmuch as it 

* Embolism and Thrombosis have been included within Shalyam by 
the Ayurvedic Pathologists. 



248 



ITHE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. 1 Chap xxvi. 



pre-eminently sqvvqs the purpose of killing and is the 
most irresistible of all metals. Since any amount of 
sharpness can be imparted to the point of an article 
made of iron and since it can be easily discharged 
from a distance, iron is the metal exclusively chosen 
in the construction of darts or arrows. 

Classification of Shafts : — Arrows (Shara) 
may be divided into two classes according as they are 
feathered or unfeathered ; and their barbs are usually 
constructed in the shape of trees, leaves, flowers, or 
fruits, or are made to resemble the mouths of birds and 
wild and ferocious animals. 

Flights of arrows: — The flights or direc- 
tions of an arrow (Shalyam) may be divided into five 
different kinds, such as the upward, the downward, the 
backward (coming from the back), the oblique and the 
straight. Either through its diminished momentum, or 
through any external resistance, an arrow may drop 
down and penetrate into the skin, arteries, or any 
internal channel of the body, or into any bone or its 
cavity, causing a wound or an ulcer (Vrana) at the spot 
of its penetration. 

Symptoms : — Now hear me describe the symp- 
toms which are exhibited in connection with an arrow- 
wound (Shalya*-Vrana). These symptoms may be 

* An arrow or an iron barb, from "Shala" to kill. 



Chap. XXVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 249 

grouped under two sub-heads, such as the specific and 
the general. The general characteristics are as 
follows : — The ulcer, which is marked by pain and 
swelling and presents a raised or bloated aspect like 
a water bubble, assumes a dark brown hue and appears 
soft to the touch. The seat of the ulcer is seen to be 
studded over with pustular eruptions and a constant 
bleeding sets in from its inside. The specific symptoms, 
which mark a Shalyam lodged in the skin, are the hard- 
ness and extended character of the local swelling and 
the darkness (discolouring) of its skin. 

In a case where the arrow Shalyam) is lodged in the 
flesh, the swelling increases in size and the incidental 
ulcer refuses to be healed and cannot bear the least 
pressure. Suppuration sets in and the ulcer is charac- 
terised by a sort of sucking pain.* 

All the preceding symptoms, with the exception 
of swelling and sucking pain fthirst according to 
others), manifest themselves in a case where the arrow 
(Shalyam) has penetrated into a muscle. Similarly, the 
distension, aching and swelhng of a vein mark a case 
of an arrow-lodged vein. An upheaval and swelling 
of its fibres together with intense pain characterise 
a case where the shaft (Shalyam) has lodged in a 
ligament. The internal passages or channels (Srota) of 

* According to certain authorities the patient is tormented with a sort 
of unquenchable thirst. 

?>2 



250 THE SUSHRUT.A SAMHITA'. [ Chap, xxvi, 

the body are choked up and become inoperative, when 
the shaft is lodged in any one of them. A flow of red 
and frothy blood with a gurghng sound, accompanied 
by thirst, nausea, and aching of the limbs, sets in 
when the arrow is lodged in an artery (Dhamani). 
Similarly, pain and swelling of diverse kinds mark a 
case where the shaft is embedded in a bone. The 
appearance of goose flesh on the skin, a stuffed 
sensation inside the cavity of the affected bone, and 
a violent piercing bone-ache, mark a case where the 
shaft has found a lodgment inside the cavity of a 
bone. A pierced joint exhibits the same symptoms 
as described in connection with an arrow-lodged 
bone, with the exception that the patient is incapable 
of flexing and expanding the affected joint. In a 
case where the shaft (Shalyam) has lodged in the 
abdomen (Koshtha), the bowels become constipated ; the 
abdomen becomes distended with a rumbling in the in- 
testines and the suppression of flatus and urine ; and 
ingested food matter, as well as urine and feces are 
found to ooze out of the fissure or mouth of the ulcer. 
Symptoms, similar to those above described, manifest 
themselves when the arrow is lodged in any of the 
vital parts (Marmas'i of the body. The preceding 
symptoms are but faintly exhibited in a case of super- 
ficial penetration. 

An ulcer incidental to the penetration of an arrow 



Chap. XXVI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 25 1 

(Shalyam"), along the direction of the local hair, in* the 
throat, in any internal channel of the body, or in a vein, 
the skin, or a muscle, or into a cavity of the bone, and 
not in any way affected by the action of the deranged 
bodily humours, may speedily and spontaneously heal ; 
but it may break open and become painful afresh if the 
bodily humours become deranged and aggravated by a 
blow or physical exercise. 

Localisation :— The exact position of a shaft 
(Shalyam) embedded in the skin should be ascertained 
by applying a plaster composed of clay, Masha-pulse, 
Yava, Godhuma and cow-dung over the injured limb 
or part. The part (hmb) should be duly lubricated 
with oil, and diaphorised (by fomenting or applying 
heat to its surface) before the plaster is applied. The 
shaft (Shalyam) should be considered as lodged in that 
part which would be marked by pain, redness, or swelling 
(Samrambha) after such application. x\s an alterna- 
tive, the affected part should be plastered with clarified 
butter, common clay and sandal paste. The embedded 
shaft (Shalyam) is then exactly located at the spot 
where, owing to the heat of the affected part, the 
clarified butter, or earth, or sandal paste would be 
found to have melted, or dried up. 

Similarly, the mode of localising a shaft (Shalyam), 

* So as not to obstruct the coursing of the blood or serum in the 
locality. 



252 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. ; Chap. XXVI. 

embedded in the flesh is as follows : — First, the patient 
should be duly lubricated and diaphorised with medi- 
cinal agents suited to the requirements of his case. 
Then, the part or the limb having been thus reduced 
with depletive measures, the shaft would be found to 
have been dislodged from its seat and to be moving 
about (^within the deeper tissues of the affected part , 
giving rise to pain, redness and swelling. In such a case 
the exact location of the shaft should be fixed at the 
spot where the pain and swelling, etc. would occur. 
The same measures should be adopted in the case of a 
shaft (Shalyam) which lies embedded in the cavity of 
the abdomen (Kostha), or in a bone, or joint, or muscle 

In the case of a Shalyam lodged in a vein, in an 
artery, in any external channel (Srota) of the body, or 
in a ligament, the patient should be made to ride in a 
carriage with a broken or lopped oif wheel and dragged 
up and down in it on an undulating road The pain and 
swelling, etc. incidental to the jolting, would occur at 
that part of his body, where the shaft (Shalyam} is 
embedded. 

In the case of a shaft Shalyam) lodged in a 
bone, the affected bone should be lubricated and 
diaphorised with oil and heat respectively, after which 
it should be firmly pressed and bound up. The seat of 
the pain or swelling, caused by such a procedure, would 
mark the exact locality of the embedded Shalyam. 



Chap. XXVI. I SUTRASTHANAM. 253 

Similarly, in the case of a shaft (Shalyam) lodged in a 
joint, the same lubricating, diaphorising, compressing, 
and expanding measures should be adopted, and the 
painful swelling caused thereby would indicate its exact 
locality. No definite method can be laid down as 
regards ascertaining the exact location of a Shalyam 
lodged in any of the vital parts of the body (Marma ', 
inasmuch as they are co- existing with (the eight different 
locations of ulcers, such as, the skin_, the flesh, the 
bone, etc.)* 

General rule : — A painful swelling, occurring 
at any part of the body and incidental to such physical 
or natural endeavours of the patient, as riding on an 
elephant or on horse-back, climbing a steep hill, bendr 
ing of a bow, gymnastic exercises, running, wrestling, 
walking, leaping, swimming, high -jumping, yawning, 
coughing, singing, expectorating, eructating, laughing, 
practising of Pranay^ma (regulating the breath prelimi- 
nary to the practice of Yoga), or an emission of semen, 
urine or flatus, or defecation, would clearly indicate 
the exact location of the embedded shaft (Shalyam). 

Authoritative Verses on the Sub- 
ject : — The part of the body, which is marked by 
pain and swelling, or which seems heavy and is marked 

* Accordingly measures enjoined to be adopted in connection with a 
shaft (Shalyam) lodged in any one of them should be applied wufati.-: 
mutandis to cases in which these Marmas would be found to be similarly 
affected. 



254 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XXVi, 



by complete anaesthesia, or the part which the patient 
repeatedly handles, or constantly presses with his own 
hand, or which exudes any sort of secretion, and is 
marked by a sort of excruciating pain, or which he 
involuntarily withdraws from, or constantly guards 
against (an imaginary painful contact), should be 
regarded as clearly indicative of the exact location of 
the embedded Shalyam. 

A physician, having tested with a probe the cavity 
of the incidental ulcer or the interior of the affected 
locality, and found it to be characterised by little pain 
and absence of any aching discomfort or unfavour- 
able symptoms and swelling, after a course of proper 
treatment, and after having been satisfied as to its 
healthy look and the softness of its margin, and after 
having ascertained that any remnant of the embedded 
arrow can not be perceived with the end of the director 
by moving it to and fro, should pronounce it free from 
any embedded foreign matter (Shalyam), which would 
be further confirmed by the full flexion and expansion 
of the affected limb or organ. 

A particle of soft bone, horn or iron, in an}' wise 
lodged in the body, assumes an arched shape ; whereas 
bits of wood, grass-stems, or chips of bamboo-bark, 
under the same circumstances, putrify the blood and 
the local flesh, if not speedily extracted from their seats 
of 1 odgment. Bits of gold, silver, copper, brass, zinc, or 



Chap. XXVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 255 

lead, anj'how inserted into a human organism, are soon 
melted by the heat of the Pittam and are assimilated 
and transformed into the fundamental principles of the 
body. Metals or substances of kindred softness, and 
which are naturally cold, are melted and become amal- 
gamated, under such circumstances, with the elements 
of the organism. A hair, or a particle of hard bone, 
wood, stone, bamboo scraping, or cla}^ which remains 
lodged in the body as a Shalyam, does not melt, nor 
undergo any change or deterioration. 

The physician, who is fully conversant with the 
five different courses or flights of an arrow 'Shalyam), 
whether feathered or unfeathered, and has minutely 
observed and studied the symptoms due to its lodg- 
ment in any of the eight different seats of ulcers (Vrana) 
in the human organism such as, the skin, etc.), is alone 
worthy of attending on kings and nobles. 

Thus ends the twenly-sixth Chapter of the Sulrasth^nam in the 
Sushruta Samhit^ which treats of exploration of spHnters. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which 
deals with the modes of extracting sphnters (Shalyar- 

pa n iya- mad hyaryam) . 

There are two kinds of Shalyas. A Shalya is 
either loose or firmly fixed to its seat within the body. 
We shall presently speak of the fifteen different modes 
of extracting a loose Shalyam, which are as follows, viz. : 
Extraction by natural expulsive functions of the body 
(Svabhaba), by suppuration or putrefication (Pachanam), 
by excising (Bhedanam), by bursting Daranam), by 
pressing ■ Pidanam), by rubbing i^Pramarjananr, b)'' blow- 
ing with the mouth of medicinal powders into the affect- 
ed part (Nirdhmapanam), by the administration of 
emetics (Vamanam), by an exhibition of purgatives 
(Virechanam) by washing (Prakshalanam , by friction 
with the fingers (Pratimarsha), by straining as at 
the time of defecation (Pravahanam), by sucking 
(Achushanam), by applying a magnet (Ayaskanta) and 
by exhilarating ; Harsham). 

An embedded foreign matter is usually expelled 
from the eyes, etc, by inducing lachrymation, sneezing, 
eructation, coughing, micturition, defecation, and 
the emission of flatus. 

A Shalyam, or any other foreign matter which has 



Chap, xxvii.^ SUTRASTH/VNAM. 257 

penetrated into the deeper tissues of flesh, should be 
extracted b}' setting up suppuration in the affected 
locah'ty. The putrid flesh would loosen the fixture of the 
Shalyam, the weight of the secreted pus and blood 
causing it to drop down. 

The seat or the locality of a fixed Shalyam 
should be opened by an incision in the event of 
its not being ejected even after the establishment of 
the local suppuration. If the Shalyam fails to come out 
even after the incision, the affected part should be 
pressed with the fingers, or medicines, endued with 
the virtue of exerting pressure, should be applied 
over its surface. A particle of an}- fine matter, 
accidentally dropped into the eye, should be removed 
with sprays of cold water, or by blowing into it with 
the mouth, or by rubbing it with hair or the fingers. 

A residue of digested food or mucous, a remnant 
of any food matter (Ahdrashesha) misdirected into 
the nostrils, or any small splinter loosely pricking thereto 
CAnu-shalyam), should be expelled by breathing hard, 
or by coughing upward through the nostrils (Utk^sha), 
or by blowing through the nose. A morsel of food, 
acting as an obstructing Shalyam in the cavity of 
the stomach (Am^shaya), should be ejected by 
rubbing (Pratimarsha) the fingers against the lining 
of the throat, or against the region of the epiglottis, 
while such a morsel brought down into the intestines, 

33 



258 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap, xxvil. 

should be evacuated by administering purgatives 
(Virechanam). 

The pus or any other morbid matter found within 
the cavity of an ulcer should be removed by washing 
it, while incarcerated flatus, or obstructed scybala 
or retained urine, or obstructed foetus, should be borne 
down and expelled by means of straining. 

Any deranged Vayu or watery secretion incarcerated 
in anv part of the body, as well as poisoned blood 
or vitiated breast-milk, should be sucked off with the 
mouth, or with a horn. 

A loose, unbarbed arrow, lodged in a wound with 
a broad mouth and lying in an Anuloma direction, 
should be withdrawn by applying a magnet to its 
end. A shaft of grief, driven into the heart by any 
of the multifarious emotional causes, should be removed 
by exhilaration and merry-making. 

A shaft (Shalyam), whether large or small, may 
be withdrawn from its place in either of the two 
ways known as the Anuloma and Pratiloma. The 
Anuloma consists in withdrawing a Shalyam through 
a way other than that of its penetration, while the 
contrary is called the Pratiloma. 

A Shalyam lodged in a place lying close to the 
spot of its penetration (Arvacheenam) should be 
extracted through the wav bv which it has entered 



Chap. XXVII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



259 



(Pratiloma). On the other hand, a shaft or Shalyam, 
piercing deep into any part of the body, but not 
coming out by the other side (Par^cheenam), should 
be drawn out through a way other than that of its 
penetration (Anuloma). 

A shaft, piercing deep into any part of the body 
so as to reach the other side of the wounded hmb 
or part, (but not cutting out clean through it owing 
to the diminution of its original momentum), and 
remaining protruded in the heaved up flesh, should 
be extracted through a channel other than that by 
which it has originally penetrated (Anuloma), and by 
stirring or striking it with the hand or a hammer. 
The heaved up flesh should be opened with an incision, 
when found possible of being so opened, and the 
embedded Shalyam should be drawn out by stirring or 
striking it with the hand as laid down before. 

A Shalyam, lodged in any soft part of the abdomen, 
chest, arm-pits, inguinal regions or ribs, should not be 
cut open or struck with hammer, but should be tried to 
be removed with the hands through the wa)- of its 
penetration (Pratiloma), in failure whereof the Shalyam 
should be extracted with surgical appliances (Shastra) 
or any other surgical instruments ( Yantras), 

Authoritative Verse on the Sub- 
ject : — A patient, fainting away (during the course 
of such a surgical operation), should be enlivened by 



26o THR SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. : Chap. XXVli. 

dashing cold water over his face. He should be solaced 
with many a hopeful and cheering word, and a nourish- 
ing diet such as, milk, etc. should be given him, and 
his vital parts should be protected. 

Then having extracted the Shalyam, the incidental 
wound or ulcer, the blood having been wiped of, should 
be fomented with lieat or by apph'ing warm clarified 
butter to its surface in the event of it being found fit to 
be so treated i.e., 'devoid of pain and unattended with 
further bleeding). Cauterisation should be resorted to 
where the condition of the wound would indicate such a 
measure. After tliat, the wound should be plastered 
(Pradeha) with honey and clarified butter, and bandaged 
with a piece of clean linen ; and directions as to the 
diet and nursing of the patient should be given (as 
previously laid down). 

A Shalyam, lodged in a vein or a ligament (Snayu), 
should be extracted with the help of a probe. The 
shaft (Shalyam), lodged in the body and lying buried 
under the incidental swelling, should be extracted hy 
firmly tying blades of Kuslia grass around its body. 
A shaft (Shalyam;, lodged in a spot situated anywhere 
close to the heart, should be withdrawn by the way 
by which it has entered ; and the patient should be 
enlivened with sprat's of cold water, etc. during the 
operation. 



Chap. XXVII. ] SUTRASTHA'N'AM. 261 

A Shalyam, lodged in any other part of the body 
and that is difficult to extract, and that produces pain 
and local inflammation, should be removed by cutting 
the part open. In the case of a shaft 1 Shalyam) which 
has pierced into the cavity of a bone, the surgeon should 
firmly press the affected bone with his legs, and pull 
out the embedded shaft with all his might by gripping 
it with a surgical instrument, in failure whereof a 
strong man should be asked to firmly catch hold of 
the patient, and the Shalyam should be pulled out 
with the help of a gripping surgical instrument as before. 

As an alternative, the bottom of the shaft should 
be tied to the string of a bow, strung and fully bent 
down ; and the Shalyam should be ejected with the 
means of a full twang. As an alternative, a horse 
should be harnessed in the fashion known as the 
Panch^ngi-vandhanam (lit. bound in the five parts of the 
body), and the end of the Shalyam should be bent down 
and tied to the bridle. Then the horse should be 
so whipped as to raise its head first, thus pulling out 
the embedded shaft .Shalyam) from its seat of lodg- 
ment by the jerk of its head. As an alternative, a 
high and tough bough of a tree should be lowered down 
and tied to the bent end of the shaft as in the 
preceding case. The bough should be then let loose, 
thus pulling out the shaft (Shalyam / with its rebounding 
force. 



262 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XXVII. 

A shaft (Shalyam), lodged in a bone and lying pro- 
truded in the heaved up local flesh (situated in a place 
other than the inguinal regions, abdomen, or arm-pits, 
etc.), should be stirred by striking it on the head with 
an Asthila a round stone, — a short hammer according 
to certain authorities), or with a stone or hammer, and 
should be taken out by the way of its penetration. 

The feather of a barbed shaft, lying embedded in a 
bone situated at a part of the organism where the 
existence of such a foreign matter is calculated not 
to create any special discomfort, should be first crushed 
by putting pressure on the heaved up or protruded 
flesh, and the shaft then should be gently pulled out 
of its seat of lodgment. 

In the case of a bit of shellac being accidentally 
pricked into the pharynx, a metal tube should be first 
inserted into the passage, and then a heated metallic 
rod should be reached down to the obstructing shellac 
through its inside. The shellac, thus melted by the 
heat of the inserted rod, would naturally stick fast to 
it, which should be then condensed by an injection of 
cold water poured down through the aforesaid tube ; 
after that the rod should be withdrawn thus carrying 
away the melted shellac at its end. 

According to certain authorities, any other obstruct- 
ing foreign matter accidentally introduced into the 
pharynx should be withdrawn with the help of a rod, 



Chap. XXVII. 1 SUTRASTHA'NAM. 263 

soaked in melted wax or shellac, and then inserted into 
that passage, all other procedure being the same as in 
the preceding instance. 

In the case of a bone Shalyam (such as the bone 
of fish etc.) having accidentally stuck fast in the 
throat, a bundle of hair, tied to a string of thread, 
should be inserted into the gullet of the patient, the 
physician holding the other end of the string in his 
hand. Then a copious quantity of water, or of any 
other liquid substance, should be poured down into his 
throat, so as to entirely fill his stomach. After that 
some kind of emetic should be given to the patient, 
and the string should be pulled out as soon as the 
bundle of hair would be felt to have struck below the 
obstructing bone or Shalyam, which would naturally 
come out with the pull. As an alternative, the top 
end of a soft twig, as is generally used in cleansing 
the teeth, should be bruised into the shape of a brush, 
and the thorn or the Shalyam should be removed with 
its help. The incidental wound should be treated by 
making the patient lick a compound of clarified 
butter and honey, or of the powders of the Triphal^, 
saturated with honey and sugar. 

The body of the patient should be pressed or rubbed, 
or he should be whirled round by the ankles, or general- 
ly measures, calculated to induce vomiting, should be 
adopted in a case where he would be found to have 



264 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXVIt. 

swallowed a stomachful of water (as in a case of drown- 
ing). As an alternative, he should be buried under the 
ashes up to his chin. 

Strong wine should be given to the patient, or he 
should be slapped on the shoulders, so as to cause him 
to suddenly start in a case where a morsel of food would 
be found to have obstructed and stuck fast in his gullet. 
A tight gripe about the throat of a person with a creeper, 
rope or the arm of an antagonist, tends to enrage the 
local (Kapham), which obstructs the cavity of the 
passage (Srota) producing salivation, foaming at the 
mouth and loss of consciousness. The remedy in such 
cases consists in lubricating and diaphorising the body 
of the patient with oil and heat, and in administering 
strong errhines (Shiro-Virechanam), and the juice or 
extract of meat which is possessed of the virtue of 
subduing the deranged Vayu. 

Authoritative Verses on the Sub- 
ject: — An intelligent physician should remove a 
Shalvam with due regard to its shape, location and the 
adaptability of the different types of surgical instru- 
ments to the case under treatment. A physician should 
exercise his own discretion in extracting feathered 
shafts (Shalyas) from their seats of lodgment, as well 
as those that are difficult of extraction. 

A physician is at liberty to exercise his own skill 
and wisdom, and to devise his own original means for 



Chap. XXVII. ] SUTR.ASTHA'NAM. 265 

the extraction of a Shalyam with the help of any 
surgical instruments when the abovesaid measures 
would prove abortive. A Shalyam, not removed from 
the bod}'- and left in its place of lodgment, brings on 
swelling, suppuration, mortification of the affected part, 
and a sort of excruciating pain, and may ultimately 
lead to death. Hence a physician should spare no pain 
to extract a Shalyam from its seat of lodgment. 

Thus ends the twenty-seventh Chapter of ihe Sutraslh^nain in the 
Sushruta SamhitS, which treats of extraction nf Shalvam. 



34 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which deals 
with the fa\ourable or unfavourable prognosis of an ulcer. 
( Viparitarviparita - Vrana - Vijna^niya - 
madhyaryam ). 

IVIetrical Text :— Certain fatal or unfavourable 
symptoms (Arishtas)* unmistakably presage the death 
of an ulcer-patient, as a flower, smoke and cloud 
respectively herald a fruit, fire and rain. In most cases, 
the ignorant cannot interpret aright these fatal symp- 
toms owing to their extremely subtile nature, or out of 
ignorance or stupidity, or because such symptoms are 
very closely followed by the death of the patient. 

These fatal indications serve as sure precursors 
of death in a patient, unless warded off by the 
blessings of hoi}' Brahmanas, who are free from 
low desires or animal propensities, and are also 
accustomed to practise the Yo^a and other religious 
penances ; or death may be averted with the help of 
men who are initiated into the mystery of concocting 
life-giving elixirs (Rasayanam". 

* The symptoms which are developed by the deranj^ed bodily humours 
in the organism of a man at a time when they have passed beyond all 
medical cure, and when the body serves as a mere passive back-ground 
for those phenomena, awaiting its impending dissolution, are called 
Ariahtas, 



Chap. XXVIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 267 

Man}'' such indications do not prove instantly fatal 
but bring on death in course of time, just as diseases, 
supposed b}' some to be due to the influence of malig- 
nant planets, take time before they become patent out 
of their incubative stages. An attempt to cure a doomed 
patient is only repaid by failure and the ridicule of the 
world, and hence an intelligent physician should make 
it worth his while to carefully observe and study these 
fatal indications. A contrariety of the natural smell, 
colour, taste, (sensation, sound, touch, etc.) of an ulcer 
indicates a near and fatal termination of the disease. 

An ulcer emits a pungent, sharp, or fishy smell under 
the respective influences of the deranged Vayu, Pittam 
and Kapham. An ulcer, deranged by the action of 
the vitiated blood, emits a smell like that of iron 
(Loha-gandhi), while one, originated through the 
concerted action of the deranged humours, emits a 
smell characterised by the distinctive features of each 
of them. On the other hand, an ulcer, due to the joint 
action '^of the deranged Vayu and 'Pittam), emits a smell 
like that of fried paddy ; one, due to the action of 
the deranged Vayu and Kapham, emits a smell like 
that of linseed oil ; whereas one, brought about by 
the action of the deranged Pittam and Kapham, smells 
like sesamum oil. All those odours, marked by a 
somewhat fishy character, should be deemed the natural 
odours of ulcers, and any other smell should be held as 
a contrary or unnatural one. 



268 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XX\ 111. 

An ulcer emitting a sweet smell like that of wine, 
or fragrant aloe wood (Aguru), clarified-butter, Jati 
flower, Champaka, sandal, lotus or any celestial flower 
(Divyagandha), should be regarded as the precursor of 
death. Similarly, a smell like the one which character- 
ises a dog, horse, mole, crow or a bug, or like the one 
emitted by dry, putrid meat, or resembling the smell of 
earth or slime, should be likewise deemed unfavourable 
or fatal in an ulcer. 

A physician should give up a case where an ulcer, 
though it has assumed a blackish, saffron or Kankustha 
colour (a sort of mountain earth) through the action 
of the aggravated Pittam, is divested of the burning, 
sucking and drawing pain, which is peculiar to that 
morbiferous diathesis. Similarly, an ulcer, which, though 
brought about through the action of the deranged 
Kapham, has become cold, hard and whitish as natural 
in one of the Kaphaja type, should be given up as soon 
as it is marked by a burning pain. Likewise an ulcer, 
due to the action of the deranged V^iyu, and characterised 
by a blackish hue and a thin secretion, and which is 
found to invade the vital principles of the body, should 
be abandoned by a physician, whenever found to be 
entirely devoid of pain. 

An ulcer, which makes a gurgling or groaning sound, 
or one which is characterised by an extreme burn- 
ing sensation, oris confined to the skin and the flesh, 



Chap. XXVIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 269 

and is marked by the emission of wind with a loud 
report, is sure to have a fatal termination. Likewise, 
one, which is characterised by extreme pain, though 
not otherwise seated about any of the vital parts of the 
body, or which is cold on the surface, though attended 
with an extremely burning sensation in its inside and 
vice versa, should be deemed the precursor of death. 
Similarly, an ulcer should be regarded as fatal, that is 
shaped like the barb of a spear, or a Kunta (a kind 
of barbed dart or spear), or like a banner, chariot, 
horse, or an elephant, or like a cow, an ox, a temple, 
or a palace. 

A wise physician, witli any regard to his own repu- 
tation, should abandon a patient laid up with an ulcer 
which appears to have been dusted over with a sort of 
pulverised crust, or who has been suffering from one ac- 
companied by loss of flesh and strength, cough, difficult 
respiration and aversion to food. An ulcer, which 
occurring at any of the vital parts of the body secretes 
a copious quantity of pus and blood, and refuses to 
be healed even after a course of proper and persistent 
medical treatment, is sure to have a fatal termination. 

Thus ends the twenty-eighth Chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the 
Sushruta SamhitS, which deals with the favourable and unfavourable 
prognosis of ulcers. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
treats of favourable or unfavourable prognosis in 
diseases, as known from messengers, omens and dreams 
etc. (Viparitarviparita-Duta-Shakuna- 
Svapna- Nidarshaniya-madhyaryam). 

IVIctrical Texts:— The favourable or unfavour- 
able termination of a disease may be predicted from 
the appearance, speech, dress and demeanour of the 
messenger sent to call in a physician, or from the 
nature of the asterism and the lunar phase marking 
the time of his arrival, or from the direction of the 
wind (Anila) blowing at the time, or from the nature 
of omens (Shakuna) seen by him on the road, or from 
the posture, temperament or speech of the physician 
himself. 

A messenger belonging to the same caste as the 
patient* should be regarded as an auspicious omen, 
whereas one from a different caste would indicate a 
fatal or an unfavourable termination of the disease, 

A eunuch, a husband of many wives, a messenger 

* A P^shanda messenger should be despatched to call in a physician 

where a member of the same community would fall ill ; a householder, 

in the case of a patient of the same social order ; a BrShmana, in the case 

of a BrShmana patient, and so on ; while an infringement of the rule 

would be looked upon as an evil omen. 



Chap. XXIX. ] StJTRAStHANAM. ^fl 

sent on a different errand and incidentally calling at a 
physician's house, or one who has quarrelled on the road, 
or messengers who come riding on camels, donkeys or 
in carts, or on foot in one unbroken line, should be 
looked upon as inauspicious messengers. 

Similarly, messengers, who call at the house of a 
physician, holding in their hands a rope, club, or 
any other weapon, or who come dressed in blacky red, 
yellow, wet, dirty or torn garments, or with the upper 
sheets placed or arranged on their right shoulders 
(Apasavya), or clad in single cloths without such upper 
sheets on, as well as those, who are possessed of addi- 
tional or smaller number of limbs, or look disturbed and 
agitated, or whose bodies are in any way mutilated or 
such, as look fierce and haughty, or speak in a rough 
and harsh tone, or utter any term implying death, 
should be regarded as augurs of evil. 

Likewise^ a messenger, tearing off a blade of grass or 
a chip of wood with his fingers, or handling the tip 
of his nose or the nipples of his breast, or pulling the 
ends of his cloth or hair, or the ring-finger of his 
hand, or brushing his nails and hair, or standing 
with his fingers in his ears or nostrils, or waiting 
with his hands placed on his cheeks, chest or head, 
or about the regions of the arm-pits, as well as 
one, who has arrived at the house of the physician 
with bits of human skull or stone, or with ashes, bones, 



272 " THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXIX. 

paddy husks or charcoal in the palms of his hands, or 
one, who digs into the earth with his toe-nails, or 
wantonly breaks stones or brickbats, while waiting 
at the physician's house, should be regarded as a 
messenger of evil augury. 

A messenger, who at the time of visiting a physician 
for his professional help comes smeared with oil, or with 
red sandal paste or mud, and carries a red garland or a 
ripe but sapless fruit, or any other thing of like nature 
in his hand, or brushes together the nails of his fingers 
or touches his legs with the hand, or carries a shoe 
in his hand, or who appears to have been suffering from 
a foul or loathsome disease, further one, who breathes 
heavily, or weeps or behaves contrarily, or stands with 
the palms of his hands united and his face turned to- 
waids the south, or waits on one leg on an uneven 
ground with the other raised and placed on a higher 
support, should be looked upon as the precursor of 
evil. 

A messenger, reporting his errand to the physician 
while he is facing the south, or who is in an unclean 
state of the body, or engaged in kindling a fire or in 
killing an animal, or is remaining in a nude state, or is 
found to be lying on the bare floor of his chamber, or 
performing an afiection after attending to a call of 
nature, or anointing himself with oil, or perspiring, or 
sitting with his hair dishevelled, or in a state of mental 



[Chap. XXIX. sOtrasthanam. 27; 

perturbation, is to be looked upon as a messenger fore- 
boding evil. 

A messenger, seeking the interview of a physician 
M'hile he is engaged in offering oblations to his departed 
manes, or to the gods, or one who calls on him at noon 
or at midnight, at morning or at evening, or during the 
happening of any abnormal physical phenomenon, or at 
an hour under the influence of any of the following 
asterisms (lunar mansions), viz. the Ardra, the Ashlesa, 
the Maghd, the Mula, the two Purvas, and the Bharani, 
or on the day of the fourth, ninth, or the sixth phase 
of the moon (whether on the wane or on the increase), 
as well as on the last days of months and fortnights, 
should be considered as a messenger of evil augury. 

A messenger, hot and perspiring from being seated 
near a blazing fire, and calling upon a physician in the 
midday, should be deemed as an inauspicious one 
in the case of a Pittaja distemper ; whereas a 
messenger of similar description should be looked upon 
as foreboding the favourable termination of a disease, if 
due to the action of the deranged Kapham. The favour- 
able character of a messenger should be likewise deter- 
mined in diseases originated through the action of the 
deranged Vayu,* etc. ; and an intelligent physician is 

* A messenger, visitin;; a |)liy.sician in ihe afternoon or during a hea\}' 
rain or storm, or at a time when the vital wind is naturally disturijed and 
agitated, indicates an unfavouraljlc prognosis. 



274 



THE SUSHKUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXIX. 



at liberty to exercise his own discretion in determining 
the omen. Similarly in a case of haemoptysis, dysentery 
or any morbid discharge from the urethra (Prameha j, 
the first interview between a messenger and a physician 
near a reservoir of water is an omen of happy augury, 
A learned physician shall tluis determine the ominous 
character of a messenger in connection with other 
diseases as well. 

IVIessengers of happy augury :— A fair 

and handsome messenger, who is clad in clean and white 
garments, and belongs to the same caste or spiritual 
clan (Svagotraj as the patient himself, forebodes the suc- 
cessful termination of the disease (for which the medical 
aid is needed). A messenger, calling on a physician either 
on foot or in a bullock cart, and who is contented, 
intelligent, capable of acting according to the rules of 
decorum, time and circumstances, and is independent and 
original in his thoughts and ideas, and carries ornaments, 
and other auspicious articles about his person, is alone 
capable of rendering the best services in connection 
with the calling in of a physician. A messenger, for the 
first time, interviewing a physician, when the latter is 
complacently seated with his face towards the east, and 
on a clean and even ground, should be regarded as a 
messenger of happy augury. 

Raw meat, a pitcher full of water, an umbrella, 
a Bramhana, an elephant, a cow, an ox and an article 



Chap. XXIX. ] SUTKASTHANAM. 275 

of a white colour, should be deemed auspicious sights by 
a physician on his way ]to the house of a patient. A 
mother, a cow with her calf, a small pitcher of water, a 
decorated virgin, fish, unripe fruits, a Svastika (a cross 
shaped religious insignia), sweetmeat, curd, gold, a 
vessel full of sun-dried rice, gems, flowers (according 
to certain commentators a well disposed king), a blazing 
fire, a horse, a swan, a peacock, a bird of the Chasha 
species, chantings of Vedic verses, claps of thunder, 
blowings of conch-shells, notes of lutes, sounds of 
chariot wheels, roar of lions, lowings of cows and 
bullocks, neighings of horses, trumpeting of elephants, 
cacklings of geese, hootings of owls, and the pleasant 
conversation of persons going to the palace of a king, 
should be regarded as lucky sights and sounds by a 
physician on his way (to the house of a patient). 

Similarly, harmonious melodies of birds chirping 
on the boughs of healthy Kshira trees, bent under 
the weight of fruit, and looking gladsome with their 
dowry of beautiful blossoms and foliage, or notes of 
birds perched on the terraces of palace towers or on 
the tops of banner poles singing melodiously, or birds 
following the messenger with their songs or singing 
seated from the auspicious quarters of the heavens, or 
following him on his left, should be equally regarded 
as sights and notes of happy foreboding. 

A bird, seated on the withered trunk of a blighted 



2/6 



THR SUSHRUTA SAMHITA 1 Chap. xxix. 



or thunder-blasted tree, or on a thorny knoll covered 
over with creepers, or on ashes or stones, or amidst 
ordure or husks of grain, or on dried skeletons, 
and singing in a harsh voice with its head turned 
towards the blazing or inauspicious quarter of the 
sky, should be deemed as portending evil. 

Similarly, birds, which are possessed of names of 
masculine terminations are happy omens if seen on 
the left by a physician on his way to the house of 
a patient, while birds, on a similar occasion, whose 
names have feminine endings, are auspicious if seen 
bv him on the right. A dog or a jackal, seen run- 
ning from the right to the left, is a hapjn- omen, 
and so is a mongoose or a Chasha bird if seen on the 
left. A hare, a serpent, or an owl, seen on either side 
of the road, is an inauspicious sight. The sight and 
the sound of a Godha or a Krikal^sha an animal of 
of the lizard species) are both inauspicious. 

If a man, other than a messenger of inauspicious 
character but possessed of features alike unfavourable, 
should happen to cross the way of a physician, just 
starting on a professional call, he should be regarded 
as equallv indicative of evil. The sight of a vessel 
full of Kulutha pulse, or of husks of grain, or of stone, 
ashes, clay or charcoal, or of oil, is inauspicious. 
Similarly, the sight of a vessel filled with red mustard 
or witli wine other than whicli is clear and mild 



Chap. XXIX. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 277 

(Prasanna) should be deemed an omen of evil 
augury. 

Similarly, the sight of a parched corpse, or of a 
withered tree or Pal^sha branch, is equally inauspicious. 
A physician, meeting a member of any of the vile or 
degraded castes or a blind or indigent person, or a man 
inimically disposed towards him, should consider the 
character of the disease to be unfavourable. 

A gentle, cool and fragrant breeze, blowing from 
the direction of his destination, should be regarded as 
an auspicious omen by a physician. A wind, which 
is hot, dry, and is charged with the fetid exalations 
of putrid matter, and which blows from the direction 
of his starting point, should be regarded as an evil 
omen. 

The word "cut," used by another and accidentallv 
heard by a physician fon his wa^O to the bed-side of a 
patient laid up with Granthi (aneurism) or Arvuda 
(tumour), should be regarded as a good omen ; while the 
term "open", heard under similar circumstances and in 
connection with a case of Vidradhi (abscess), or Gulma 
(abdominal gland\ or Udara (ascites), should be regarded 
as an equally auspicious portent. Similarly, the term 
"stopped" is commended in a case of dysenter}' or 
haemoptysis. Thus the physician should interpret 
the auguries according to the nature of each individual 
case. 



278 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXIX 

A curse, imprecation, or wailing like "woe to me", 
as well as sobs, groans, reports of defecation or vomit- 
ing, the brayings of an ass, the frightened sound of 
a camel, an obstacle or impediment in the path of 
a physician, or a sudden breakage, collapse, or the 
falling of any article from a cupboard, and a sad 
or dejected spirit of the physician without any assign- 
able cause, should be regarded as evil omens at the 
time of his starting. 

These omens should be observed or attended to 
at the time of first entering the house of a patient, 
or at the threshold or within its walls, but not after 
the physician has once commenced the medical treat- 
ment. The sight of a knot of torn hairs, ashes, bones, 
wood, stone, husks of grain, cotton, thorns, a bedstead 
with its legs upturned, wine, water, fat, oil, sesamum, 
dried grass, straw, a eunuch, a deformed person or one 
with a broken limb, a nude man, or one with a clean 
shaved head, or clad in a black garment, should be 
regarded as evil omens by a physician, whether noticed 
b}' him at the time of starting or after getting into 
a sick room. Pots or utensils placed in pendent brackets, 
and found to be spontaneously moving about without 
any definite cause, as well as any other fallen articles 
digged in, smashed in or thrown out of the 
sick-room ; a ph3^sician sitting dejected and gathered 
up in his seat, and the patient sitting with a down- 
cast face, or pricking his body or at the bed clothes 



Chap. XXIX. ] SUTRASFHANAM. 279 

while talking with the physician, or shaking his hands, 
back or head, or taking hold of or placing the hands 
of the physician in his own, or on his breast, or interro- 
gating the physician with an up-turned face, or 
pressing his own limbs, when he is interrogated by 
the physician in return, should be considered as 
unfavourable signs. 

The patient, in whose house a physician is not 
duly honoured, can never rally. The due honouring of 
a physician leads to a speedy recoAery. A messenger 
of good omen forebodes the favourable termination 
of a disease, while the contrary is indicated by a 
messenger of the opposite type. Hence a physician 
shall carefully observe the ominous character of a 
messenger (despatched to seek his aid . 

Dreams : — Now I shall describe the dreams, 
which either being dreamt by the patient, or by his 
relations, portend fatal or a successful close of the 
malady. The patient, who dreams of going towards 
the south on the back of an elephant, or on that of 
any carnivorous animal, or of riding on a boar or 
on a buffalo, or sees himself carried towards the 
quarter by a dark woman with dishevelled hair and 
clad in a blood- red garment — laughing and dancing, soon 
meets his doom. A dream by a patient that members of 
vile castes have been drawing him southward, or that 
ghosts or anchorites have been embracing him, or that 



28o THE SUSHRUtA SAMHITA. Chap. xxix. 

savage beasts with diabolical faces have been smelling 
his head, predicts that his earthly days are numbered, 
while such dreams occurring in a healthy subject 
indicate an impending disease. 

Similarly, the patient, who dreams of drinking oil or 
honey, or of diving into a bed of dank or oozy slime, 
or of laughing and dancing mud-besplattered, is at the 
threshold of death. A dream of ha^*ing entwined a 
wreath of red iiowers round one's head, though other- 
wise nude or stripped of clothes, or of seeing reeds, 
bamboos, or palm trees growing on his chest, portends 
the impending death of a patient. On the other 
hand, such dreams, occurring in a healthy subject,, 
forebode the advent of disease. I.ikewise, the patient, 
who dreams of being eaten up b}' fish, or who fancies 
himself again entering into the womb of his mother, 
or thinks he is falling from the summit of a mountain or 
into a dark and dismal cave, or as being carried away by 
the current of a river, or assailed and overwhelmed by a 
pack of crows, is already a doomed being. The dream 
of a clean shaved head, or of falling stars, or of dying 
lamp light, or of the extraction of one's own eyes, or of 
shaking divine images, or of earthquakes, purgings, vomit- 
ings or falling out of one's own teeth, is always fatal. 
The patient, who dreams of climbing a Shalmali, Kinsuka, 
or Pari-bhadra tree, or of ascending an ant-hill or a 
funeral pyre, or of witnessing himself bound to a sacri- 



Chap. XXIX. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 281 

ficical stake, or of receiving or eating, cotton, 
levigated sesamum paste, . iron, salt, sesamum, boiled 
rice, or drinking oil or wine (Sura), as the case may be, 
should consider himself as a doomed being, while such 
dreams in a healthy subject indicate the impending 
attack of a disease. 

A dream should be regarded as ineffectual which 
is quite in conformity with the physical temperament of 
the dreamer (such as, one of scaling the heavens 
by a person of Vataja temperament ; one of seeing 
a blazing fire, a flash of lightning, or a meteor-fall 
by a man of Pittaja temperament ; and one of wit- 
nessing reservoirs of water, etc. by a man of Kaphaja 
temperamentj as well as one which has been forgotten 
or followed by another of an auspicious type or is the 
outcome of premeditated thought like one dreamt in 
the da}' time. 

A fever patient dreaming of friendship with a dog, 
a consumptive one dreaming of making friends with a 
monkey or a monster ; a hysteric patient who dreams of 
making friendship with a ghost ; a Prameha or dj'sentery 
patient dreaming of drinking water ; a leper dreaming of 
drinking oil, or a Gulma patient dreaming of a tree grow- 
on his belly, should count his days as numbered. A person 
afflicted with any disease of the head, and dreaming 
of a tree growing on his head, or one suffering from 
vomiting and dreaming of eating sesamum cakes ; or 

36 



282 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXIX. 

an asthma patient, or a person, afflicted with thirst, 
dreaming of making a journey on foot ; or a jaundice 
patient dreaming of eating a food prepared with 
turmeric ; or a person suffering from hecmoptysis and 
dreaming of drinking blood, should be considered as about 
to depart this life. A patient having had any of the 
aforesaid dreams, under the circumstances, should get 
up in the morning and make a gift of Masha-pulse, 
sesamum, iron and gold to the Brahmanas, and repeat 
the blessed Tripada Gayatri (Mantras J 

Having dreamt a bad dream in the first watch of the 
night, a person should meditate upon a holy or auspicious 
subject, and then lie down again with all his senses fully 
controlled, and repeat the Mantras sacred to any of the 
gods. An evil dream should not be related to another. 
The dreamer of the dream should reside in a holy 
temple for three consecutive nights,, and worship the 
deity with the most fervent devotion, whereby its evil 
effects would become nullified. 

Now we shall describe the dreams, which are 
of auspicious nature. Members of the twice born 
castes, gods, cows, bullocks, kings, one's own living 
friends and relations, a blazing fire, a Brahmana, or a 
sheet of clear water seen in a dream by a healthy person 
predict or predicts to him a pecuniary gain in the near 
future, while such dreams occurring in a diseased person 
indicate a speed}' recovery of the disease he has been 



Chap. XXIX. ] SUTKASTHANAM. 28" 

suffering from. Similarly, dreams of meat, fish, garlands 
of white flowers, cloths and fruit predict a gain or a 
speedy cure, as the case may be. 

Dreams of ascending the terrace of a royal 
palace, of climbing a tree or a hill, or of riding an 
elephant predict similar results as above. A dream of 
one's sailing over a river, pool or sea of turbid water 
predicts a money gain or cure, according as one is 
healthy or diseased. A dream of having been bit 
or stung by a serpent, by leeches, or by a bee, indicates 
bliss or cure, according to one's good or bad health 
at the time. The man, who usually gets such auspicious 
dreams, should be looked upon as a long-lived man, 
and may be unhesitatingly taken under medical 
treatment by a physician. 

Thus ends the Uventy-nintli Chapter of the Sutiasthinam in the 
Sushruta SamhitS, which deals with favourable or unfavourable prognosis 
from messengers, birds, omens etc. 



CHAPTER XXX. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which treats 

of the prognosis that can be obtained from the perverted 

functions of the five sense organs ( Pane he n- 

d riyartha- Vi prati pattf - madhyaryam) . 

Metrical texts ; — A perversion or contrariety 
of the functions of the mind or brain (Shilam), and 
of the organs of sense-perception, is called Arishtam 
(an unfavourable symptom foreboding death). Now 
hear me describe, in brief detail, the symptoms which 
are called Arishta (fatal indications). 

The man, who hears a variety of divine sounds 
even in tlie absence of any of the celestial beings, 
(such as, the Siddhas, the Gandharvas etc.), or thinks 
that he is hearing the uproar of a city, or the 
moanings of the sea, or the rumbling of a rain 
cloud, without their actual presence or proximity, or 
who is incapable of catching their sounds even when 
they are actually present and sounding, or assigns to 
them causes other than the actual ones, should be 
regarded as a doomed being. The person, who interprets 
the uproar of a city or the rustling forest as sounds 
emanating from other sources, or rejoices at the voice 
of his enemies, and is annoyed at that of his own 
devoted friends, or who suddenly loses the faculty 



Chap. XXX. J SUTRASTHANAM. 285 

of hearing without any manifest or tangible reason, 
should be deemed as already on the threshold of death. 

The man, who feels cold when touching a hot 
or warm substance, and, vice versa, complains of 
a burning sensation even when suffering from a boil, 
or a postule of the Kaphaja type (characterised by 
numbness, shivering, etc, or shivers when the tem- 
perature of his body is felt to be considerably high, 
should be looked upon as already on the point of 
death. The person, who has lost the faculty of touch, 
and does not feel any pain in any part of the body 
when it is struck or amputated, or feels as if his 
body had been strewn over with particles of dust, 
or suffers from discoloration of the skin which becomes 
marked with blue or red stripes, and who is harassed 
by hosts of blue flies after a bath or an anointment, 
should be regarded as one who has already passed the 
confines of life. 

Similarly, the man whose body emits a fragrant smell 
without having been rubbed with any kind of perfume, 
or to whom a sweet thing tastes acid, and an acid tastes 
sweet, or who exhibits symptoms of a general per- 
version of the faculty of taste, or in whom (articles 
of) different tastes (administered in their officinal 
order of enumeration') tend to aggravate the deranged 
bodily humours, or bring about their pacification and 
a dulness of appetite if partaken of in the inverted 



286 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXX. 

order, should be regarded as a departed soul, like 
the one who has lost the faculty of taste. 

The man, who deems a fetid odour to be a fragrant 
perfume, or one fragi'ant to be fetid, or one who does 
not feel any discomfort even at the smell of a burning 
lamp wick that has just been extinguished, or who has 
entirely lost the faculty of smell, should be looked 
upon as a dead man. 

The man, to whom the twin attributes of heat and 
cold, pleasure and pain, as well as the peculiarities of 
weather (as storm, drought, snowfall, etc.), and the 
different quarters of the sky appear to be reversed or 
inverted ; one who has lost all distinctions (of joy and 
misery, storm and sunshine, heat and cold, etc.), or to 
whom the specific attributes of things appear to be 
contrary and reversed, should be regarded as on the 
point of death. The man, who sees stars ablaze in the 
broad day-light or fancies seeing the fiery orb of 
the sun by night an.d the mellow disc of the moon 
by day, or who seems to witness the phenomena of 
rainbow and lightning even in the absence of any 
rain cloud, or the formation of a lightning-spangled 
rain-cloud even in a clear blue sky, is sure to be 
speedily gathered to his rest. The man, who observes 
the reflected images of chariots, palaces and aerial 
cars in the heavens, or sees the embodied images of 
the fire and sky gods, or to whom the earth 



Chap. XXX.] SUTRASTHANAM. 287 

appears to be enveloped in frost or smoke, or 
enshrouded in a sheet of fine linen, or chequered 
with cross lines, or blazing with fire, or flooded with 
water, or to whose sight the Pole Star and the asterism 
Arundhati (one of the Pliades) and the Milky Way 
remain invisible, should be reckoned as already with 
the dead. 

The man, who foils to see his own image reflected 
in a mirror, in the moonlight, or in hot water, or sees 
but distorted reflections of himself or of any other 
animal, or of dogs, cows, storks, vultures, ghosts, 
Yakshas, Rakshas, Pishachas and Nagas, should be 
regarded as about to depart this life. The man, to 
whom fire appears to be free of its natural accom 
paniment of smoke, or that it is possessed of a colour 
resembling the hue of the breast feathers of a 
peacock, should be regarded as doomed, (if happening 
to be suffering from any disease). On the other hand, 
these phenomena indicate the approach of a disease 
in one, who is found to be as yet in the enjoyment 
of apparent health. 

Thus ends the thirtieth Chapter of the Sulrasthdnam in the Sushriita 
Samhitd which deals with prognosis from the perverted functions of the 
live sense ortrans. 



CHAPTER XXX I. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
deals with the prognosis to be gathered from the 
altered condition of features (Chhd'yar-Viprati- 
patti madhy^yam).* 

IVIetrical Text: — The man, whose complexion 
suddenly assumes a brown, red, blue or yellow shade, 
should be regarded as already gathered to his rest. The 
man, who has lost all sense of modesty or propriety, 
and whose complexion, and whose strength (ojah) and 
memory have suddenly undergone discolouration or 
extreme deterioration, should be counted with the dead. 
Little chance there is of the life of a patient whose 
lower lip hangs down while the upper one is drawn or 
turned up, and both of them have assumed a black 
colour like that of a jamboline fruit. The patient, 
whose teeth fall out or which have assumed a reddish 



* Physicians of the Ayurvedic School, however, observe a dislinclion 
between Chhiyd (shade of complexion), PrabhA (healthful glow of the 
complexion), and Varna (natural colour of the complexion) itself. The 
Chh%d or the shade of one's complexion may be easily distinguished 
as clear, rough or cool, etc. and can be detected only on a close view. 
The Prabhd, on the other hand, is visible from a distance and admits of 
of being divided into seven different types, such as red, yellow, while, 
brown, greenish, pale, and black. The Varna or the natural colour of 
the complexion of a man is found to be either fair, black, dusky leaning 
towards the fair, according to his race and habitation. The term also 
includes natural modestv, look and ease. 



Chap. XXXI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 289 

or a dark brown colour, or a colour like that of a 
Khanjana bird (dark blue), should be reckoned as already- 
gathered to his fathers. 

The patient, whose tongue has become furred, 
swollen, or inert, or is of a black colour, should be 
considered as already at the gate of death. The patient, 
whose nose has sunk or become bent, cracked, dried, 
or who when breathing makes a gurgling sound through 
the nostrils, should be given up as lost. A patient 
is certainly quitting this life whose eyes appear to be 
contracted, or unequal, oblique, or inert, insensitive to 
light or touch, sunk in their sockets, or bloody, or 
marked by a copious lachrymation. The patient whose 
hair appears to have been glued to his head whose 
eyebrows are contracted and hang down, and whose 
eyelashes are listless should be considered as about to 
leave his mortal frame. 

The patient, who is incapable of swallowing any food 
or of holding up his head, and who looks with a kind of 
fixed stare, with all memories of life fully obliterated, 
should be deemed as d3'ing on that very day. A wise 
or prudent physician should give up the medical 
treatment of a patient, no matter whether strong 
or weak, who is found to be fainting away every 
time he is lifted up or seated. The patient, who 
constantly- extends or draws up his lower extremities, 
or keeps them in a gathered up posture, should be 

37 



290 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXI. 

looked upon as rapidly succumbing. A wise physician 
should abandon a patient, characterised by the cold- 
ness of his breath and extremities and a hurried and 
intermittent respiration, or who is found breathing with 
his mouth open, or lips separated. 

Similarly, a patient affected with a kind of stupor 
or insomnia and remaining drowsy, all day long, or 
fainting at the least attempt of speaking, should be 
counted with the dead. The patient, who licks his upper 
lip, or is troubled with eructations, or holds conversa- 
tions with the departed, should be deemed as already 
entered into the region of the dead. A man, spontane- 
ously bleeding through the roots of his hairs (pores of the 
skin) otherwise than in a case of poisoning, should be 
deemed as dying on that day. 

A patient, affected with an up-coursing pain about 
the cardiac region, like the one which distinguishes a 
case of V^tashtila (^appearance of a stone-like lump 
rising or seated within the thorax and ascribed to the 
action of the deranged Vayu), accompanied by an 
aversion to food, etc., should be already reckoned among 
the dead. 

An idiopathic swelling (Shopha) first occurring in 
either of the lower extremities in a male patient not as a 
complication of an}' other disease*, as well as a similar 
swelling first appearing at the face, or about the region 

* Such as Chlorosis, Ascites, lioemorrhoids. 



Chap. XXXI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 291 

of the anus in a male or a female patient, is sure to 
have a fatal termination. • 

A patient, suffering ■ from cough or asthma 
attended with dysentery, fever, hic-cough, vomiting 
and swelling of the penis and the scrotum, should 
be given up as lost. Excessive perspiration, burning, 
hic-cough, dyspnoea and hyperpyrexia with a burning 
sensation of the body, are undoubtedl)' capable of 
extinguishing the vital spark even in a strong patient. 
Similarl}^ a patient, with a black coated tongue and the 
left eye sunk in its socket and a foul smell from the 
mouth, should be given up as lost. 

The mouth of a man, who is on his way to the 
mansions of the god of death, becomes filled v^ith tears, 
the legs are wet with perspiration, and the pupils 
of the eyes roll about or become listless. 

The patient, whose limbs become all of a sudden 
abnormally light or heavy, is sure to go to the region of 
the son of the da5''-god (Yama.i The patient, whose 
body emits a fishy, dirty or a fragrant smell, or smells 
like fat, oil, or clarified-butter, is on the way to the 
mansions of Death. 

The patient on whose forehead lice freely move 
about, or whose offerings the crows do not eat, or who 
does not find comfort in any position or place, goes to 
the mansions of the god of death. A patient, who has 



2g2 ''^HE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA', [Chap. xxxi. 

become emaciated and enfeebled, or has been suffering 
from a complication of such diseases as fever, dysentery, 
oedema, etc., one supervening another pre-existing 
malady, should be deemed as beyond the pale 
of medicine. A ravenous hunger or an unquench- 
able thirst in a weak patient, who refuses 
to be appeased or satisfied with sweet, whole- 
some and ]ialatable food or drink, should be re- 
garded as a fatal indication. A patient exhibiting 
such symptoms as diarrhoea, an excruciating headache, 
colic in the intestines, thirst and gradual faihng of 
strength, stands in danger of imminent death. 
Death is due to the transitory character of life, 
or it may be attributed to irregular conduct, or 
to the deeds of one's previous existence transformed 
into the dynamics of fate. 

Ghosts, evil spirits, Pishachas and monsters of 
various shapes and denomination, constanth^ lead men 
to death. These evil spirits, owing to their natural 
killing propensities, nullify the efficacies of medicines ; 
and hence it is futile to take in hand the medical treat- 
ment of a man who exhibits any of the abovesaid fatal 
symptoms, and thereby testifies that lie has fallen into 
the clutches of such evil spirits. 

Thus ends the Thirty-first Chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the Sushruta- 
SamhitA which deals with prognosis from perverted features. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 
Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which treats 
of the prognosis based on the perversion of the external 
appearances of the body (Svabha'va-viprati- 
patti - madhyaryam) . 

A contrariety of the natural features of any part or 
member of the body should be looked upon as a fatal 
indication. The blackness of a limb or a part which 
is naturally white,* or the whiteness of a blackf part, 
or a naturally red| part, or member, etc. assuming any 
other colour, or a hard§ part becoming soft, and 
vice versaW, or a movableU part suddenly becoming 
fixed, and vice versa** or the contraction (flexion) of an 
extended part, or the extension or expansion of a 
contracted (flexible; part, or a shorttt part suddenly 
becoming elongatedji, and vice versa, or a sudden 
hanging down of a part or member of the body which 
does not naturally §§ hang down, and vice versa\\\\, 
or a sudden increase or decrease of natural temperature 
of any part, member, or organ of the body, as well 
as its sudden glossiness, roughness, numbness, discolour- 
ation, weakness, or weariness, should be looked upon as 
fatal symptoms. 

* The teeth and the cornea, f The iris, J The tongue and the 
palate, etc. § Bones, teeth, etc. |i Soft parts such as the flesh, fat, etc. 
H Joints, etc. ** Nose, ears and flesh, etc. ft Head and forehead, etc. 
XX Pupils, etc. §§ Hair, nails, etc. |i|| Perspiration, urine and feces, etc. 



294 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XXXII. 



(Similarly) a limb or a part of the body, hanging 
down from its natural position, or becoming raised or 
twisted round, or cast obliquely from its natural seat, or 
dislocated, or protruded, or drawn inward, or suddenly 
becoming light or heavy without any definite or 
assignable cause, or a sudden eruption of a coral- 
coloured rash or Vyanga, should be regarded as indicat- 
ing a speedy dissolution of the patient in whom they 
are exhibited. 

Likewise, the appearance of veins in the region of 
the forehead, or an eruption of postules on the ridge of 
the nose, perspiration on the forehead in the morning, 
copious lachrymation without any ocular complaint, 
a sense of being dusted with dried and pulverised 
cowdung over the face, or the flying of pigeons, Kankas, 
etc, over one's head, or excessive micturitions or 
motions of the bowels from an empty stomach, or a 
suppression of urine or feces even after a hearty meal 
or draught, is fatal. So also, pain and aching about the 
breast and the chest, emaciation of the extremities 
and an oedema of the middle part of the trunk, and 
vice versa ; or an oedema of the upper trunk and 
emaciation of the lower part, and vice versa ; or an 
oedema of the left half of the body and emaciation 
of the right, and vice versa ; or hoarseness, huskiness, or 
loss of voice, discolouring of the teeth, nails or of the 
skin, eruption of white patches on the chest, etc, of the 



Chap. XXXII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 295 

body, should be deemed as signs which forebode the 
approaching dissolution of an individual. 

Moreover the patient, whose semen, or expectorated 
or fecal matter does not float on water, or who sees the 
distorted or bifurcated images of objects, or whose hair 
shines with a gloss as if anointed with oil, finds his 
relief in death. A weak dysentery patient with 
a complete aversion to food, or one who is 
tormented with thirst even when suffering from 
a cough, or a man suffering from chronic catarrh 
with a complete loathing for food, or from 
gastritis ^Sula) with aphonia, and vomiting frothy 
blood and pus, should be regarded as past all cure. A 
patient, enfeebled and emaciated through fever, cough 
and an oedematous swelling of the face and the extre- 
mities, and showing the greatest aversion to food, 
and the muscles of whose calves, shoulders and thighs 
have grown loose and flabby, should be considered as 
awaiting the call of death. 

A patient, suffering from fever, cough, and vomiting, 
or passing with the stool, in the evening, undigested 
food matter eaten in the morning, would die of asthma. 
The patient, who falls to the ground bleating hke a 
goat, and exhibits such symptoms as a rupture of the 
testes, numbness of the penis, drooping of the neck 
and introsusception of the penis, should be considered 
as past all cure. The patient, whose heart is first felt 



296 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXII. 

dry followed by becoming covered with a slimy 
moisture of the whole body, as well as one who strikes 
a stone with a stone, or a piece of wood with a 
piece of wood, or who cleaves in two blades of 
dried grass, or one who bites his lower lip and licks the 
upper one, or draws his ears and tears his hair, or dis- 
honours the gods and the Brahmanas, as well as his 
own physician, friends and relations, should be regarded 
as beyond the pale of medicine. 

Similarl}', a disease, due to the influence of a malig- 
nant planet occupying, either through its retrogade or 
zigzag movement, an inauspicious position in relation to 
the natal asterism of the patients, is sure to terminate 
in death. A man, struck by lightning or a falling meteor, 
baffles all medicinal skill. Similarly, a disease due to 
the fact of one's own house, wife, bed, seat, con- 
veyance, or riding-animal assuming any ill-omened 
features, or a disease originated through the use of gems, 
utensils, garments, etc. of forbidden or inauspicious 

character usuall}^ ends in death (Aristam). 

« 
Authoritative verses on the Sub- 
ject : — A disease, appearing in an enfeebled and 
emaciated subject and refusing to yield to a course of 
proper medicinal treatment, and which becomes rather 
aggravated by the administraticn of proper medicinal 
remedies or antidotes, necessarily portends the death of 
the patient. 



Chap. XXXII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 297 

A Mahavyadhi* (lit : — a deep seated disease) sud- 
denly abating in a person in whom nourishment 
fails to produce any perceptible effect forebodes a fatal 
termination. The ph3'sician, who can detect and full}^ 
interpret these fatal indications, is honoured by the king 
for determining the curable or incurable nature of a 
disease. 

* Any deep seated disease, which seriously affects the vital principles 
of a man, is called MahAvj-^dhi. Diseases such as Prameha, V^tavyadhi, 
Shosha, etc. have also been included within the category in the Chapter on 
ICciya-chikitsh^. A general amelioration or recovery in these cases being 
natural, on account of their deep-seated character, a sudden abatement 
is usually fraught with fatal consequences. (Arishtattl.) 

Thus ends the thirty-second Chapter of Sutrasthanam in the Sushrula- 
S^mhita which deals with the prognosis based on perversion of the 
natural appearances of the body. 



38 



CHAPTER XXXII I. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which treats of 
incurable diseases (A'varaniya-madhyayam). 

IVIetrical texts :— Hear me describe, Oh child, 
the diseases which being attended with many a 
distressing and supervenient symptom, and being 
treated without rejuvenating and restorative medicines, 
speedily assume incurable character. The following 
eight diseases, viz : — Maha-Vata-vyadhi (paralysis 
or diseases affecting the nervous system in general), 
Prameha morbid discharges from the urethra) , Kushtha, 
Arsha (piles), Vagandara fistula in ano\ Ashmari 
(stone in the bladder), Mudha-garbha (false presen- 
tations) and the eight kinds of Udari (abdominal drops)'-) 
are, by their very nature, extremely hard to cure. A phy- 
sician with any regard to professional success should aban- 
don a patient laid up with any of the preceding diseases, 
marked by complications such as, emaciation of the 
body, loss of strength, dyspnoea, palpitation, wasting, 
vomiting, dysentery and hie- cough, fever and swoon. 
A case of Vatavyadhi developing symptoms, such as 
oedematous swelling, complete anesthesia of the affected 
part, breaking and palsy shaking) of the affected limbs, 
distention of the abdomen, with aching and colic pain, 
usually ends in death. 



Chap. XXXIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



299 



A case of Prameha, attended with indications 
as are to be found under the head of that disease, 
as well as an increased secretion of urine charged 
with semen, albumen, etc. and eruptions of specific 
abcesses (.known as Sharavika etc.) is sure to have 
a fatal termination. 

A case of Kushtha (leprosy) characterised by sponta- 
neous bursting of the affected parts, hoarse voice, 
and blood-shot eyes, and not proving itself amen- 
able to the five-fold appliances of emetics, purga- 
tives, etc. (Pancha-Karma), usuall)^ ends in death. 
A case of piles attended with thirst, aversion to food, 
colic pain, excessive haemorrhage, anasarca (Shopha) 
of the locality, and dysenter}'' is soon relieved by 
death. 

A patient suffering from an attack of fistula in 
ano, characterised by an emission of flatus (Vayu), 
urine, fecal matter, worms and semen through the 
ulcerated locality, should be given up as lost. A 
patient suffering from the presence of stone, gravel, or 
urinary concretions (Sharkar^) in the bladder and 
attended with oedema of the scrotum and the umbilicus, 
retention of urine, and colic pain in that organ, is 
soon relieved of his pain by death. 

In a case of false presentation ^Mudhagarva) an 
extreme constriction of the mouth of the uterus 



300 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. f Chap. XXXIII. 

(os uteri), development of the peculiar pain of child- 
birth, which is known as Makkalla, tonic rigidity of 
the vagina, and situation of the placenta (Apara) at a 
wrong place (false pregnancy; and other symptoms (con- 
vulsions, cough, d3^spnoea, vertigo etc/i described in the 
Chapter on the Etiology of that disease, forebode the 
death of the parturient woman. 

A patient suffering from abdominal dropsy (ascites) 
marked by pain at the sides, aversion to food, oede- 
matous swelling of the limbs, dysentery and fresh 
accumulation of water even after he had been tapped, 
or evacuated with the exhibition of purgatives, should 
be given up as incurable. A case of fever in which 
the patient becomes restless and tosses about in the 
bed in an unconscious state, and lies extremely pros- 
trate, or is incapable of sitting or of holding himself up 
in any other position and is besides afllicted with rigor 
though complaining of a burning sensation within, 
is sure to end in death. 

Similarly, a fever patient developing such symptoms 
as, the appearance of goose flesh on the skin, an aching 
gathered-up pain in the cardiac region, blood-shot 
or congested eyes, and breathing through the mouth 
should be deemed as already at the threshold of 
death. Similarly, a case of fever, attended with hic-cough, 
dyspnoea, thirst, fits of unconsciousness or fainting, and 
rolling of the eye-balls, proves fatal in a weak and 



Chap. XXXIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 301 

emaciated patient, who is found to breathe hurriedly 
through the mouth. 

A case of fever proves fatal in a patient, found 
to be restless or to lie inert in an unconscious 
(subcomatose) state with dull, clouded, or tearful eyes, 
or prostrate, somnolent and extremely emaciated. A 
fever patient and especially an old one extremely 
enfeebled and emaciated, readily succumbs to an 
attack of dysentery in which laboured respiration, 
colic and thirst supervene. 

An attack of Phthisis (Yakshm^) leads its victim 
to death in whom glossiness of the e3'es, aversion 
to food, expiratory (subclavicle) dyspnoea, difficult and 
up-drawn breathing (Urdha-Shvasa), and painful and 
and excessive micturition (diarrhoea according to others), 
manifest themselves, A patient suffering from an 
attack of Gulma (abdominal gland), and on the verge 
of death, exhibits such symptoms as laboured and painful 
respiration, colic pain, unquenchable thirst, aversion 
to food, loss of consciousness, anaemia, and the sudden 
obliteration of the Granthi (tumorous or glandular 
formation). 

A person laid up with an attack of Vidradhi (abscess) 
and exhibiting such fatal symptoms as distension 
of the abdomen, retention of urine, vomiting, hic- 
cough, thirst, pain of a varied character (such as aching, 
excruciating, etc.) and dyspnoea, should be regarded 



302 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, XXXIII. 

as to have approached the goal of his life. A patient 
suffering from an attack • of jaundice or chlorosis 
marked by yellowness of the teeth, nails, and of the 
conjunctivae, and seeing everything yellow, is not 
expected to long survive the occurrence of the attack. 

A person laid up with an attack of Haemoptysis, 
largely vomiting blood, and viewing everything red or 
blood-coloured with his blood-shot eyes, should be 
regarded as about to depart this life. A person, insane, 
extremely enfeebled and emaciated, and sitting up sleep- 
less in the night, or with eyes constantly lifted upward 
or cast down, would be soon relieved of his earthly 
suffering. A case of Apasm^ra (epilepsy) proves fatal 
in a person, who is extremely emaciated, and whose 
eye-brows are constantly moving and whose eyes seem 
fixed in an unnatural (oblique) stare. 

Thus ends the the thirty-third Chapter of the Sutrasthinam in the 
Sushruta Samhita which treats of incurable diseases. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which treats 
of the mode of preserving the life of a king whose 
soldiers are on march (J ucta-Scniya-madhy^- 
yam). 

Metrical Texts :— I shall presentl}^ describe 
the measures, which a physician in the king's service 
should adopt with a view to protect the life of his royal 
master, specially from acts of secret poisoning, while 
mobilizing his armies to invade the territor}^ of a 
neighbouring monarch accompanied by his chiefs and 
ministers. 

A common practice of the enemy under such 
circumstances is to poison the wells on the roadside, the 
articles of food, the shades of trees (shadowy places) and 
the fuel and forage for cattle ; hence it is incumbent 
on a physician marching with the troops, to inspect, 
examine and purify these before using any of them, 
in case they be poisoned. The symptoms and medical 
treatment will be fully described and discussed later on 
in the part, entitled the Kalpa Sthanam. 

Men, learned in the lore of the Atharva Veda, hold 
that death may be attributed to a hundred and one 
different causes, (lit : deaths of a hundred and one 
kinds) of which one (which is that of an old man 



304 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXXIV. 



natural!}'- and spontaneously expiring) is called natural, 
while the rest are unnatural or traumatic in their 
origin. Physicians conversant with the curative virtues 
of drugs and minerals, and priests well versed in the 
Vedic Mantras, should jointly protect the king from 
death, whether due to idiopathic (Doshajai or 
extrinsic causes. 

The god Brahma disclosed to the world the Atharva 
Veda together with the eight allied branches of 
Vedic hterature and the science of medicine. And 
since a priest (Brahmana) is well- versed in the aforesaid 
branches of study, a physician should act subserviently 
and occupy a subordinate position to the priest. The 
death of a king usually leads to a political revolu- 
tion or to popular disturbances and brings about a 
confusion among the vocations of the different orders 
of society. The growth of population markedly 
suffers through such catastrophies. 

As the external features of a king resemble those of a 
common person, while his (king's) commanding majesty, 
sacrifice, forbearance and fortune are super- human 
(in their nature and intensity), therefore a man should, 
who is prudent and seeks his own good, think 
reverentially of his king, and propitiate him with 
tokens of loyalty and allegiance as if he were a deity. 
A physician, fully equipped with a supply of medicine, 
should live in a camp not remote from the royal 



Chap. XXXIV. ] SUTRASTKANAM. 365 

pavilion, and there the persons wounded by shafts ot 
arrows or an}^ other war projectiles, or suffering 
from the effects of any imbibed poison, should 
resort to him (the physician), conspicuous like a tri- 
umphant ensign for his fame and professional success. 
A physician, well versed in his own technical science, 
and commanding a fair knowledge of other allied 
branches of study as well, is glorified by his king 
and the Brahmanas, and is like a banner of victory an 
ennobling ornament to the state. 

The physician, the patient, the medicine, and the 
attendants (nurses are the four essential factors of a 
course of medical treatment. Even a dangerous disease 
is readily cured, or it may be expected to run a speedy 
course in the event of the preceding four factors being 
respectively found to be (qualified, self-controlled, 
genuine and intelligently watchful . 

In the absence of a qualified physician the three 
remaining factors of treatment will prove abortive like a 
religious sacrifice performed with the help of an 
Udgatri,* a Hotri,t and a Brahmana, in the absence of 
an Adhvaryam.t A qualified physician is alone capable 
ofreheving the pain of many a suffering patient, just as 

"' Udgdtri ; —One of the four piiucipal priests al a sacrifice, who chants 
llie hymns of the Sdma Veda. 

t Hotri — A priest, who recites the (Riks) pr.iyers of the Rik \'eda at a 
religious sacrifice. 

t Adhvaryyu — A priest of the ^'ayur \'eda, whose duly is to cast the 
sacrificial beast into the fire. 

39 



3o6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, xxxiv. 

only a helmsman is capable of taking his boat across a 
river even without the help <ind co-operation of a single 
oarsman. 

Qualities of a physician :— A physician, 
who is well versed in the science of medicine and has 
attended to the demonstrations of surgery and medicine, 
and who himself practises the healing art, and is clean, 
courageous, light-handed, fully equipped with supplies 
of medicine, surgical instruments and appliances, 
and who is intelligent, well read, and is a man of ready 
resources, and one commands a decent practice, and is 
further endowed with all moral virtues, is alone fit to 
be called a physician. 

Patient : — The patient, who believes in a kind 
and all-merciful Providence, and possesses an unshakable 
fortitude and strong vital energy, and who is laid up 
with a curable form of disease, and is not greedy, and 
who further commands all the necessary articles at his 
disposal, and firmly adheres to the advice of his 
physician, is a patient of the proper or commendable 
type. 

lYIedicine : — The proper; medicine is that which 
consists of drugs grown in countries most congenial to 
their growth, collected under the auspices of proper 
lunar phases and asterisms, and compounded in proper 
measures and proportions, and which is pleasing 
(exhilarating to the mind and has the property of 



Chap. XXXIV.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



307 



subduing the deranged bodily humours without creating 
any discomfort to the patient, and which is harmless 
eveil in an overdose, and is judiciously administered at 
the opportune moment. 

Nurse : — That person alone is fit to nurse or to 
attend the bedside of a patient, who is cool-headed 
and pleasant in his demeanour, does not speak ill of 
any body, is strong and attentive to the requirements 
of the sick, and strictly and indefatigably follows the 
instructions of the physician. 

Thus ends the ihirly-fourth Chapter of the SiitrasthSnam in the 
Sushruia Samhit^, which treats of preserving the life of a king whose 
soldiers are on march. 



l! 



CHAPTER XXXV 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which deals 
with clinical observations (A'turopakramaniya- 
madhyaryam). 

A physician should first observe the vital condition 
(Ayu) of the patient before commencing the medical 
treatment. After that, the nature of the disease, the 
country and season of the year in which it has made its 
appearance, as well as the state of digestion, age, body, 
strength, disposition, habit, previous medicine, natural 
temperament and the power of endurance of the 
patient, etc. should be observed and carefully examined. 

Characteristic features of a long 
lived man : — Men, the dimensions of whose 
hands, legs, sides, back, nipples of the breast, teeth, 
face, shoulders and forehead exceed the average, as 
well as those whose eyes, arms, phalanges and fingers 
are longer than the ordinary ones should be regarded as 
going to live long. Those who have broad chests, 
broad eye-brows with broader spaces intervening between 
the muscles of the breasts, and who take in deeper 
inspirations of breath, will be long lived. Those whose 
necks, thighs, and generative organs are shorter than 
those of the average type, or those whose voices and 
umbilical cavities -are deep, and whose breasts are unraised 
an d thick-set, and external ears broad, fleshy and haiiy. 



Chap. XXXV. j SUTRASTHA'NAM. 309 

with the occipital region fully developed and protruded, 
will enjoy a longer span of' life. Men, on whose bodies 
sandal paste and similar preparations begin to dry 
up from the head downward, while those applied over 
the chest become absorbed later, should be looked upon 
as persons endowed with an uncommonly longer dura- 
tion of life. 

The medical treatment of such a patient may be 
unhesitatingly taken in hand by a physician. Persons, 
exhibiting bodily features other than those described 
above, should be looked upon as short-lived men, 
while those, who are possessed of features common 
to men of both the above mentioned types, should 
be considered as keeping the mean between them 
as regards longevity (Madhyamayuh). 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — A man, with deep-set bones, ligaments, and 
veins, and tough and thick-set limbs, and firm and 
unflinching sense organs, as well as one whose body 
gradually develops a more and more symmetrical 
shape, should be looked upon as a long-lived man The 
man, who has not ailed for a single moment even from 
the day of his birth, and has been getting more and 
more strong- limbed every day through the culti- 
vation of his inborn sense and a better knowledge 
of the laws of health, is sure to live to a good old age 
in the full enjoyment of his senses and intellect. 



3IO THE SUSHRTTTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXV. 

IVIadhyama^uh :— Now, hear me describe 
the bodily features of a man of a mean or aver- 
age duration of life (Madhyamayuli;. The man, the 
integuments of whose lower eyelids are marked with 
two or three well-marked and extended lines or 
furrows, and whose legs and external ears are thick 
and fleshy, and the tip of whose nose is turned a 
little upward, and who has up-pointed lines directly 
running through the middle of his back, is expected to 
live up to the ripe old age of seventy years. 

Specific traits of a short-lived 

man : — ^Xow, hear me describe the specific traits, 
which characterise the body of a short-li^•ed man. 
A man with short phalanges of fingers, a narrow 
back, and external ears abnormall}' raised up from 
their natural seats, and who is possessed of a large 
penis, a high nose, a breast covered with ringlets 
of curly hair, and who exposes the gums of his 
teeth, or whose e3'es roll while talking or laughing, 
is not expected to see more than twenty-five summers. 

We shall now give the exact measures of the different 
limbs and members of the body for the better 
ascertainment of the duration of life of a patient 
under investigation. — The legs, the arms, and the 
head are called the limbs of the bod}*-, while their com- 
ponent parts are called the members (Avayavas). 
The great toe of a man, or the one next to it, measured 



Chap, xxxv.] SUTRASTHANAM. 311 

with his own fingers should measure two fingers' 
width in length, the lengths of the other toes (the third, 
fourth, and small ones) successively diminishing by 
a fifth part of that of his middle finger ( Pradeshini). 

The fore-sole and the sole proper respectively should 
measure four fingers' width in length and five fingers' 
width in breadth. The heel of the foot (Parshni) should 
measure five fingers' width in length and four fingers' 
wadth in breadth. The foot itself should measure 
fourteen fingers' width in length. The girth of the foot, 
as well as the circumference of the middle parts of 
thighs and knee-joints, respectively should measure 
fourteen fingers in width. 

The part of the leg between the ankle and the 
knee-joint should measure eighteen fingers' width in 
length, while the part between the joint of the waist 
and the knee-joint should measure thirty -two fingers' 
width in length, the entire leg thus measuring fifty 
fingers' width in all. The length of the thigh is the 
same as that of the part lying between the heel and the 
knee-joint (Jangha . 

The scrotum, the chin, the (two rows of) teeth, 
the exterior line of the nostrils^ the roots of the 
ears, and the intervening space between the eyes, should 
respectively measure two fingers' width in length. The 
non-erected penis, the cavity of the mouth, the two 
rows of teeth, the nose, the height of the neck. 



JI2 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXV. 

the ears, and the forehead, and the space intervenmg 
between the pupils of the eyes measure four fingers' 
width in length. 

The entire length of the vaginal canal should measure 
twelve fingers' width. The space l3nng between the penis 
and the umbihcus,as well as the one intervening between 
the chest and the upper end of the throat (lit : neck), 
like the one h'ing between the tips of the two 
nipples of the breast, should measure twelve fingers' 
width in length. The length of the entire face should 
measure twelve fingers' width. The girth round the 
wrist and the fore-arm of a man should measure twelve 
fingers. 

The girth round the knee-joint is sixteen fingers' 
width and the length between the wrist and the elbow 
should measure sixteen fingers' width. The part of the 
arm between the elbow and the tip of the middle finger 
should measure twenty-four fingers' width in all. The 
length of the entire arm mea.sures thirty- two fingers' 
width, and the girth round the thighs should measure 
thirty-two fingers' width. The palm of the hand should 
measure six fingers' width in length and four fingers' 
width in breadth. The space between the bottom 
of the ball of the thumb to the root of the index 
finger, as well as the space between the root of the ears 
to the outer corner or angle of the eyes, should measure 
live fingers' in length. The middle finger should 



Chap. XXXV. j SUTRASTHANAM. 31- 

measure five fingers' width in length. The index and 
the ring-fingers respectively -should measure four and a 
half fingers in length, the thumbs and the little fingers 
respectively measuring three and a half fingers. 

The fissure of the mouth should measure four fingers 
in length. The girth round the neck should measure 
twenty fingers. Each of the cavities of the nostrils 
should measure one and three quarter parts of a 
finger in length. The region of the iris occupies a third 
part of the entire area of the cornea. The region of 
the pupil should measure a ninth part thereof 

The arch extending from the hairy extremity of 
the templar region to the middle point of the back 
of the head should measure eleven fingers. The distance 
between the middle of the head and the terminal 
point of the hairy portion of the neck should measure 
ten fingers in length. The girth of the neck measured 
from the back of one ear to that of the other should be 
fourteen fingers. The length of the pelvic region of 
a young woman measured from below the anterior 
side of the thigh joints should be found to be equal to 
the breadth of the chest (Vakshah) in a male subject 
'twelve fingers\ 

The thigh of a woman should be eighteen fingers in 

breadth and equal to that of the waist of a man. The 

entire length of a male human body should be a hundred 

and twenty fingers. 
40 



314 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. xxxv. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject:— An intelligent physician should regard the 
organism oi" a man of twenty- five or of a woman of 
sixteen years of age, as fully developed in respect of 
the maturity of the seven fundamental principles of the 
body such as, serum, blood, Sic). The dimensions 
of the different limbs and members of the body, laid 
down above, should be understood as to have been 
measured by the standard of one's (man's or woman's) 
own finger's width, and a person, whose limbs and organs 
are found to correspond to the above-said measures, is 
sure to live to a good and hearty old age, as a 
necessary and befitting sequel to a happ3' and prosperous 
career in life. In the case of a partial correspondence 
of one's limbs and organs to the above-said measures 
and proportions, a man should be regarded as having 
an average life and prosperity. A person whose limbs 
fall short of the abovesaid measures should be regarded 
as an indigent and short-lived person. 

Physical temperament (Sa'ra) :— Now 

we shall describe the characteristic traits of the 
different preponderant principles (Sara) or temperaments 
of the human organism. A man, who is possessed of a 
good retentive memory, and is intelligent, valorous and 
cleanly in his habits, and whose mind is graced with 
such rare and excellent virtues as, purity of thought, and 
a fervent and unflinching devotion to gods and the 
reverend, and who exerts himself for the furtherance 



Chap. XXXV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 31^ 

of the absolute good, should be regarded as a man of 
Satvasara (psychic or illumined) temperament. 

A man with glossy, white and close-set bones, 
teeth, and nails and who has beootten a large 
family of children, and shows a marked amative ten- 
dency, should be looked upon as a man in whom the prin- 
ciple of semen decidedly preponderates. A man with a 
thin and sinewy bod}', and who exibits traits of excessive 
strength, and possesses a deep resonant voice, and a pair 
of large and handsome eyes, and who is successful in 
ever}' walk of life, should be looked upon as one in 
whom the principle of marrow preponderates. A man 
with a large head, and a large pair of shoulders, and 
having firm teeth, bones, cheek-bones, and finger-nails, 
should be considered as one in whom the principle 
of bone preponderates. 

A man with a large and bulky body, and who is 
capable of enduring a large amount of fatigue or 
physical exertion, and who naturally talks in a soft 
and melodious voice, and whose bodily secretions 
such as urine and perspiration are characterised by 
coldness should be regarded as one of a fatty tempera- 
ment. A man with an erect and upright frame, and 
deep-set bones, and joints in thick layers of flesh, 
should be regarded as one in whom the principle of 
flesh predominates. 

A man, whose finger nails, eyes, tongue, palate. 



! 



3i6 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Clmp. xxxv 



lips, palms of hands and soles of feet are glossy, and 
tinged with a shade of red, should be looked upon as one 
in whom blood forms the essential and predominant 
principle. A man with a soft, smooth and pleasant skin 
and hair should be considered as one in whom serum 
fTvak) forms the essential principle of the body. In 
respect of worldly success and longevity, men of 
each of the aforesaid types should be successively 
judged inferior to men belonging to the one pre- 
ceding it in the above order of enumeration. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : A quabfied physician should examine the dura- 
tion of life in a patient with the help of the aforesaid 
measures of limbs and the essential bodily principles, 
before proceeding to take up his medical treatment, and 
his professional success should be decidedly increased 
thereby. 

All the diseases, whose names have been specifically 
enumerated before, ma}' be grouped under any of the 
three different heads as the curable, the suppressible 
(Yapya) and the incurable (lit : fit to be pronounced 
as hopeless). 

Each of these different types, in its turn, should be 
carefully observed so as to determine whether it is a 
primar}' or an independent disease, or merely an 
accessory or sympathetic one, or the premonitory indica- 
tion of an incipient distemper in its incubative stage. 



Chap. XXXV. ] SUTRASTHA'XAM. ^17 

An A upasargika (sympathetic) disease is merely a 
symptom developed in the course of an original or 
primary malady, and which has its foundation in the 
very nature or component factors of the pre-existing 
distemper. A disease, Avhich manifests itself from the 
commencement of a case and is neither an accessor}' 
symptom, nor a premonitory indication of any other 
distemper, is called a Prak-kevalam (primary or 
original) one. A disease which indicates the advent 
of a future or impending malad}' is called a Purvaru- 
pam (premonitory stage or indication of a disease). 

The medicinal remedy to be administered in any 
particular case should be selected with an eye to the 
curative ^•irtues of each of its components, so as not to 
clash with the nature (cause) of the disease and its 
accompanying symptoms, and to prove simultaneously 
soothing to both of them. On the contrary, a violent 
unfavourable symptom should be first attended to and 
checked in a case where it would be found to have 
grown stronger and more distressing or dangerous than 
the original malady in course of which it has been 
developed. 

A primary or independent malady, unattended 
with any of the distressing or unfavourable symptoms, 
should be treated according to its indications and the 
nature of the deranged humours involved therein, 
while in an incubative disease the treatment should 



3i8 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. Chap. XXXV. 



consist in subduing a premonitory s^'mptom as soon as 
it would make itself manifest. 

Authoritative Verse on the sub 
ject : — As there is not a single disease, which can 
make its appearance without the participation of any of 
the deranged bodil)' liumours, a wise physician is en- 
joined to administer medicines according to the specific 
features of the deranged humours involved in a disease 
whose nature and treatment have not even been de- 
scribed in any book on medicine. The different seasons 
of the year have been described before. 

IVIetricai Texts :— In the cold season, a 
disease should be treated with measures and remedies 
endued with the virtue of destroying or warding off 
cold, while in summer the medicinal treatment should 
consist of measures and applications capable of alla^n'ng 
the heat. The medical treatment of a disease 
should be connnenced just at the opportune moment, 
which should not be allowed to expire in vain under 
any circumstances whatsoever. A course of medical treat- 
ment commenced at an inopportune moment, or not 
resorted to at the advent of its proper time, as well as 
over or insufficient medication, proves abortive even in 
a curable type of disease. The proper medical treat- 
ment (of a disease) is that which successfully copes 
with the malady under treatment, and arrests the 
recrudescence of a fresh one by way of sequel, and not 



Chap. XXXV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. :>ig 

that, which, though subduing a particular distemper, 
is immediately followed by a new one. 

It has been demonstrated before that the food of 
a man is digested only with the help of the digestive 
fire or heat (Pachakagni), which may be divided into 
four ditferent kinds (states). One of these kinds is due 
to it not being in any way affected by the deranged 
humours of the body, while the other three are respec- 
tively ascribed to the fact of their becoming so deranged. 
The digestive fire or heat becomes irregular or fitful 
(Vishamagni) through the action of the deranged Vayu, 
becomes keen, through the action of the deranged 
Pittam, and dull or sluggish, through the action of 
the deranged Kapham. The fourth kind (Sama) 
continues in a state unaffected by any of the morbid 
humoural constituents of the body owing to their 
maintaining the normal equilibrium. 

Samargni and Vishamei'gni :— The diges- 
tive heat, which l\illy digests the ingested food at the 
proper time without the least irregularit}', thus 
reflecting the continuance of the bodily humours in their 
normal state, is called Samagni. The digestive heat 
which is irregular in its action, and which sometimes 
helps the process of complete digestion, and produces 
distension of the abdomen, colic pain, constipation of 
the bowels, dysentery, ascites, heaviness of the limbs. 



320 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. Xxxv. 

rumbling in the intestines, and loose motions (diarrha;a) 
at other times, is called Vishamagni. 

Tikshna'gni :- -The digestive heat, which helps 
the digestion of even a heavy meal within an incredibly 
short space of time, is called " Keen " (Tikshnagni) and 
which becoming abnormally augmented begets an 
excessive or voracious appetite (Atyagni), helps a 
glutton to digest his frequent meals, and produces a 
parched throat, palate and lips, heat and other dis- 
comforts. 

Wlanda'g'ni :— The digestive fire or heat which 
causes the tardy digestion even of a scanty meal, and 
produces heaviness of the abdomen and head, cough, 
difficult breathing, water-brash, nausea, and weariness 
of the limbs simultaneously with the taking thereof, 
is called dull or sluggish (Mandagni). 

Metrical Texts :— The digestive fire of the 
Vishama kind brings on diseases characterised by the 
derangement of the Vayu. A keen (Tikshna) digestive 
fire brings on bilious (Pittcija) affections, while a sluggish 
(Manda) fire gives rise to diseases marked by a 
deranged state of the Kapham. Endeavours should be 
made to keep the digestive fire of the Sama type 
normal or regular appetite*; in an unimpaired state. 

■" TIktc is a (lifk'iencc Ijclwccn "Agni" and "appclile." Ayni includo 
liile and pancrcalic sccrcliuns, and hence inchcales llie stale of ones diges- 
tion. Appetite, though not an iinening indicator of the ]:)r(jcess, is the 
eliecl of Agni. 



Chap. XXXV. ] SUTRAStHANAM. 321 

The one known as Vishama 'irregular) should be cor- 
rected by a diet consisting' of emollient, acid or saline 
substances. In a case of abnormally keen digestive 
fire, the medical treatment should consist in prescrib- 
ing purgatives and a diet in the composition of 
which sweet, cooling, and fatty or albuminous 
matters largely enter. The same treatment should be 
adopted in (Atyagni) as marked in cases of voracious 
appetite, and a diet consisting of buffalo-milk, or its curd 
(Dadhi) and liquid buffalo- butter should be prescribed for 
the patient in addition. Emetics should be administered 
in a case of dull or sluggish digestion (Mandagni), 
and the patient should be restricted to a diet consisting 
of articles of a pungent, astringent or bitter taste. 

IVIetrical Texts :— The fire, that burns within 
a person, is godly in its subtle essence, and possesses 
the divine attributes of atom-like invisibility, weight- 
lessness, etc., and is the digestant of food. It takes 
up the lymph chyle of different tastes for the 
purpose of digestion, and is invisible owing to its 
extremely subtle essence. The three vital Vayus 
known as Prana, Apana and Samana, located in their 
own spheres within the organism, feed it and keep it 
burning. 

The three stages of man may be roughly described 

as (i) infancy or childhood, (2) youth or middle age, 

and (y old age or dotage. Childhood extends up to the 
41 



322 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. xxxV. 

sixteenth year of life, and children may be divided into 
three different classes, according as they are fed on 
milk, or on milk and boiled rice or on boiled rice 
alone. A child lives exclusively on milk up to the first 
year of its life, it is fed on milk and boiled rice (hard 
food) up to the second year, and is thenceforward 
nourished with boiled rice (hard food). 

The middle age of a man extends from the sixteenth 
to the seventieth year of his life, and exhibits the traits 
of growth, youth, arrest of de^'elopment and decay. 

The process of growth or building goes on up to 
the twentieth year of life, when youth or the age 
of maturity sets in and holds sway over the body of 
a man up to the thirtieth year of his life, — the strength, 
semen, and all the organs and vital principles of the 
body attain (their full maturity at the age of forty. 
Thenceforth decay gradually sets in up to the 
seventieth year of life. After that the strength and 
energy of a man dwindle day by dav. The organs and 
virility grow weak and suffer deterioration. The hair 
turns to a silvery white, the parched skin looks shrivelled 
and becomes impressed with marks of dotage (crow's 
feet-marks). The skin hangs down and becomes flabby, 
the hair begins to fall off, and symptoms of alopecia 
mark the smooth, sheen and balded pate. The respira- 
tion becomes laboured and painful. The body, worn out 
like an old and dilapidated building, shakes with fits of 



*=^ 



Chap. XXXV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 323 

distressing cough. Such a man is incapable of all acts, 
and does but imperfectly perform all bodily functions. 
He has grown old. 

The dose of medicine should be increased with the 
age of a patient till the age of decay, and reduced after 
the expiry of the seventieth year to the quantity 
( which is usuall}' prescribed for an youth of sixteen). 

Authoritative verses on the Sub- 
ject :— Kapham is increased during the years of 
childhood and Pittam in middle age ; while an increase 
of VcCyu (nervous derangement^ marks the closing years 
of life. The use of strong or drastic purgatives, and 
cauterisation are alike prohibited in cases of children 
and old men. They should be used only in weakened 
or modified forms if found indispensably necessary. 

It has been stated before that the body of a 
person is either stout, thin or of an average 
(middling) bulk. A stout' person should be reduced 
in bulk with depletive measures, while a physician 
should try to make a thin patient gain in flesh. A 
human body, which is neither too thin nor too stout, 
should be made to maintain its shapely rotundity. 

We have already discoursed on the strength of the 
body. Now in a particular case under treatment, it is 
primarily incumbent on the physician to enquire 
whether the patient is naturally weak, or has become 



324 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXXy, 



so through a deranged condition of the bodily humours 
or old age. And since it is the strength of a patient 
which makes all remedial measures (such as cauterisa- 
tion, etc.) possible, it should be regarded as the 
grandest auxiliary to a medical treatment of whatsoever 
nature it may be. 

lYIetrical Texts : —There are some men who 
are strong though thin ; while others are weak, 
though stout ; and accordingly a physician should deter- 
mine the bodily strength of a patient by enquiring 
about the capacity of his physical endurance and 
labour. Sattvam or fortitude denotes a kind of (stoic) 
indifference of one's mind to sensations and sources 
of pleasure or pain. 

A man of strong fortitude (Sattvika temperament) is 
capable of enduring everything, or any amount of pain 
by repressing his mind with the help of his will or intel- 
lect. A man of a Rajasika turn of mind (strong, active, 
energetic) may be made to patiently submit to a course 
of painful medical treatment by means of persuasive 
counsels and the logic of the inevitable, whereas a man 
of a Tamasika temperament (a worldly cast of mind 
characterised by Nescience) is simply overwhelmed at 
the prospect of bodily pain. 

Later on, we shall have occasion to deal with the 
different types of physical treatment and of remedial 
agents in general. A particular country, or a season 



Chap. XXXV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^25 

of the year, a particular disease or a peculiar mode of 
living, any particular kind of physical labour or 
exercise, or the specific properties of the water of any 
particular locality, or day sleep, or a juice of any parti- 
cular taste, is or are said to be congenial (Satmya) to a 
man, or a man is said to be naturalised to these condi- 
tions and environments, when they fail to produce any 
injurious effect on his health, though naturally unwhole- 
some to others. 

Metrical Texts :— A thing of any taste what- 
soever, or any kind of habit or physical exercise is 
said to be congenial to a man which, instead of in any 
way telling on his health, contributes to his positive 
pleasure and comfort. 

Features of an Anupa country:— A 

country may be classed either as an Anupa, Jangala or a 
Sadharana one, according to its distinctive physical 
features. An Anupa watery or swampy) country 
contains a large number of pools, and is wooded and 
undulated with chains of lofty hills traversing its 
area, and which is impassable owing to its net- works 
of rivers and sheets of accumulated rain-water rippling 
before the currents of the gentle, humid air. It is 
inhabited by a race of stout, shapely and soft- 
bodied men, susceptible to Vatala and Kaphaja diseases. 

Features of Ja'ngala and Sardharrana 
countries : — The country, which presents a fiat 



326 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXV. 

surface and whose dull monotony is enlivened here and 
there by scanty growths of thorny shrubs and the tops 
of a few isolated hills or knolls, and in which the waters 
from springs and wells, accumulated during the rains, 
become nearly drained, and strong gales of warm wind 
blow (during the greater part of the year) making its in- 
habitants, though thin, strong, tough, and sinewy in 
their frames, subject to attacks of diseases, is called 
Jangala. A country, which exhibits features common 
to both the aforesaid classes, is called Sadharana or 
ordinary. 

Authoritative Verses on the Sub- 
ject : — A country derives the epithet of Sadharana 
from the ordinary character of its heat, cold and rainfall, 
and from the fact of the bodilv humours maintaining 
their normal state of equilibrium within its confines. 
A disease originated in, and peculiar to a particular 
country fails to gain in intensity, if brought over to, 
and transplanted in a country of a different character. 
A man, who observes a regimen of diet and conduct 
soothing to the deranged bodih' humours accumulated 
in the country he has come from, and aggravated and 
manifest in the shape of a disease in the country he 
has been living for the time being, need not apprehend 
any danger from the altered conditions of his new 
abode, for the fact of his not observing a regimen of 
diet and conduct regarded beneficial in consideration 



Chap. XXXV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 327 

of the physical features of the latter place. A 
disease of recent growth' or origin unattended with 
any distressing or unfavourable complications, and 
unsuited to the nature of the country*, the season 
of the year,t the temperament,; and § the adopt- 
ed or congenial or naturalised traits of the physique 
of a patient with a regular and unimpaired state 
of digestion (Samagnij, and who exhibits traits of 
strength, fortitude and longevity and commands the 
co-operation of the four commendable factors of a 
course of medical treatment, readily yields to medicine. 

A disease, which is marked by features other than 
those described above, should be regarded as incurable, 
while the one exhibiting traits common to both 
the abovesaid types, should be looked upon as ex- 
tremely hard to cure. 

In the case of a former medicine proving abortive, 
a different one should not be resorted to as long as 
the effect of the first would last, inasmuch as a mixture 
or a confusion of medicinal remedies tends to produfce a 
positively injurious effect. A medicine or any medicinal 

* As the development of a disease due to the deranged Kapham 
in a country of the JAngala type. 

+ As the attack of a bilious distemper in forewinler, or of a \'5laja 
malady in autumn, or of a Kaphaja atifectiun in summer. 

J As the appearance of Kaphaja disease in a patient of bilious 
temperament. 

§ As the appearance of a Kaphaja disease in a subject habituated 
to the use of viands of pungent taste. 



328 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chnp. XXXV. 

measure, failing to produce any tangible effect, may 
be repeated in quick succession in a difficult or 
dangerous disease, if it be empirically found to be 
beneficial in the case under treatment. The intelligent 
physician, ^vho, considering the nature of the season, 
etc., fully conforms to the abovesaid rules of medical 
treatment, conquers the bodily distempers and dispels 
the gloom of Death from the world with his medical skill. 

Thus ends the Thirty-fifth Chapter of the Sulrasthinam in the Sushrula 
Samhila, which treats of clinical oliservalions. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 
Xow we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
treats of miscellaneous remedies for swellings, etc. 
(lYI ish raka- m ad hyayam) . * 

Metrical Texts :— A medicinal plaster, com- 
posed of Matulanga, Agnimantha, Devadaru, Mahaush- 
dham, Ahinsra, and Rasna pasted together and applied 
to the seat of the affection, leads to the resolution of a 
swelhng, due to the action of the deranged Vayu. 

A plaster composed of Durva, Xalamulam, Madhu- 
kam, and Chandanam, as well as plasters composed of 
drugs of cooling properties,t brings about the resolution 
of an inflammatory swelling of the Pittaja type, 
and proves similarly beneficial to a traumatic swelling, 
or to one which has its origin in the vitiated condition 
of the blood. 

Measures, laid down in connection with a swelling 
resulting from the effects of poison, would lead to the 
resolution of a Pittaja swelling as well. 

* The nomenclature of the chapter is based, according to certain 
authorities, on the fact of its jointly treating of eight principal processes 
of absorption, suppuration, spontaneous bursting, etc. of a swelling ; while 
some there are who hold that the name of the chapter is derived from 
the fact of its containing remedial measures commonly (Mishrakam ) 
beneficial to swellings and ulcers. 

t Belonging to the groups ( Gana ) of medicinal herbs, which go by 
the names of their first components, such as the Kakalyadi group (Gana), 
the Utpalidi group etc. 

42 



330 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXVI. 

A plaster, composed of Ajagandha, Ashvagaiidha, 
Kala, Asarala, Ekaishika, and Ajashringi pasted together, 
and applied to the spot, leads to the resolution of 
a Kaphaja swelling (appearing at any part of the 
body). 

A plaster, composed of the components of the above- 
said groups of medicinal drugs and Lodhram, Pathya, 
Pinditakam, and Ananta, brings about the resolution 
of a swelling due to the simultaneous derangement 
of the three fundamental humours of the body 
(Sannipatikam). 

A medicinal plaster, prescribed for a swelling due 
to the deranged ^'ayu, should be applied by mixing it 
with a little rock salt, acid (Amla), and oil or clarified 
butter. Similarly, a plaster, prescribed for the resolution 
of a Pittaja swelling, should be applied cold, and with a 
little quantity of milk added to it. A plaster for the 
resolution of a Kaphaja swelling should be applied 
warm to the affected part, and with the addition of a 
considerable quantity of an alkali and cow's urine. 

Pare ha na Plasters :— A piaster composed 

of the seeds of Shana, Mula, Shigru, Tila and Sarshapa, 
Yava-powder, Kinva (enzyme), and linseed pasted 
together, or one consisting of thermogenetic drugs (such 
as Kustha, Aguru, etc.), would establish suppuration in 
a swelling. 



Chap. XXXVI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 33 1 

Darrana Plasters :^A plaster composed of 
Chiravilva, Agiiika, Danti, Chitraka, Hayamaraka and 
the dung of pigeons, vultures and storks (Kanka) pasted 
together, would lead to the spontaneous bursting of a 
swelling. An alkali, or its ingredients should be re- 
garded as a powerful auxiliary in bringing about the 
spontaneous bursting of a swelling. 

Pi dan a Plasters :— A plaster composed of 
the roots and bark of slimy trees (Shalmali, Shelu, 
etc.), or of barley, wheat, and Masha pulse powdered 
together, would increase the secretion of pus from 
an ulcer, or a swelling that has burst.* 

ShOdhana Plasters :— A Kashayat decoc- 
tion) of Shankhini, Ankota, Sumanah, Karavira, and 
Suvarchchala, or of drugs belonging to the group 
(Ganas) known as the Aragvadadi-Varga, should be 
used in washing and purifying (asepsising) the contents 
of an ulcer, or a secreting swelling. 

ShOdhana Varti :— A lint saturated with a 
plaster of Ajagandha, Ajashringi, Gavakshi, Langalahva- 
ya, Putika, Chitraka, Patha, Vidanga, Ela, Renuka, 
Tri-katu, Yavakshara, the five kinds of salt, Manahshila, 

* The plaster should be applied all round the swelling, leaving its head 
free and exposed. 

t A decoction with one part of a drug mixed with four, eight or six- 
teen parts of water, the whole being boiled down to a quarter pan of the 
entire quantity. 



332 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XXXVI 

Kasisa, Trivrita, Danti, Haritala and the Saurashtra- 
mrittikjl, and inserted into ari ulcer or an open swelling, 
brings about the purification of its interior, and these 
drugs and substances should be regarded as the ingre- 
dients of Shodhana Vartis (aseptic plugs). 

Shodhana Kalka :— A kalka (aseptic paste), 
composed of the preceding drugs and substances, is 
possesed of the virtue of purifying the interior of an 
ulcer, or open swelling. 

Oil or clarified butter prepared with the aforesaid 
Ajagandha, Ajashringi, etc, and Kasisa, Katurohini, 
Jatikanda, and the two kinds of Haridra, and applied to 
an ulcer or open swelling, purifies its interior. The 
medicated Ghritam prepared with the expressed 
juice of Arka roots, Uttama, the milky juice of 
Snuhi plants, drugs abounding in alkalis, Jati-roots, the 
two kinds Haridra, Kasisa, Katurohini and the aforesaid 
plug-drugs (Sodhana-Varti) pasted together, should be 
regarded as possessed of a virtue similar to the preced- 
ing one. 

A medicated oil prepared with Mayuraka, 
(Apang), Rajabriksha, Ximva, Kosh^taki, Tila, 
Vrihati, Kantakari, Haritala, Manahshila, and the afore- 
said plug-drugs (purgative drugs according to others), 
should be used for the purpose of purifying the interior 
of an ulcer. A pulverised compound consisting of Kasisa, 
Saindhava, Kinva, Vach.1, the two kinds of Haridra, 



Chap. XXXVI.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 333 

and the component drugs of the aseptic plug 
powdered together, should be used for the puri- 
fication of the cavity of an ulcer. For the same 
purpose a condensed extract (Rasa-Kriya)* should be 
made of the essence of the drugs belonging to the 
Salsaradi, Patoladi, and Triphaladi groups. 

Dhupanam : — A wise physician should fumigate 
(Dhupanam) an ulcer with the fumes of a compound 
consisting of Sriveshtaka, Sarjarasa, Sarala, Devadaru, 
and the drugs belonging to the Salsaradi group, 
pulverised together and made into an raseptici fumigat- 
ing compound. 

A cold infusion (Shhita-Shritam) of trees (Vata, 
Audumvara, Ashvattha, etc.) which are cooling and 
astringent in their virtue, should be used in healing or 
setting up a process of granulation in an ulcer. 

The Ropana-Varti :— Plugs of drugs such as 
Soma, Amrita (Gulancha), and Ashvagandha, or of those 
belonging to the Kakolyadi group, or of the sprouts 
of milk-exuding trees (Kshirivrikshas such as, Vata, 
Audumvara, etc.) and inserted into an ulcer tend 
to help its granulation (Ropana). A paste (Kalka) of 
Samanga, Soma, Sarala wood, Soma-Valka, (red^ 



* The process consists in mixing the drugs wiih water weighing eight 
or sixteen times their combined weight, and then boiling them down to 
an eighth or sixteenth part of the entire quantity. 



334 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, xxxvi. 

Chandana, and drugs belonging to the Kakol)'adi 
group, is recommended for the healing of an ulcer. 

A medicated Ghritam, prepared with the Prithak- 
parni, Atmagupta, Haridra, Daruharidra, Malati, Sita, 
and drugs belonging to the Kakolyadi group, is renowned 
for its healing properties. A medicated oil prepared 
with Kalanusari, Aguru, Haridra, Daru- Haridra, 
Devadaru, Priyangu, and Lodhra, is possesed of a similar 
efficacy. 

A pulverised compound consisting of Kanguka, 
Triphala, Lodhra, Kasisam, Shravana and the barks 
of Dhava and Ashvakarna powdered together, is 
possessed of a similar healing property. The use of a 
pulverised compound consisting of Priyangu, Sarjarasa, 
Pushpa-kasisa, Tvaka, and Dhava powdered together 
is commended for the healing of an ulcer. A condensed 
extract ( Rasakriya ) of the bark of milk-exuding 
trees ( such as Vata, Ashvattha etc. ) and the 
drugs known as the Triphala, should be successively 
used for the healing of an ulcer. 

Utsardanam : — The drugs known as Apam^rga, 
Ashvagandha, Talapatri, Suvarchhala and those belong- 
ing to the Kakolyadi group, should be used for the 
growth of flesh in an ulcer ( Utsadana ). 

Avasa'danam : — A compound consisting of 
K^sisa, Saindhava ( rock salt ), Kinvam, Kuruvinda, 



Chap. XXXVI.] SUtRAStHi^NAM. 335 

Manalishila, the shell of a hen's egg, the blossoms of 
Jati flowers, the seeds of .Shirisha, and Karanja, and 
powders of the abovesaid metals ( Dhatus ) mixed to- 
gether, should be used in destroying the fleshy super- 
growths of an ulcer { Avasadanam ). 

A wise physician should use all the drugs and sub- 
stances as have been enumerated in connection with the 
healing or establishing of suppuration, etc. in an ulcer, 
or as many of them as would be available at the time. 

Thus ends ihe ihirly-sixlh Chapter of ihe Sulrasthdnam in the Sushruta 
Sanihitd which treats of miscellaneous remedies for inflammatory swellings. 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which deals 
with the distinctive traits of the different classes of soil 
commended for the growth or culture of medicinal 
herbs (Bhumi-Pravibha'ga-Vijna'niya- 
madhyaryam). 

These are the general features of a ground which is 
recommended for the culture of medicinal plants or 
herbs. A plot of ground, whose surface is not broken or 
rendered uneven by the presence of holes, ditches, gravel 
and stones, nor is loose in its character, and which is 
not disfigured by ant-hills, nor used for the purposes of 
a cremation or execution ground, and which does not 
occupy the site of a holy temple, is favourable for the 
growth of medicinal herbs. A ground which possesses a 
soil which is glossy, firm, steady, black, yellowish or 
red and does not contain any sand, potash or any other 
alkaline substance, and is favourable to the germination 
of plants and easily pervious to the roots of plants 
growing thereon, and which is supplied with the 
necessary moisture from a close or adjacent stream or 
reservoir of water, is recommended for the growth of 
medicinal plants and herbs. Plants should be regard- 
ed as partaking of the virtues of the ground they grow 
upon. A plant, growing in such a commendable site, 
should be examined as to its being infested with worms 



Chap. XXXVII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 337 

or insects, or as to its being anywise infected with 
poison, or cut with an arm, or affected by winds, 
atmospheric heat, or an animal's body. It should 
be culled or uprooted in the event of it being found 
sound, healthy, deep-rooted, full-bodied, and of 
matured sap. The gatherer should look towards the 
north at the time of culling. 

A plot of ground with a pebbly, steady, heavy, dusky 
or dark coloured soil, and which conduces to the growth 
of large trees, and yields rich harvests of corn, should 
be regarded as permeated with the specific virtues of 
essential Earth-matter. 

A ground having a cool, glossy, white coloured soil, 
which is adjacent to water, and whose surface is covered 
with a lavish growth of glossy weeds and luscious 
shady trees, should be considered as characterised by 
the essential properties of water (Amvuguna . A 
ground having a gravelly soil of varied colours, and 
which contributes only to the germination of scanty and 
yellowish sprouts, should be looked upon as permeated 
with the attributes of essential fire (Agmguna). A 
ground with an ash-coloured or ass-coloured (grey , soil, 
and on which withered looking, sapless, large-holed trees 
of stunted growth, somehow eke out a miserable 
existence, should be considered as being controlled by 
the specific properties of air (Anilaguna) ; while the 
one having a soft, level surface with large trees and lofty 

43 



338 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXVII. 



hills cropping up at intervals thereon, and which is 
covered with growths of weeds and under-shrubs, and is 
endued with a dark soil, kept moist and sappy by the 
percolation of invisible (subterranean) water, should be 
looked upon as permeated with the essential properties 
of sky (Akashaguna). 

According to certain authorities, the roots, leaves, 
bark, milk\^ exudations, essence and fruits (seeds) of 
medicinal plants and herbs, should be respectively culled 
in the early part of the rains (Pravrit) and in the rainy 
season proper (Varsha\ autumn, (Sharat), fore- winter 
(Hemanta), spring (Vasanta) and summer (Grishma). 
But we cannot subscribe to that opinion inasmuch as 
the nature or essential temperament of the earth is both 
cool (Saumya) and hot (Agneya). Accordingly drugs of 
cooling virtues should be culled during the cold seasons 
of the year, and the heat- making ones in the hot season, 
as they do not become divested of their native virtues at 
those seasons of the year. Medicinal plants of cooling 
virtues, which are grown on a soil of cool temperament 
and are culled during the cool seasons of the year, 
become intensely sweet, cooling and glossy. These 
remarks hold good of other medicinal plants and herbs. 

Herbs of purgative properties, which are grown on 
a soil permeated with the specific virtues of water 
or earth matter, should be culled as the most effective 
of their kind. Similarly, herbs of emetic virtues should 



Chap. XXXVII.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



3.^9 



be culled from a ground permeated with the essential 
virtues of fire, sky and air. 

Herbs exercising both purgative and emetic virtues 
should be culled from ground exhibiting features 
common to both the two aforesaid classes of soil. 
Similarly, herbs possessed of soothing properties 
(Sanshamanam)* are found to exert a stronger action 
in the event of their being reared on a soil permeated 
with the essential properties of sk5\ 

All medicinal herbs and substances should be used 
as fresh as possible, excepting Pippali, Vidanga, Madhu, 
Guda, and Ghritam, fwhich should be used in a matured 
condition i.e. not before a year;. The milky juice or sap 
of a medicinal tree or plant should be regarded as strong 
and active under all circumstances. Herbs and drugs, 
that had been culled or collected within the year, might 
be taken and used in making up a medicinal recipe in a 
case where fresh ones would not be available. 

Authoritative Verses on the Sub- 
ject — Medicinal herbs and plants should be recognis- 
ed and identified with the help of cowherds, hermits, 
huntsmen, forest-dwellers, and those who cull the fruits 
and edible roots of the forest. Xo definite time can 
be laid down for the culling of the leaves and roots of 

* Herbs or drugs, which in virtue of their own essential properties 
soothe or subdue a disease without eliminating the morbid humours 
or without exercising any emetic or purgative action. 



340 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap, xxxvil. 

medicinal plants, etc., such as are used in compounding 
the recipe, which is called the Patra-lavanam, and which 
covers, within its therapeutic range, diseases, which are 
peculiar to the entire organism (such as Vata-vyadhi, 
etc).* 

As soil admits of being divided into six different 
classes according to its smell, colour, taste, etc. so 
the sap of a medicinal plant may assume an}' of the 
six different tastes through its contact with the peculiar 
properties of the soil it grows on. Tastes such as^ 
sweet, etc., remain latent in water, which imparts them 
to the soil in a patent or perceptible condition. 

A plot of ground, exhibiting traits peculiar to all the 
five fundamental material principles (such as the earth 
water, fire, etc.), is said to be possessed of a soil 
of general character (Sadharani Bhumi), and medicinal 
plants and herbs partake of the specific virtues of the 
soil the}' grown on. 

Drugs, whether fresh or old, and emitting a contrary 
smell, or in any way affected as regards their natural 
sap or juice, should not be used for pharmaceutical 
purposes. 

The virtues of such medicinal drugs and substances 
such as Vidanga, Pippali, Madhu, and Guda, improve 

* ITence the doctrine, as regards the culling of the difterent parts of a 
medicinal plant such as, the leaves, roots, etc., in the different seasons 
of the year, naturally falls to the ground. 



Chap. XXXVII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 34 1 

(after a year. Accordingly all drugs and n^.edicinal 
herbs, excepting the preceding ones, should be used 
fresh and unsoiled, or uninjured by insects. 

Blood, nails, or hair etc., of animals, '^officinally laid 
down to be used in our Pharmacopoeia), should be taken 
from young and healthy animals, and the ordure, urine, 
or milk of an animal, (enjoined to be used for medicinal 
purposes), should be collected at a time after it has 
completed its digestion. 

The pharmacy and the medicinal store of a physician 
should occupy a commendable site and an auspicious 
quarter of the sky (Xorth or East), and the collected 
medicines should be kept tied in pieces of clean linen, or 
stored in earthen vessels and hollow tubes of wood, or 
suspended on wooden pegs. 

Thus ends the thirty-seventh Chapter of the Sutrasthanam in the 
Sushruta Samhit^ wliich treats of the Classification of grounds for the 
culture of medicinal plants and herhs, etc. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which deals 
with the general classification of drugs according to 
their therapeutical properties (Dravya-Sangra- 
haniya-madhyaryam). 

These drugs are usually made into thirty-seven 
different groups (Gana) which are as follows : — 

The Vidarigandha'cli Croup:— The drugs 

known as Vidarigandha, Vidari, Sahadeva, Vishvadeva, 
Shvadanstra, Prithakparni, Shatavari, Sariva, black 
Sariva, Jivaka, Rishavaka, Mahasaha, Kshudra-Saha, 
Vrihati, Kantakari, Punarnava, Eranda, Hansapadi, 
Vrishchikah, and Rishavi, form the group known as the 
Vidari-gandhadi. 

IVIetrical Text : — The present gi-oup of drugs 
subdues the action of the deranged Vayu and Pittam 
and proves beneficial in phthisis ;Shosha~^, Gulma, aching 
of the limbs, Urdha Shvasa and cough. 

The A'ragvadha'di Group :— The drugs 
known as Aragvadha, Madana, Gopaghonta, Kutaja, 
Patha, Kantaki^ Patala, Murva, Indrayava, Saptaparna, 
Ximva, Kuruntaka, Dasi-kuruntaka, the two kinds of 
Karanja, Patola, Kiratttikua, Guduchi, Chitraka, 
Sh^ngshta, and Susha^•i form the group known as 
the Aragvadhjidi. 



Chap. XXXVIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 343 

Metrical Text : — The group under discus- 
sion destroys the deranged Kaphani and the effects of 
poison and proves beneficial in cases of Meha (^morbid 
discharges from the urethra), Kushtha, fever, vomiting 
and itching of the body and acts as a purifying 
(aseptic) agent in the case of an ulcer. 

The Varuna'di Group : —The drugs known 
as Varuna, Artagala, Shigru, Madhu-Shigi-u, Tarkari, 
Mesha-Shringi, Putika, Xaktamala, Morata, Agni- 
mantha, the two kinds of Sairiyaka, Vimvi, Vasuka, 
Vasira, Chitraka, Shatavari, Mlva, Ajashringi, Darbha, 
and the two kinds of Vrihati form the group known 
as the Varunadi. 

IVIetrical Text : —The group is possessed of the 
efficacy of reducing the deranged Kapham and 
fat and proves efficacious in cases of cephalaegia, Gulma 
and internal abscesses. 

The Viratarva'di Group :— The drugs 

known as Virataru, the two kinds of Sahachara, Darbha, 
Vrikshadani, Gundra, I\'ala, Kusha, Kasha, Ashma- 
bhedaka, Agnimantha, Morata Vasuka, Vasira, 
Bhalluka, Kuruntaka, Indivara, Kapotavanka, and 
Sh^adanstra enter into the composition of the group 
known as the Viratarvadi. 

IVIetrical Text :— The group subdues all dis- 
orders incidental to the deranged state of Vata and 



344 1*ilE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. t Chap, xxxvili. 

proves curative in Ashmari, Sharkara, Mutra- 
krichhra, Mutraghata and urinary troubles. 

The Sa^Iasara'di Group :— The group of 
medicinal drugs, known as the Salasaradi, consists of 
Salasara, Ajakarna, Khadira, Kadara, Kalaskandha, 
Kramuka, Bhurjja, Meshashringi, Tinisha, Chandana, 
Kuchandana, Shinshapa, Shirisha, Asana, Dhava, 
Arjuna, Tala, Shaka, Xaktamala, Putika Ashvakarna, 
Aguru and Kaliyaka. 

IVIctrical Texts ; -The group of the drugs, 
known as the Salasaradi Gana, destroys the germ of 
Kushtha, absorbs the deranged fat and Kapham and 
proves beneficial in morbid discharges from the urethra 
(Meha\ chlorosis or jaundice (Pandu). 

The Rodhrardi Group:— The group of medi- 
cinal drugs known as the Rodhradi consists of Rodhra, 
Savararodhra, Palasha Kutannata, Ashoka, Phanji, 
Katphala, Elabaluka, Sallaki, Jingini, Kadamva, Sala 
and Kadali. 

IVIetrical Texts :— The group is antidotal to 
the deranged Kapham and fat, is astringent in its 
properties, removes vaginal and uterine disorders, 
neutralises the effects of poison (anti toxic) and 
acts as a stj'ptic and purifying agent in a case of ulcer 
and arrests all secretions and excretions of the body. 

The Arkardi Group :--The drugs known 
as the Arka, Alarka, the two kinds of Karanja, 



Chap. XXXVIII.] SUtRASTHANAM. 345 

Nagadanti, Mayuraka, Bhargi, Rasna, Indrapiishpi, 
Kshudrashveta Mahashveta, Vrishchikali, Alavana and 
Tapasha-Vriksha, enter into the composition of the 
group known as the Arkadi Gana. 

Metrical Texts:— The group known as the 
Arkadi destroys Kaphani, fat, and the effects of 
poison. It acts as a vermifuge and a specific aseptic 
agent in the case of an ulcer and proves curative in 
diseases of the skin. 

The Surasa'di Group :— The drugs known 
as Surasa, white Surasa, Fainjjhaka, Arjaka, Bhustrina, 
Sugandhaka, Sumukha, Kalamala, Kashamarda, 
Kshavaka, Kharpushpa, Vidanga, Katphala_, Surasi, 
Nirgundi, Kulahala, Indurakarnika, Phanji, Prachi- 
vala, Kakamachi and Vishamushtika form the group 
known as the Surasadi Gana. 

IVIetrical Texts :— The group acts as a 
vermifuge and is an aseptic agent. It subdues the 
deranged Kapham and proves beneficial in catarrh, 
non-relish for food, asthma and cough. 

The lYIushkaka'di Group:— The group of 
medicinal drugs known as the Mushkakadi consists of 
Mushkaka, Palasha, Dhava, Chitraka, Madana, 
Shinshapa, Vajra-Vriksha and Triphala. 

Metrical Text :— The present group is 
possessed of the therapeutic virtue o-f destroying fat and 
44 



346 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XXXVIII. 

removing the defects of semen. Meha, piles, jaundice, 
chlorosis, gravels and urinary calculi in the bladder 
are the diseases which yield Lo its curative efficac)'. 

The Pippalya'di Group: -The group of 

medicinal drugs known as the Pippalyadi consists of 
Pippali, Pippali mulam, Chavya, Chitraka, Shringavera, 
Maricha, Hasti-Pippali, Harenuka, Ela, Ajamoda, 
Indrayava, Patha, Jiraka, Sarshapa, Maha-Nimva-Phala, 
Hingu, Bhargi, Madhurasa, Ativisha, Vacha, Vidanga 
and Katurohini. 

IVIetrical Text : — The present group acts as a 
good appetiser and is an absorbant of intestinal mucous 
and unassimilated lymph chyle. The range of its thera- 
peutical application includes catarrh, deranged Kapham 
and Vatam, non-relish for food, abdominal glands, colic 
and gastralgia. 

The Elardi Group : — The group of medicinal 
drugs known as the Eladi-Gana consists of Ela, Tagara, 
Kushtha, M^nsi, Dhyamaka, Tvaka, Patra, Naga- 
pushpa, Priyangu, Harenuka, Vyaghranakha, Shukti, 
Clianda, Sthauneyaka, Shriveshtaka, Chocha, Choraka, 
Valaka, Guggulu, Sarjarasa, Turushka, Kunduruka, 
Aguru, Sprikka, Ushira, Bhadradaru, Kumkuma, 
Punnaga and Keshara. 

IVIetrical Text :— The therapeutic virtue of 
the group consists in subduing the action of V^yu and 



Chap. XXXVIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



347 



Kapham and in neutralising the effects of poison. It is 
a cosmetic and arrests* the eruption of pimples 
and other vegetations on the skin such as rash, urticaria 
etc. and checks the itching sensation incidental 
thereto. 

The Vach2rcli and Haridrardi Groups :- 

The groups known as the Vachadi and Haridradi 
Ganas, respectively consist of Vacha, Musta, Ativisha, 
Abhaya, Bhadradaru, Nagakeshara (Vachadi), Haridra, 
Daruharidr^, Kalashi, Kutaja seeds and Madhuka 
(Haridradi). 

IVIetrical Text: — These two groups are the 
purifiers of breast milk and specifically act as the 
assimilators of the deranged humours of the body, their 
curative properties being markedly witnessed in cases 
of mucous dysentery (Amatisiira). 

The Shy^mardi Group : -The drugs known 
as Shyama, Mahd-Shyam^, Trivrit, Danti, Shan- 
khini, Tilvaka, Kampillaka, Ramyaka, Kramuka, 
Putrashroni, Gavakshi, Rajavriksha, the two kinds 
of Karanja, Guduchi, Saptala, Chhagalantri, Sudh^ and 
Suvarnakhiri, form the group known as the Shyam^di 
Gana. 

Metrical Text : — This group is possessed of 
the therapeutic virtue of curing abdominal glands and 
acts as an anti-toxic. It proves beneficial in An^ha 



148 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXVIII. 



'epistasis), abdominal dropsy and diarrhoea and is one 
of the most reliable purgatives in cases of obstinate 
constipation of the bowels with suppression of urine 
and distention of the abdomen (Udavarta). 

The Vrihatya'di Group :-^The drugs known 
as Vrihati, Kantakarika, Kutajaphala, Patha and 
Madhuka combinedly form the group known as the 
Vrihatyadi Gana. 

IVIctrical Text :— The group is a good digestant 
or assimilator of the deranged humours. It subdues 
the deranged Vata, Pitta and Kapham and proves 
efficacious in cases of nausea, water-brash, d^'suria and 
non- relish for food. 

The Patola'di Group:— The drugs known 
as Patola, Chandana, Kuchandana, Murva, Guduchi, 
Patha, and Katurohini form the group known as the 
Patoladi Gana. 

IVIetrical Text : — The group is a febrifuge and 
anti-toxic, and its therapeutic action consists in destroy- 
ing the action of the deranged Pittam and Kapham. It 
restores the natural relish of the patient for food, 
removes vomiting, and proves beneficial in ulcers, 
and itching erythematous eruptions. 

The Ka'kolya'di Group :— The drugs known 
as Kakoli-Kshira-Kakoli, Jivaka, Rishabhaka, Mudga- 
parni, Mashaparni, Meda, Mah^meda, Chhinna-ruha, 



Chap. XXXVIII.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



349 



Karkata-Shringi, Tugakshiri, Padmaka, Prapaundarika, 
Riddhi, Vriddhi, Mridvika, Jivanti and Madhuka, com- 
binedly form the group known as the Kakolyadi Gana. 

IVIetrical Text :— The group of medicinal 
drugs under discussion subdues the action of the 
deranged Pittam, blood and Vayu. It increases the 
quantity of milk in the breast f galactagogue) and 
favours the accumulation of phlegm (Kapham) in the 
body. It is a restorative and an elixir and is endued with 
the therapeutic virtue of augmenting the virile potency 
of a man. 

The Ushaka'di Group :— The medicinal 
drugs and substances known as Ushaka (alkaline earth) 
Saindhava salt, Shilajatu, the two kinds of Kasisa, 
Hingu and Tutthaka enter into the composition of the 
group known as the Ushakadi Gana. 

IVIetrical Text : — It destroys kapham mucous), 
absorbs the fat of the body and proves curative in cases 
.of stone or gravel in the bladder (urinary calculi), 
dysuria and abdominal glands fGulma\ 

The Sa'riva'di Group :— The drugs known 
as Sariva, Madhuka, Chandana, Kuchandana, Padmaka, 
Kashmari phala, Madhuka-pushpa and Ushira_, com- 
binedly form the group known as the Sarivadi Gana. 

IVIetrical Text :— The group under discussion 
allays thirst and proves curative in a case of haemoptysis. 



350 'i'HE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXVIII. 

Its therapeutic virtue consists in curbing an attack 
of bilious (Pittaja) fever and in specifically alleviating 
the burning sensation (Daha) of the body. 

The Anjana'di Group :-The group known 
as the Anjanadi Gana consists of Anjana, Rasanjana, 
Nagapushpa, Priyangu, Nilotpala, Nalada, Nalina, 
Keshara and Madhuka. 

Metrical Texts :— An attack of hasmoptj-sis 
readily 5n'elds to the curative virtue of the group under 
discussion. It is anti-toxic in its character and allays 
the internal burning sensation of the body. 

The Parushaka'di Group:— The gioup 
known as the Parushakadi Gana consists of Parushaka, 
Dr^ksha, Kat-phala, Dadima, Rajadana, Kataka-phala 
Shaka-phala and Triphala. 

lYIetrical Text : — It subdues the deranged 
Vayu, allays thirst, acts as a cordial, increases one's 
relish for food 'and cures the diseased or abnormal com- 
ponents of urine or its defects. 

The Priyangvardi Group:— The group of 
medicinal drugs known as the Priyangvadi Gana consists 
of Priyangu, Samang^, Dhataki, Naga-pushpa, Chandana, 
Kuchandana, Mocharasa, Rasanjana, Kumbhika, 
Srotohnjana, Padma- keshara, Jojanvalli, and Dirghamula. 

The Amvashtha'di Group:— Drugs known 
as Amvashth^, Dhataki flowers, Samanga, Katvanga, 



Chap. XXXVIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 351 

Madhuka, Vilva-peshika, Rodhra, Savara-Rodhra, 
Palasha, Xandi-Vriksha and Padma keshara, enter into 
the composition of the group known as the Amvashthadi 
Gana. 

lYletrical Text:— The two medicinal recipes 
or groups prove beneficial in a case of deranged Pitta, 
favour the heahng of ulcers, bring about the adhesion 
of fractured bones and prove curative in cases of 
dysentery where the stools are found to consist of 
lumps of thick and matured mucous (Pakvatisara.) 

The Nya'grodha'di Croup:— The drugs 
known as Nyagrodha, Audumvara, Ashvattha, Plaksha, 
Madhuka, Kapitana, Kakubha, Amra, Koshamra, 
Chorakapatra, the two sorts of Jamvu, Piyala, Madhuka 
(Maula), Rohini, Vanjula, Kadamva, Vadari, Tinduki, 
Sallaki, Rodhra, Savara-Rodhra, Bhallataka, Palasha, 
and Nandi-Vriksha, combinedly form the group known 
as the Nyagodhradi Gana. 

Metrical Texts : — This group proves bene- 
ficial in cases of ulcer, cures all disorders of 
the uterus and vagina, favours the adhesion of 
fractured bones and all sorts of secretions of the 
body in addition to its astringent properties (Sangrahi) 
and proves curative in a case of haemoptysis. It is 
an anti-fat and assuages the burning sensation of 
the body. 



352 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, xxxviii. 

The Guduchya'di Group :— The drugs 
known as Guduchi, Ximva, Kustumvuru, Chandana, 
and Padmaka, combinedly form the group known as 
the Guduchyadi Gana. 

IVIctrical Text:— It is a good appetiser, and 
acts as a general febrifuge and successfully combats 
such symptoms as nausea, want of relish for food, 
vomiting, thirst and burning sensation of the body. 

The Utpala'di Group :— The drugs known 
as Utpala, Raktotpala, Kumuda Saugondhika, Kuvalaya, 
Pundarika and Madhuka constitute the group known 
as the Utpaladi Gana. 

lYIetrical Texts : — This group is possessed of 
the therapeutic virtue of allaying thirst and corrects 
the deranged Pittam and the vitiated blood. It 
assuages the burning sensation of the body and proves 
curative in cases of vomiting, in Hridroga (Angina 
pectoris'^ in syncope, in ha3mopt\sis and in cases of 
poisoning as well. 

The lYIusta'di Group :— The group of 
drugs known as Mushtadi Gana is composed of 
Musta, Haridra, Daru-Haridra, Haritaki, Amlaki, 
Vibhitaka, Kushtha, Haimavati, Vacha, Patha, Katu- 
rohini, Sharngashta, Ativisha, Dravidi, Bhallataka and 
Chitraka. 



Chap. XXXVIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. ^53 

Metrical Text : — The group under discussion 
destroys the deranged Shleshma, cures uterine and 
vaginal disorders, purifies the breast milk of a mother, 
and acts as a good digestant (Pachana). 

The Triphalar Group :- The drugs known 
Haritaki, Amlaki and Vibhitaka, constitute the group 
known as the Triphaladi Gana. 

Metrical Text :— The present group destroys 
the action of the deranged Vayu, Kapham and Pittam 
and proves curative in Meha, and in diseases of the skin 
(Kushtham). It is a good appetiser, improves the 
eyesight and proves beneficial in chronic intermittent 
fever (Vishama-jvara). 

The Trikatu Group :— The Trikatu group 
consists of Pippali, Maricha and Shringavera. 

Metrical Text :— It destroys fat and Kapham, 
proves curative in cutaneous affections, leprosy 
(Kushtha), and morbid discharges from the urethra, and 
is possessed of the virtue of curing abdominal glands, 
catarrh, dullness of the appetite and indigestion. 

The A'mlakya'di Group :— The group 
known as the Amlakyadi Gana consists of Amlaki, 
Haritaki, Pippali and Chitraka. 

Metrical Text : — The present group of medici- 
nal drugs acts as a general febrifuge and may be used 
45 



^54 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, xxxviil. 

with advantage in fevers of whatsoever type. Moreover, 
it is an aphrodisiac and acts as a general tonic or resto- 
rative and appetiser, destroying the deranged Kapham 
and improving the eyesight. 

The Trapvardi Group :—Tlie group known 
as the Trapvadi Gana consists of Trapu, Sisa, Tamra, 
Rajata, Krishna-Lauha, Suvarna and Lohamala. 

lYIctrical Text :— The present group is 
regarded as a good vermifuge and possessed of the virtue 
of neutrahsing the effects of chemical poison originated 
through incompatible combinations. Its therapeutic 
range covers jaundice, chlorosis, Melia (morbid secre- 
tions from the uretlira), Hridroga (heart disease), thirst 
and maladies incidental to the effects of poison. 

The La'ksha'di Group :— The drugs known 
as the Laksha, Arevata, Kutaja, Ashvamara, Katphalam, 
Haridra, Daru-Haridra, Ximva, Saptachchhada, Malati, 
and Trayamana form the Lakshadi Gana. 

Metrical Text : — This consists of astringent, 
bitter and sweet taste (Rasa) and acts as a good 
vermifuge and a purifying (aseptic) agent in cases 
of bad, malignant or indolent ulcers. Diseases due to 
the deranged Kapham and Pittam prove amenable to its 
curative properties, which extend to cases of cutaneous 
affections (Kushtham) as well. Now we shall describe 



Chap. XXXVIII.] SUTRASTHANAM. ^^^ 

the five groups of medicinal roots (Mulam), each 
consisting of similar number of components. 

The Svalpa Panchamulam Croup :— 

The group known as the mmor group of five roots 
(Svalpa-Pancha-Mula) consists of the roots of medicinal 
plants known as the Trikantaka, the two species of 
Vrihati, Prithakparni, and Vidarigandha. 

lYIetrical Texts : — The compound possesses a 
taste blended of astringent, bitter and sweet. It is a 
tonic and aphrodisiac, subdues the deranged Yayu and 
proves soothing to the deranged Pittam. 

The IVlahat Panchamula Croup:— 

The one known as the great or the major group of 
five medicinal roots (Mahat-Pancha-Mula) consists of 
the roots of such trees as Vilva, Agnimantha, 
Tuntuka, Patala and Kashmari. 

Metrical Texts :— It is bitter in taste and 
subdues the deranged Kapham and Vatam. It is light 
(easily digestible) and appetising, and acquires a sub- 
sequent sweet taste in its reaction (Anurasa). 

The Dashamula Croup :— The two 

preceding groups in combination form the one techni- 
cally known as the Dasha-Mulam (the ten roots), which 
is possessed of the virtue of destroying the deranged 
Vata, Pittam and Kapham. It proves beneficial in cases of 
asthma and difficult respiration. It acts as a good 



356 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XXXVIII. 



digestant in respect of undigested lymph chyle, etc and 
is used with satisfactory results in all types of fever. 

The Valli-Panchamulam Group:— 

The group consisting of the roots of the five medicinal 
creepers known as Vidari, Sariva, Rajani, Guduchi 
and Aja-Shringi, is called the Valli-Panchamulam. 

The Pancha-kantakam Groups— Simi- 
larly, the group consisting of the five medicinal 
(thorny) shrubs known as Karamradda, Trikantaka, 
Sairiyaka, Shatavari, and Gridhranakhi, is called the 
Pancha- Kantaka. 

Metrical Texts : — The two preceding groups 
prove curative in Hcemoptysis and in all the tliree 
types of anasarca or cedema (Shopha). Moreover, it has 
the incontestable virtue of arresting all sorts of urethral 
discharges and is a potent remedy in all cases of seminal 
disorders. 

The Pancha-Trina Group :- The group 
consisting of the five medicinal herbs (of the grass 
species) and known as Kusha, Kasha, Nala, Darbha, 
Kandekshuka, is called the Pancha-Trina. 

Metrical Texts : — Cases of Haemoptysis, renal 
defects or of uninary diseases are found to speedily yield 
to the curative efficacy of the compound internally 
administered through the medium of cow's milk. 

Metrical Texts -.—The first two of the afore- 



Chap. XXXVIII.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 357 

said groups of Panchamulas (viz., the Svalpa and the 
Vrihat Panchamulas) are possessed of the virtue of 
destroying the deranged Vata, while the one standing in 
the bottom of the list (Trina-Panchamula) is endued with 
the property of killing the deranged Pittam. Those stand- 
ing third and fourth in order of enumeration (the Valli 
and Kantaka Panchamulas) subdue the deranged Kapham. 

The groups of medicinal drugs and roots have thus 
been briefly described, which will be more elaborately 
dealt with later on in the chapter on Therapeutics. 

An intelligent physician should prepare plasters, 
decoctions, medicated oils, Ghritas (medicated clarified 
butter) or potions, according to the exigencies of each 
individual case.* The groups enumerated above should 
be therapeutically used according to the nature of the 
deranged humours involved in each individual case. 
Only two, three or four drugs of the same medicinal 
group, or a similar number of drugs chosen from the 
the different groups, or a group of medicinal drugs in its 
entirety, or in combination with another, should be 
used according to the indications of any particular case, 
as the physician, in his discretion, would determine. 

* Additional Text : — These drugs may be duly culled in all seasons of 
the year, and should be stored in a room protected from smoke, blasts of 
cold, wind and rain. 

Thus ends the thirty-eighth Chapter of the Sutrasth^nam in the Sushruta 
Samhit5, which deals with the classification of drugs according to their 
therapeutical use. 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

Xow we shall discourse on the Chapter which treats 
of medicinal drugs possessed of cleansing (cathartic') 
or soothing effects (Samshodhana-Samsha- 
maniya-madhyaryam). 

Emetic Drugs : — The drugs known as 
Madana fruits, Kutaja, Jimutaka, Ikshvaku, Dhamagarba, 
Krita-vedhana, Sarshapa, Vidanga, Pippali, Karan- 
jaka, Prapunnada, Kovidara, Korvudara, Arishta, Ashva- 
gandha, Vidula, Vandhujivaka, Shveta, Shanapushpi, 
Vimvi, Vacha, Mrigervaru and Chitra, etc. are possessed 
of emetic properties. Out of these the fruits (seeds) of 
plants preceding Kovidara in the abovesaid list 
(from the ]\Iadana fruits to those of the Prapunnada) 
and the roots of plants from Kovidara to its close, 
should be used. 

Purgative Drugs :— The trees, plants, herbs 
and creepers, etc. known as Trivrita, Shyama, Danti, 
Dravanti, Saptala, Shankhini, Vishanika, Gavakshi, 
Chhagalantri, Snuk, Suvarnakshiri, Chitraka, Kinihi, 
Kusha, Kasha, Tilvaka, Kampillaka, Ranwaka, Patala, 
Puga, Haritaki, Amalaka, Bibhitaka, Xilini, Chatur- 
angula, Eranda, Putika, Mah^vriksha, Saptachchhada, 
Arka, and J3''otishmati, etc. are possessed of purgative 
properties. Of these the roots of plants, which precede 



Chap. XXXIX.] StJTRASTHANAM. 



359 



Tilvaka in the above list, should be used for purgative 
purposes. The barks of trees from Tilvaka to Patala 
in the same list should be used for similar purposes. 
The pollens or dust of the Kampilla seeds, and of the 
fruits of trees from Eranda to Puga, the leaves of 
Putika and Aragvadha. and the milky exudations of the 
remaining members of the list, should be similarly used. 

The expressed juice of Koshataki, Saptala, Shankhini, 
Devadali, or Karavellika is both emetic and purgative. 

The Errhincs :— The following drugs, viz. 
Pippali, Vidanga, Apamarga, Shigru, Siddharthaka, 
Shirisha, Maricha, Karavira, Vimvi, Girikarnika, Kinihi, 
Vacha, Jyotishmati, Karanja, Arka, Alarka, Lashuna, 
Ativisha, Shringavera, Talisha, Tamala, Surasa, Arjaka, 
Ingudi, Meshashringi, Matulungi, Murangi, Pilu, Jati, 
Shala, Tala, Madhuka (Maula), Laksha and Hingu, 
together with such substances as rock-salt, spirits, 
cow's urine and watery exudation of cow dung 
should be regarded as errhines (Shirovirechanam . 
The fruits (seeds) of plants from Pippali to Maricha 
enumerated in the above-said list, the roots of plants 
commencing with Karavira and ending with Arka, the 
bulbs of those whose names precede Talisha in the 
same list, the leaves of those commencing with Talisha 
and ending with the Arjaka therein, the barks of 
Ingudi and Meshashringi, the flowers of Matulungi, 
Murungi, Pilu and Jati, the essence (Sara) of Shala, Tala 



360 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, xxxix. 

and Maduhka (Maul) trees, the gummy exudation 
(Niryasa) of Hingu plants and Laksha trees, as well as 
salts which are but the saline modifications of earth, 
Madya (wines) which are but the modified products of 
Asava (fermented liquors), and secretions of cowdung, or 
cow's urine which should be understood to mean the 
animal excrements, in their crude or natural state, should 
be used where errhines are indicated. 

Samshamaniya Drugs :— Now we shall 
enumerate the names of drugs and substances which 
soothe or pacify the deranged humours or principles 
of the body involved in any particular disease 
(Sanshamanani\ 

Va'ta-Samshamana-Varga:— The follow- 
ing drugs, viz. Bhadradaru, Kustha, Haridra, Varuna, 
Meshshringi, Vala, Ativala, Artagala, Kachhura, Sallaki, 
Kuverakshi, Virataru, Sahachara, Agnimantha, Vatsa- 
dani, Eranda, Ashmabhedaka, Alarka, Arka, Shata- 
vari, Punarnava, Vasuka, Vasira. Kanchanaka, Bhargi, 
Karpasi, Vrishchiaali, Pattura, Vadara, Yava, Kola, 
Kulattha, etc. and the drugs forming the group of Vidari- 
gandhadi-Gana, as well as those belonging to the first 
two groups of Panchamula (Mahat and Svalpa), are 
possessed of the general virtue of soothing (restoring to 
its normal state) the deranged (Vaym Vata. 

Pitta-Samshamana-Varga —The drugs 
known as Chandana, Kuchandana, Hrivera, Ushira, 



Chap. XXXIX.] StiTRASTHANAM. 361 

Manjishtha, Payasya, Vidari, Shatavari, Guiidra, 
Shaivala, Kahlara, Kiimuda, Utpala, Kadali, Kandali^ 
Durva, Miirva, etc. and the drugs forming the groups 
of Kakolyadi, Sarivadi, Anjaiiadi, Utpaladi, Nyagro- 
dhadi, and Trina-Panchamula groups generally prOve 
soothing to the deranged Pittam. 

Shicshma'- Samshamana- Varga :— 

The drugs known as Kaleyaka, Aguru, Tilaparni, 
Kushtha, Haridra, Shitashiva, Shatapushpa, Sarala, 
Rasna, Prakiryya, Udakiryya, Ingudi, Sumanah, 
Kakadani, Langalaki, Hastikarna, Munjataka, Lama- 
jjaka, etc. and the drugs belonging to the groups of 
Valli and Kantak Panchamulas and those composing 
the Pippalyadi-Varga, Brihatyadi-Varga, Mushkadi- 
Varga, Vachadi, Surasadi and Aragvadhadi groups 
are generally possessed of the efficacy of restoring 
the deranged Shleshma to its natural state. 

The choice of a medicine whether for cleansing 
or soothing purposes should be determined by the 
consideration of the strength (intensity) of the disease, 
and the stamina and the digestive function of the 
patient under treatment. A medicine (of a soothing 
or Samshamanam efficacy), which is stronger than 
the disease it has been applied to combat with, 
not only checks it with its own soothing virtue but 
usually gives rise to a fresh malady, on account of 
its surplus energy being not requisitioned into 

46 



362 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XXXIX. 



action, nor its being used up by the weakened and 
conquered origuial distemper. It is thus stored up in 
the organism for the working of fresh mischief. A 
medicine, which proves stronger than the digestive 
function of a patient, impairs his digestion, or takes 
an unusually greater length of time to be digested 
and assimilated into his organism. A medicine, which 
is stronger than the physical stamina of a patient, may 
bring on a feeling of physical languor, fits of fainting, 
loss of consciousness, delirium, etc. Similarly, an over- 
dose of a cleansing (cathartic) medicine .may work 
similar mischief. On the other hand, medicines of 
inadequate potencies, and accordingly unequal to the 
strength of a disease, as well as medicines in in- 
adequate doses fail to produce any tangible effect. 
Hence medicines of adequate potencies should be alone 
administered in adequate doses. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :^A prudent physician should prescribe a mild 
purgative for a patient enfeebled by the action of the 
deranged and accumulated bodily humours and laid 
up with a disease in which such a cleansing (cathartic) 
or emetic remedy is indicated. The same rule should 
hold good in the case of a patient enfeebled through 
causes other than physical distempers, and whose 
bowels are easily moved, and in whom the 
fecal matter, etc. are found to have been dislodged 



Chap. XXXIX.] SUTI^ASTHANAM. 363 

from their natural seats or locations. Decoctions 
(including extracts and cold infusions of medicinal 
herbs) in doses of four Palas weights, and pastes and 
powders in doses of two Palas weights, should be 
prescribed in a disease of ordinary intensit}'. Corrective 
medicines (Purgatives and lilmetics) may be safely 
exhibited even in a weak patient with loose or uncon- 
stipated bowels, if they are found to be stuffed with a 
spontaneous accumulation of fecal matter (Dosha) etc. 
inspite of such looseness or easy motion. 

Thus ends ihe thiity-ninlh Chapter of the Sutrasth^nam in the Sushiuta 
SamhitS, which treats of drugs of cleansing (corrective) and soothing 
properties. 



CHAPTER XL. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
treats of drugs and their flavours, virtues, potencies 
and chemical actions. (Dravya-Rasa-Guna- 
Virya-Vipa'ka-Vijnaniya-madhya'yam). 

Certain professors of the Aj'urveda hold that a 
medicinal drug or substance is pre-eminently the most 
important niatter with which the science of medicine is 
concerned. First because, a drug, as a substance, has a 
definite and continuous existence/ which its attributes 
(such as, taste, etc.,) do not possess. As for example 
the tastes, etc., which characterise a fruit in its unripe 
stage, are not perceived in its ripe or matured condition. 
Secondly because, a drug is real (Xitya) and invariable, 
whereas its attributes are but transitory and accidental 
at the best. As for instance the real character of a 
drug cannot be destroyed whether it be powdered 
or pasted. Thirdly because, a drug or a substance never 
can lose its own generic character. As for example, 
a drug possessed of attributes peculiar to the fun- 
damental matter, earth, can never be transformed 
into one of watery attributes — a truth which does 
not hold good of its attributes. Fourthly because, 
a drug or a substance is an object of all the five 
senses of a man, whereas its attributes of tastes, etc. 



Chap. XL. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^5^ 

are respectively accommodated to the faculty of 
special sense organs. Fifthly because, a drug or a 
substance is the receptacle of the attributes of taste, etc., 
whilethe latter are the things contained. Sixthly because, 
a dictum of medicine can be commenced with the name 
of a drug or substance. As for example, it is quite 
natural to say that the drugs such as Vidari Gandha,etc., 
should be pressed and boiled. But it sounds preposterous 
to utter that the sweet taste should be pulverised and 
boiled. Seventhl)' because, the greater importance of 
a drug or substance has been laid down in the Shastras 
of medicines inasmuch as medical recipes have been 
described by the names of their component ingredients 
such as Matulunga, Agnimantha, etc., and not 
described as the tastes of Matulunga, Agnimantha etc. 
Eighth!}' because, the attributes of tastes, etc., depend 
upon the drugs and substances (of which they are the 
attributes) for their progressive maturity. As for 
example, the taste of a drug or substance varies with 
its growth and is different in its raw (immature) and 
ripe (mature) conditions. (Hence a drug is more im- 
portant than its attributes of taste, etc.) Ninthly 
because, a drug may prove curative through the eflicacy 
of one of its component parts or principles as in the 
case of Mahavriksha, the milky exudations of which 
are possessed of therapeutical virtues, which cannot 
be said of its taste. 

Hence a drug or a substance (Dravyam) is the most 



366 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XL. 

important factor (which the science of medicine has got 
to deal with). A substance or drug necessarily implies 
action and attributes with which it is intimately con- 
nected and of which it is the primary cause, or to put it 
more explicitly, these attributes have an inseparable 
inherence in and are intimately associated with the 
substance by way of cause and effect (Samavayi- 
Karanam). 

Others, on the contrary, who do not endorse 
the above opinion, accord the highest importance to 
the attribute of taste (Rasa) of a drug or sub- 
stance. Firstly because, it is so laid down in the 
Agamas (Vedas), which include the science of medicine 
(Ayurveda Shastram) as well, and inasmuch as such 
statements as " Food is primarily contingent on its 
tastes and on food depends life " occur therein. 
Secondly because, the essential importance of taste 
may be inferred from such injunctions or instructions 
of the professors of medicine as, " sweet, acid and 
saline tastes soothe or pacify the deranged bodily Vayu." 
Thirdly because, a drug or a substance is named after 
the nature of its taste, as a sweet drug, a saline sub- 
tance, etc. Fourthly because, its primary importance 
is based on the inspired utterances of the holy sages 
(Rishis) which form the sacred hymns and verses of the 
Vedas, and such passages as " sweets to be collected for 
the purposes of a religious sacrifice," etc, are to be 



Chap. XL. ] StJTRASTHANAM. 367 

found in them. Hence taste is the most important 
factor in the science of medicine and forms the primary 
attribute of a medicinal drug. But, later on, we shall 
have occasion to speak of that. 

• 

Certain authorities however, (who reject the two 
aforesaid theories), hold the potency (Viryam) of a 
drug to be the most important factor in medicine inas- 
much as its therapeutic action, whether purgative, 
emetic, or both, or cathartic, or pacifying, or astrin- 
gent, appetising, pressing (drawing to a definite head) 
or liquefacient, or constructive, tonic (vitalising) 
or aphrodisiac, or inflammatory, absorbing, caustic, 
or bursting, or intoxicating, soporific, killing or antitoxic, 
depends upon its potency. The potency of a drug 
is either cooling or heat-making owing to the two- 
fold (hot and cool) nature of the temperament of 
the world. According to several authorities the 
potency of a medicinal drug may be classed as either 
hot or cool, emollient or dr}-, expansive or slimy, 
mild or keen, so as to embrace the eight differ- 
ent attributes in all. These potencies of medicinal drugs 
serve their respective functions by overpowering 
their (drugs') tastes with their specific strength (inten- 
sity) and virtues. As for example the decoction of 
the roots belonging to the group of the Maha- 
Panchamulam, though possessed of an astringent 
taste which is subsequently transformed into a bitter 



368 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHiTA. [Chap. XL. 

one, acquires the virtue of pacifying the deranged 
Vayu out of its heat-making potenc3^ Similarly, the 
pulse known as Kulattha though possessed of 
an astringent taste, and onion though endued with 
a , pungent one, respectively soothe the same 
deranged humour of the body through the oleaginous 
character of their potencies. On the other hand, 
the expressed juice of sugar-cane, though possessed of 
a sweet taste, tends to augment or aggravate the 
deranged Vayu owing to its cooling potency. The 
drug Pippali, though a pungent substance in itself, 
proves soothing to the deranged Pittam, owing to its 
mild and cooling potenc}'. Similarly, an Amalakam 
fruit, though acid in taste, and Saindhava, though saline, 
respectively tend to pacify the deranged Pittam. 
The drug Kakamachi, though of a bitter taste, and 
fish, though sweet, respectively aggravate the Pittam, 
owing to their thermogenetic potency. Similarly, 
Mulakam (Radish), though pungent, increases the 
Kapham of the body, on account of its emollient 
potency ; and Kapittham, though acid, soothes ; and 
honey, though sweet, tends to pacify the deranged 
Kapham owing to the dry character of its potency. 
The aforesaid instances have been cited by way of 
illustration. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — Tastes, which are possessed of dry, light or 



Chap. XL. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



369 



expansive potencies, fail to pacify the deranged Vayii, 
though otherwise they may prove soothing to that 
deranged humour. Similarly, tastes, which are or- 
dinarily reckoned as pacifiers of the deranged Pittam, 
fail to produce that effect in the event of their being 
endued with a keen, light or heat- making potency. 
Likewise, tastes, which are commonl}' found to soothe 
the deranged Kapham, tend to aggravate it in the 
event of their being possessed of potencies which 
are respectively heavy, cool and emollient in their 
character.* Hence the potency of a drug is the most 
important factor in the science of medicine. 

But certain authorities dissent from the above-said 
view, and attach the highest importance to the process 
of digestive (chemical) reaction (Vipaka) for the 
reason, that all ingested food, properly or improperly 
digested in the stomach, proves wholesome or other- 
wise to the body. Certain authorities on the subject 
hold that digestion develops all the several tastes. t 

According to others, tastes such as, sweet, 
pungent and acid, follow upon the completion of 
the process of digestion (b}^ way of reactionary result 
or transformation). 

* Flavours such as, sweet, acid and saline, subdue the deranged \"5yu. 
Tastes such as, sweet, bitter and astringent are antiljilious in their efficacy, 
while those, which are pungent, bitter and astringent, are antiphlegmagogic 
in their virtues. 

t The process of digestion is followed by a reactionary taste, which may 
be either sweet, pungent, acid, astringent, bitter or saline. 

47 



370 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XL. 



It is needless to say that the hypothesis is based 
on erroneous data, inasmuch as the fact of acid 
digestion (acid taste developed at the close of the 
digestive process or reactionary acidity) is contrary 
both to the properties of matter and the collective ex- 
perience of the race embodied in the dictum of the 
Shastras, and which should be rather ascribed to the 
acid taste of the Pittam remaining in an undigested 
or unassimilated condition owing to imperfect gastric 
digestion. The probability of a saline digestion (a 
reactionary saline taste following upon the close of 
the digestive process) should be necessarily presumed, 
if the fact of an acid digestion were to be upheld 
as a tested and corroborated principle of medical 
science. The hypothesis of an acid digestion (re- 
actionary acidity) does not preclude the possibility of 
a similar saline one owing to the participation of 
the natural taste (saline) of the bodily Kapham in 
the process of digestion, as is said of Pittam in the 
preceding instance. Hence the theory that only three 
tastes, such as sweet, acid, and pungent are developed 
through digestive reaction, appears to be untenable, and 
naturally points to the doctrine that a sweet taste 
(partaken of by a man) brings on a sweet tasted 
digestion ; an acid taste (reactionary acidit}') begets 
acid digestion, and so on, a taste of whatsoever kind 
partaken of by a man imparting its specific character to 
his digestive reaction. 



Chap. XL. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 37 j 

Those, who adhere to the last named doctrine, 
endeavourto substantiate it by the following analogy, and 
argue that as milk kept boiling in a basin placed over a 
fire does not change its natural sweetness (with the 
change of its temperature), as cereals such as Shali- 
rice, wheat, barley, Mudga, etc. sown broadcast in 
the ground do not part with their inherent, generic 
attributes (through their successive stages of develop- 
ment), so the tastes of food-stuff do not alter 
even after being boiled in the heat of the digestive 
organs. 

Others, on the contrary, assert that weak tastes 
are naturally merged in the strong ones in the course 
of digestion. And since the consensus of expert 
opinions on the subject serves only to increase 
the confusion on account of their differences and 
bigoted antipathy, we shall judiciously refrain from 
indulging in idle theories on the subject. 

Only two kinds of digestion (digestive reactionary 
tastes) have been noticed in the Shastras, such as, 
the sweet and the pungent, the first being heavy 
and the second light. The specific properties of 
the five essential material principles of the world such 
as, the earth, water, fire, air and sky may be roughly 
described as heaviness and lightness, the two attri- 
butes which appertain to their fundamental natures. 
Heaviness forms the characteristic attribute of earth 



372 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XL. 

and water, while lightness stands for the essential 

properties of fire, air and sky. Hence the digestion 

of all food-stuff may be described as either heavy 
(Guru) or light (Laghu). 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject :— Of substances under the process of digestion, 
those, which are characterised by attributes, specifi- 
cally belonging to earth and water, are called 
substances of sweet (heavy) digestion ; while those 
which are permeated with the specific properties of 
air, fire and sky are called substances of pungent 
(lightj digestion (easily digestible articles of food). 
We have fulh^ stated the text of the controversy 
as regards the primary importance of drugs and 
their tastes, virtues, potencies and digestive reactions, 
as well as the views of those who build their theories 
on the separate or exclusive importance of any of 
the five afore-said factors. The wise and the erudite 
set an equal importance to each of them, and ascribe 
the curative efficacy of a medicine to the co-opera- 
tion of all these five factors. A drug ot a sub- 
stance sometimes destroys or originates a deranged 
condition of the humours through the dynamical 
action of its native or inherent properties, sometimes 
in virtue of its specific potency and sometimes by 
natural taste or digestive (chemical) reaction. Digestive 
reaction is impossible without drug potency. There is 



Chap. XL. J SUTRASTHA'NAM. 373 

no potency without a taste, and taste without a drug 
or substance is an absurdity.- Hence a substance (vegeta- 
ble or otherwise) is the greatest of them all. A taste and 
a substance are correlative categories from the time 
of their origin, like a body and an embodied 
self in the plane of organic existence. Since an 
attribute per se can not be possessed of another attri- 
bute, the eight kinds of potency (properties) can 
only appertain to a substance and not to a taste, 
which is an attribute in itself. Substances are digested 
in an organic body and not the six tastes simply 
for the reason of their being invisible and intangible 
in themselves. Hence a substance is the greatest of 
all tlie aforesaid five factors (of substance, taste, 
virtues, etc.) and the attributes lie inherent in the 
substance. 

Unscrutable and unthinkable are the virtues of 
drugs (medicines), which are above all rules of 
syllogism ; and hence drugs (medicines), which have 
been observed to be efficacious from time immemorial, 
as well as those laid down in the scriptures on 
medicines, should alone be used in the course of a 
medical treatment. A learned physician should think 
it a sacrilege to logically dispute the efficacy of a 
medicine of tested virtue, and which has been adopted 
after generations of careful observation and is instinc- 
tively pronounced b}-^ men as a beneficial remedy. 



;74 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XL. 



No amount of logic will alter the nature of things, 
nor persuade the drugs of the Amboshtha group to 
exercise a purgative virtue. Hence an intelligerrt physi- 
cian should adhere to the officinal recipes given in the 
books on medicine, and not introduce innovations, 
however logical or probable, into the realms of 
applied or practical Therapeutics. 

Thus ends the fortieth Chapter of the Sutrasthinam in the Sushruta 
SamhitS, which deals with drugs and their flavours, virtues, and digestive 
(chemical) transformation. 



CHAPTER XLI. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
treats of the specific properties of drugs (Dravya- 
Vishcsha-Vijna'niya-madhya'yam). 

The five fundamental principles* such as the earth 
(Kshithi), water (Apa), fire (Teja), air (Marut) and Sky 
(Vyoraa) enter into the composition of all substances 
in the world, and the predominance of any of them in 
a particular substance determines its character. 
Accordingly a thing is denominated as a substance of 
dominant earth principle, or one marked by a pre- 
dominance of fire, air or ether. 

Parrthiva Drugs : — A thing or substance, 
which is thick, pithy, compact, dull, immobile, rough, 
heavy (hard to digest^ strong smelling and largely has 
a sweet taste marked by a shade of astringent, is called 
a substance of dominant earth (Parthivam) matter. 
• Such a thing increases the firmness, strength, hardness 
and rotundity of the human body, and is possessed of 
gravity (the virtue of moving the bowels). 

A'pyam Drugs :— Similarly, a thing or subs- 
tance, which is cold, moist, glossy, devoid of keenness, 
takes time to be digested, is mobile, compact, soft, 

* These may be translated as Solid, Liquid, Gas, Ether, and Etherioil 
in the parlance of modern science. 



376 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLI. 

slimy, sappy, and is largely endued with an acid, saline 
or sweet taste marked by a shade of astringent, is called 
a substance of dominant water (Apyam'i principle. 
Such a thing soothes and imparts a glossy character to 
th2 body, keeps it moist, favours the adhesion of its 
parts, and increases its liquid contents. 

Taijasam Drugs :— A thing or substance, 
which is heat-making, pungent and keen, subtle in 
its essence, permeates the minutest capillaries, and is dry, 
rough, light, and non-slimy in its character and has strong 
properties and a taste which is largely pungent marked by 
a shade of saline, is called a substance of the dominant 
principle of fire (Taijasam). Such a thing naturally 
evinces an up-coursing tendency in the body, produces 
a burning sensation in its inside, helps the process of 
digestion and spontaneous bursting (of abscesses), 
increases the temperature of the body, strengthens the 
eyesight, improves the complexion and imparts a 
healthful glow to it. 

Varyaviyam Drugs :— A thing or substance, 
which is subtle in its essence, and is dry, rough, light, 
cold and non- slimy, increases tactual sensation and 
is endued with a largely astringent taste marked by a 
shade of bitter, is called a substance of the dominant 
principle of air ( Vayaviyam). Such a thing removes the 
slimy character of the internal organism, produces light- 



Chap.-XLI. J SUTRASTHANAM. 377 

ness, diyness and emaciation of the body, and increases 
the speculative or contemplative faculty of the mind. 

Aka'shiyam Drugs :— A thing or sub 
stance, which is smooth, unctuous, and is subtle in 
its nature, soft or pliant in its consistency, expansive 'in 
the internal organism), porous, soundy and non- slimy 
in its character without any definite taste, is called 
a substance of the dominant principle of sky 
(Akashiyam). Such a substance produces softness, light- 
ness and porosity of the body. 

It may be inferred from the foregoing illustrations 
that there is not a single substance in the world but is 
endued with certain curative virtues. Drugs or 
substances, used in specific combinations and according 
to the indications of a disease under treatment, prove 
curative in virtue of their native virtues and potencies. 
The time, during which a drug or a medicine exerts its 
curative virtues, is called its Kala or the period of 
action. That which immediately results from the use or 
application of a medicinal remedy is called its Karma 
or physiological action. The principle, in virtue of which 
the action is performed, is called its potenc)' or Viryam. 
That, in which the action takes place, is called its 
receptacle or Adhikaranam. The means by which it is 
effected is called its agency or Upaya, while that what 
it accomplishes is called its therapeutic effect or Phalam. 

Of these the drugs of purgative virtue are possessed 
48 



378 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap.XLi. 

of attiibutes which specifically belong to the earth 
and water. Earth and water are heavy, and natur- 
ally gravitate downward owing to their heaviness. 
Hence it is inferred that purgative drugs are largely 
endued with the specific attributes of earth and water, 
in virtue of which they are more strongly attracted 
towards the centre of the earth (gravity). Drugs endued 
with emetic properties are possessed of attributes which 
form the characteristics of fire and air. Fire and air 
are light, and naturally ascend upward owing to their 
lightness. Hence it is inferred, that emetic (Vamana) 
drugs are largely possessed of attributes, which are 
upcoursing in their nature. Drugs or substances endued 
with both emetic and purgative virtues are charac- 
terised by attributes belonging to both the aforesaid 
elements (earth and fire). 

Drugs, which soothe the deranged bodily humours, 
are permeated with, qualities which specifically belong 
to the principle of the sky. Astringent (Sangrahaka) 
drugs are endued with attributes, which specifically 
belong to the air owing to the drying character of the 
latter element. Appetising (Dipana) drugs are largely 
possessed of attributes which belong to the material 
principle of fire. Lekhana (Liquefacient) drugs or sub- 
stances are endued with attributes which belong to fire 
and air. Constructive or restorative (Vringhanam) drugs 
or substances are endued with attributes which speci- 



Chap. XLI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 279 

fically belong to earth and water. These inferences 
should be carefully remembered at the time of pre- 
scribing medicines. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject ; — The deranged bodily Vayu readily yields to the 
curative efficacies of drugs possessed of attributes, 
specifically belonging to the earth, fire and water, while 
the deranged Pittam is speedily soothed or restored to 
its normal state by drugs having attributes, specifically 
belonging to the earth, water and air. Similarly, the 
deranged Kapham is pacified by drugs possessed of 
attributes which characterise the sky, fire and air. 

The bodily Vayu is increased by the use of drugs 
possessed of attributes which specifically belong to the 
sky and air, while the Pittam is increased by the use 
of those which are largely endued with the specific 
attributes of fire. The bodily Kapham of the body 
is increased by the use of drugs which are largely 
endued with the specific attributes of the earth 
and water. Thus having ascertained the dominant 
attributes of drugs, a physician should use them for the 
pacification of two or more of the deranged humours of 
the body according to the exigencies of a case. 

Of the eight-fold potencies of a drug, such as 
cooling, thermogenetic, oleaginous, heavy, parchifying, 
plastive, keen and slimy, keenness and thermogenetic 



38o 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLI. 



potency should be ascribed to the attributes of 
fire ; coohng potenc)- and that of engendering slime, 
to the predominance of the attributes of water in a 
drug or substance ; oleaginousness, to the predominance 
of the attributes of the earth and water ; plastive potenc)^, 
to the predominance of the attributes of water and the 
sky ; parchifying potency, to the excess of the attributes 
of air ; non-slimy potency (Vaishadyam), to the predo- 
minance of the attributes of earth and air ; and heavy 
and light digestion, to the same cause. 

Of these, oiliness and thermogenetic potency prove 
curative in respect of the deranged Vayu, while cooling 
potency, plastive potency, and that of engendering slime 
subdue the deranged Pittam. Keenness, parchifying and 
non-slimy potencies conquer the deranged Kapham. 
Substances, which are hea^y in digestion, destroy the 
deranged Vayu and Pittam, while those which are light 
in digestion (easily digestible substances) prove curative 
in respect of the deranged Kapham. 

Of these, softness, coldness and heat ma)?^ be per- 
ceived by touch. The properties of sliminess and its 
opposite may be perceived by the eyes and touch. 
The properties of dr3mess and oiliness of a drug 
may be perceived with the eyes ; keenness of a drug 
from the fact of its producing pain in the mouth ; and 
[heat and cold, by the sensation of comfort (pleasure) or 
discomfort— A. Text] The fact of heavy (insufficient) 



Chap.XLL] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 381 

digestion should be inferred from the frequent 
passing of stool and urine, • as well as from the expec- 
toration of Kapham, while the contrary should be 
presumed from the constipation of the bowels, retention 
-of urine and disorders of the abdominal Va}^! (flatulence, 
distension of the abdomen^ etc.). A specific taste is 
detected in material principles of similar properties. 
As for example, a drug or a substance, which is heavy 
and endued with a sweet taste, should be deemed as 
belonging to the group of the earthy matter (largely 
possessed of attributes characterising earth-matter). 
Similarly, a substance, which is sweet and oily in its 
character, should be regarded as belonging to one in 
which the principle of water predominates. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — Properties, which characterise drugs and 
substances, may be as well found in a human organism, 
and the normal continuance, aggravation or dimi- 
nution of the deranged humours is due to the action 
of the drugs (substances). 

Thus ends the forty-first Chapter of the Sutrasth^nam in the Sushruta 
Samhiti which treats of specific properties of drugs. 



CHAPTER XLII. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which treats 
oi" the specific properties of flavours (Rasa- 
Vishcsha-Vljnariiya-maclhyaryam). 

The properties of sky (Akasha), air (Pavana), fire 
(Dahana), water (Toya) and earth (Bhumi) are sound 
touch, colour, taste and smell, each of the preceding 
elements possessing properties less by one than those 
of the one immediately succeeding it in the order of 
enumeration.* 

[Since a matter is designated after the name of 
the preponderant natural element, which enters into its 
composition], taste is said to be a water-origined prin- 
ciple. All material elements are inseparably connected 
with one another, and there is a sort of interdependence 
among them, each one contributing to the continuance 
of the other and jointly entering, to a more or less 
extent, into the composition of all material substances. 
This water-origined flavour (Rasa), which becoming mo- 
dified through its contact with the rest of the material 

*To put it more explicitly the property of sound belongs to the sky 
(Akdsha). The'properties of sound and touch appertain to the air (V^yu). 
The properties of sound, touch and colour form the characteristics of Fire 
(Teja). Sound, touch, colour and taste form the specific properties of 
water (Toya). Sound, touch, colour, taste and smell mark the earth matter 
(Bhumi)* 



Chap. XLII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 383 

elements, admits of being divided into six different 
kinds, such as sweet, acid, saline, pungent, bitter and 
astringent. These, in their turn, being combined with 
one another, give rise to sixty- three different kinds. 
A sweet taste is largely endued with attributes whi{;h 
specifically appertain to the material principles of 
earth and water. An acid taste is pre-eminenth' possessed 
of attributes, which belong to the elementary principles 
of earth and fire. A sahne taste is mostly endued with 
attributes which characterise the elements of water 
and fire. A pungent taste is largely possessed of 
attributes, which mark the elementary principles of 
air and fire. The specific attributes of air and sky 
predominate in a bitter taste. The specific properties 
of earth and air should be regarded as dominant in an 
astringent taste. 

Tastes such as sweet, acid and saline are endued 
with the virtues of subduing Vayu. Tastes such as 
sweet, bitter and astringent are possessed of the virtue 
of subduing the deranged Pittam. Tastes such as 
pungent, bitter and astringent tend to subdue the 
deranged Kapham. 

The Vayu is a self-origined principle in the human 
organism. The Pittam owes its origin to the bodily 
heat (Agneya), while the origin of Kapham is ascribed 
to the presence of watery (Saumya) principle in the 
body. Tastes such as sweet, etc. are augmented by 



3^4 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLII. 



causes in which they have their origin, and prove 
soothing or pacifying in respect of causes other than 
those which produce them. 

According to certain authorities, there are only two 
kinds of tastes, owing to the two- fold (hot and cold) 
nature of the temperament of the world. Of these 
the tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent are 
cold in their properties, while the pungent, acid and 
saline ones exercise fiery or heat making virtues. The 
tastes such as sweet, acid and saline are heavy and 
emollient in their character, while the pungent, 
astringent and bitter ones are dry and light. The 
watery (Saumya) tastes are cold. The fiery (Agne3'a) 
ones are hot. 

Coldness, dryness, lightness, non-sliminess, suppress- 
ion (of the urine or ordure) form the characterstic 
properties of the Vayu. An astringent taste should be 
considered as possessed of the same properties as the 
Vayu, and hence it (astringent taste) increases the 
coldness, dryness, lightness, non-sliminess and arres- 
tiveness of the latter with its specific coolness, dryness, 
lightness, non-sliminess and arrestiveness. 

Heat, pungency, dryness, lightness, and non-slimi- 
ness form the specific properties of the Pittam. A pun- 
gent taste, which is possessed of the same properties as 
the Pittam, respectively increases the heat, pungency, 



Chap. XLII ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^8^ 

dryness, lightness and non-sliminess of the latter with 
the help of similar properties of its own. 

Sweetness, oiliness, heaviness, coldness and slimi- 
ness form the specific properties of Kapham. A sweet 
taste, which is possessed of the same properties as the 
Kapham, respectively increases the sweetness, oiliness, 
heaviness, coldness and sliminess of the latter with 
the help of similar properties of its own. A pungent 
taste is endued with properties which are contrary 
to those of the Kapham, hence the sweetness, oiliness, 
heaviness, coldness and sliminess of the latter, are 
respectively destroyed by the pungency, dryness, 
lightness, heat and non-sliminess of the former. These 
have been cited only by way of illustration. 

Characteristics of Tastes :— Now we 

shall describe the characteristics of tastes. A 
taste, which is pleasant, proves <"omfortable to, and 
contributes to the life-preservation of a man, keeps 
his mouth moist, and increases the quantity of bodily 
Kapham, is called Sweet (Madhura). A taste, which 
produces tooth- edge and increased salivation, and 
increases the relish for food, is called acid (Amla). 
A taste, which imparts a greater relish to food, pro- 
duces salivation and softness of a part, is called saline 
(Lavana). A taste, which produces a burning sensation 
at the tip of the tongue attended with a tingling of the 
part and headache, and is instantaneously followed 

49 



386 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLil. 



b}' a running at the nose (fluent coryza) is called 
pungent (Katuka). A taste, which gives rise to 
a sort of sucking sensation at the throat, removes 
the slimy character of the cavity of the mouth, gives 
ris6 to the appearance of goose-flesh on the skin, and 
increases the relish for food, is called bitter (Tikta). 
A taste, which brings about the dryness of the mouth, 
numbs the palate, obstructs the throat, and gives 
rise to a drawing, pressing sensation in the region of 
the heart, is called astringent (Kashaya;. 

Specific virtues of tastes : -Now we 

shall describe the specific virtues of tastes. Of these, 
the sweet taste is possessed of the virtue of increasing 
the quantity of lymph-chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone 
marrow, albumen (ojas), semen, and milk in a 
parturient woman. It materially contributes to the 
growth of bones, strengthens the eyesight, favours 
the growth of hair, improves the complexion of the 
bod3% brings about the adhesion of fractured bones 
(Sandhanam'i, and purifies the blood and the lymph- 
chyle. Likewise, it proves wholesome to infants, 
old and weak men and ulcer-patients (suffering from 
Endocarditis — Urah-Kshata and is most coveted by 
bees and ants. It exhilarates the mind as well as 
the five sense-organs, refieves thirst, swooning and a 
burning sensation of the body, and originates Kapham. 
Similarly, it favours the germination of intestinal 



Chap. XLII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 387 

parasites. Largely and exclusively partaken of, it brings 
on cough, dyspnoea, flatulence (Alasaka), vomiting, 
sweet taste in the mouth, hoarseness of the voice 
(aphonia), worms in the intestines, tumours, elephantisis, 
Vasti-lepa mucous deposit in the bladder), Gudopol^pa 
(mucous or slimy deposit in the anus), and Abhisandya 
(ophthalmia), etc. 

Acid taste : — An acid taste should be regard- 
ed as a digestant of assimilated food, and is endued with 
resolving, appetising and carminative properties. It 
sets in the natural emission of flatus and urine, 
restores the natural movements of the bowels, lessens the 
tendency to spasms, and gives rise to an acid (digestive 1 
reaction in the stomach, and to a sensation of external 
shivering. It originates a slimy or mucous secretion 
and is extremel}' pleasant or relishing. An acid taste, 
though possessed of the aforesaid virtues, brings on 
tooth-edge, with sudden closing of the eyes, appearance 
of goose flesh on the skin, absorption of Kapham and 
looseness of the bod}' in the event of its being largely 
partaken of to the exclusion of all other tastes. Owing 
to its fiery character, the taste under discussion 
sets in a process of suppuration in cuts or burns, or in 
incised, lacerated or punctured wounds, as well as 
in those, which result from external blows, or are 
due to fractures, swellings, or falls, or are brought 
about as the after effects of any idiopathic distemper. 



388 THE SUSHRtJTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLli. 

or which are tainted with the urine of an}' venomous 
animals or through contact with any poisonous animal 
or vermin. It gives rise to a burning sensation in the 
throat, chest and the region of the heart. 

Saline taste : — A saline taste is possessed of 
corrective (purgative and emetic) virtues, favours the 
processes of suppuration and spontaneous bursting of 
swellings, brings about the looseness or resolution of any 
affected part (ulcer), is heat- engendering in its property 
and proves incompatible with all other tastes. It 
cleanses the internal passages or channels of the 
organism and produces softness of the limbs and 
members of the body. A saline taste, though possessed 
of the aforesaid properties, may bring on scabies 
urticaria, cedematous swellings, loss or discolorati on of 
the natural complexion of the body, loss of virile 
potenc}', distressing symptoms affecting the sense-organs, 
inflammation of the mouth and the eyes, haemoptysis, 
Vata-rakta (a kind of leprosy) and acid eructations etc., 
in the event of its being largely partaken of to the exclu- 
sion of all other tastes. 

Pungent taste :— A pungent taste is endued 
with appetising, resolving (Pachana"! and purifying 
properties in respect of ulcers etc.), and destroys obesity, 
languor, deranged Kaphani and intestinal parasites. It 
is antitoxic in its character, proves curative in 



Chap. XLII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. .589 

cases of Kushta (skin diseases) and itches, and removes 
the stiffness of the ligaments. It acts as a sedative 
and reduces the quantity of semen, milk and fat. A 
pungent taste, tliough possessed of the aforesaid virtues, 
may bring on vertigo, loss of consciousness, dryness 
of the throat, palate and hps, burning sensation and a 
high temperature of the body, loss of strength, tremor, 
a sort of aching or breaking pain, and a neuralgic pain 
(Vata Shula) in the back, sides and the extremities, etc. 
in the event of its being largely partaken of in exclusion 
of all other tastes. 

Bitter taste : — A bitter taste serves to 
restore the natural relish of a person for food and brings 
on a sense of general languor. It is a good appetiser, 
and acts as a good purifying agent (in respect of ulcers, 
etc.), and proves curative in itches and urticaria. 
It removes thirst, swoon and fever, purifies mother's 
milk, and is possessed of the virtue of drying up urine, 
ordure, mucous, fat and pus, etc. A bitter taste, 
though possessed of the aforesaid properties, may bring 
on numbness of the limbs, wry-neck, convulsions, facial 
paralysis, violent headache, giddiness, and an aching, 
cutting and breaking pain, as well as a bad taste in the 
mouth in the event of its being largel}^ partaken of in 
exclusion of all other tastes. 

Astringent taste :— An astringent taste is 
possessed of astringent, healing, styptic (Stam- 



390 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLII. 

bhana), purifying, liquefacient, drying and contracting 
virtues. It lessens secretions from mucous membranes. 
An astringent taste, though possessed of the above- 
said properties, may bring on the peculiar type of 
heart disease known as (Hridroga) parchedness of 
the mouth, distention of the abdomen, loss of speech, 
wry-neck (Manya Stambha), throbbing or quivering 
and tingling sensations in the body with contraction 
of the limbs and convulsions, etc. 

Now we shall make a general classification of the 
drugs according to their taste. 

lYI ad hura- Groups :— The drugs forming the 
groups known as the Kakolyadi-Gana, as well as 
thickened milk. Ghee, lard, marrow. Shall and Shashtika 
rice, Yava, Godhuma, Masha pulse, Shringataka, 
Kasheruka, Trapusha, Erv^ruka. Alavu, Kalaukata 
Ankalodya,_ Piyala, Pushkara, Vijaka, Kashmarya, 
Madhuka (Moula), Draksha, Kharjura, Rajadana, Tala, 
Narikela, modifications of the expressed Juice of 
Ikshu (Sugarcane), Vala, Ativala, Atmagupta, Vidari, 
Pyash5^a, Gokshuraka, Kshiramorata, Madhulika, and 
Kushmanda etc. are generally included within the 
Madhura gi'oup. 

Acid Groups :— The fruits known as 
Dadima, Araalaka, Matulanga, Amrutaka, Kapittha, 
Karamarda, Vadra, Kola, Prachina-Amalaka, Tintidhi, 



Chap. XLII.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



591 



Koshamra, Bhavya, Paravata, Vetraphala, Lakucha, 
Amla-Vetash, Dantashatha and curd, whey, Sura, 
Shukta, Sauvira, Tushodaka and Dhanyamla, etc. are 
generally included within the acid group. 

Saline Group :— The different kinds of 
salt such as, Saindhaba, Sauvarchala, Vida, Fakya, 
Romaka,. Samudraka, Paktrima, Yavakshara (nitrate 
of potash), Ushara and Suvarchika collectively form 
the Saline group. 

Pungent Group : — The component drugs 
which form the groups known as the Pippalyadi 
and the Surasadi-Ganas and Shigru, Madhu-sigru, 
Mulaka, Lashuna, Sumukha, Shitashiva (camphor, 
Kushtha, Devadaru, Harenuka, Valguja-phalam, Chanda, 
Guggula, Mustha, Langalaki, Shukanasa and Pilu etc. 
and the components of the group known as Salasaradi 
gana collectively form the pungent group. 

Bitter Group :— The component members of 
the groups of medicinal drugs known as the Aragva- 
dhadi-Gana and the Guduchyadi-Gana together with 
Mandukparni, Vetra-karira, Haridra, Daruharidra, 
Indra-yava, Varuna, Svadu-kantaka, Saptaparna, 
Vrihati, Kantakari, Shankhini, Dravanti, Trivrit, 
Kritavedhana, Karkotaka, Karavellaka, Vartaka, 
Karira, Karavira, Sumanah, Sankha-pushpi Apamarga, 
Trayamana, Ashoka, Rohini, Vaijayanti, Suvarchal^, 



392 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. I Chap. XUI. 

Punarnava, Vrishikali and Jyotishmati, etc. collectively 
constitute the bitter group. 

Astringent Group :— The component mem- 
bers of the groups known as the Nyagrodhade-Gana, the 
Amvashtadi-Gana, and the Priyangvadi and the 
Rodhradi Ganas, Triphala, Shallaki, Jambu, Amra, 
Vakula, Timduka fruits, Katakha fruits, Shaka fruits, 
Pashanabhedaka, the fruits of trees known as the 
Vanaspatis (lit : lords of the forest, such as the Vata, 
the Ashvattha etc.) and most of the component members 
of the group known as the Salasaradi Gana, as well as 
Kuruvaka, Kovidaraka, Jivanti, Chilli, Palanka and 
Sunishanuaka, etc. and grains and pulse of the Nevara 
and Mudga species, collectively form the astringent 
group. 

These .tastes, in groups of different combinations, 
number sixty-three in all ; as for example, fifteen, 
computed b}" taking two at a time ; twenty, computed 
by taking three at a time ; fifteen, computed by taking 
four at a time ; six, computed by taking five at a time 
and six, being severally computed, thus making up an 
aggregate of sixty-three. 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : — The man, who gradually habituates him- 
self to the use of each of the six aforesaid tastes, 



Chap. XLII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



393 



enjo5''s a sort of immunity from their injurious action 
in the same manner as, a strong man, who makes him- 
self successively accustomed to the action of the 
three deranged humours of his bod)", is not easily 
affected by their pathogenetic properties. 

Thus ends ihe forty-second Chapter of the Sutrasthinam in the Sushruta 
SamhitS, which treats of the specific properties of flavours. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

Xow we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
treats of the mode of administering emetics 

(Vamana-Dravya- Vikalpa-Vijna'niya- 
madhya'yam). 

Of all emetic fruits the Madana (seeds) should 
be deemed as the best (most active). Madana 
fruits should be dried in the sun and powdered. 
Then a Pala weight (eight tolas'^ of the powder should 
be stirred in a decoction of Pratyakpushpi, Sada-Pushpi, 
or Nimva, and given to the patient with honey and 
Saindhava salt, for emesis. As an alternative, a potion 
consisting of the powders of raw Madana fruits, stirred 
in a decoction of Vakula and Ramyaka, and heated in fire, 
should be' administered with the addition of honey and 
rock-salt. A gruel, consisting of sesamum rice and 
powders of green Madana fruits, boiled together, should 
be given to the patient. Likewise matured though not 
ripe Madana fruits should be stored in a box made of the 
blades of Kusha grass. The box should be plastered over 
with a composition of cowdung and clay and kept buried 
in a bushelful of Yava, Tusha, Mudga, Masha pulse or 
Shali rice for eight consecutive nights. Then having 
extracted them, fully burst out, with the heat of the 
covering grain, their kernels should be separated from 



Chap. XLIII. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. ^g^ 

their seeds and dried in the sun. Then having pasted 
them with curd, hone}' and the levigated paste of 
sesamum they should be again dried in the sun, 
after which they should be kept in a clean vessel. A 
Pala weight of the aforesaid prepared powder should be 
pounded in a decoction of Yastimadhu or of any of the 
drugs of the Kovidaradi group over night, and given to 
the patient on the following morning, through the 
medium of honey and Saindhava salt. The patient 
should take it looking towards the north or the east, and 
the following benedictory Mantra should be recited on 
the occasion. 

Metrical texts : -"May tlie gods Bramha, 
Daksha, Ashvis, Rudra, Indra, the earth goddess, the 
moon, the sun, the fire, the wind, the concourse of holy 
sages (Rishis) and the material elements with the 
curative properties of drugs they originate and nourish, 
preserve thee. May the potion prove wholesome to you, 
as the elixirs prove wholesome to the Rishis, the nectar 
to the gods, and ambrosia to the good Xagas." 

This emetic medicine should be specially employed 
in cases of catarrhal fever, catarrh, and internal abscess. 
In case of insufficient or unsatisfactory action of the 
potion, the drugs known as Pippali, Vacha, and a paste 
of Gaura-Sarsapa and Saindhava salt should be added to 
it. It should be administered warm and in repeated 
doses until the symptoms of emesis would fully 



396 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLIII. 

appear. In the alternative, powders of Madana kernels 
soaked in and saturated with their decoction and 
subsequently dried, should be administered through 
the same vehicle (decoction of the Madana kernels) ; or 
milk cream boiled with the kernels of jVIadana fruits 
should be administered with hone}' ; or a barley gruel 
made with milk prepared as above should be prescribed 
for the purpose. This emetic measure should be 
resorted to in cases of Haematemesis or in Haemorrhaee 
from the bowels or generative organs and burning 
sensation in the heart due to the action of the deranged 
Pittam. 

Milk, boiled with the kernel of a Madana fruit, should 
be curdled, and the cream of the curd or the curd itself 
so prepared should be used for emetic purposes in cases 
of water-brash, vomiting, syncope and dyspnoea. The 
essence (Rasam) of the seed pulps of Madana fruits 
should be pressed out and condensed in the manner 
indicated in connection with the extraction of oil 
(Sneha) of Bhallataka, and the patient should be made 
to lick that condensed essence in cases where the 
Pittam would be found to have shifted into the 
natural seats of Kapham. Sun-dried and pulverised 
Madana fruits^ mixed with a decoction of Jivanti, may 
be administered in its stead. 

A decoction of the kernels of Madan seeds (Majja), 
saturated with powders of Pippali, Yadi or a potion consist- 



Chap. XLIII. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



>97 



ing of the same powder mixed with a decoction of Ximva 
or Riipika, should be prescribed in cases of lymphatic 
(Kaphaja) diseases due to acts of Santarpanam (use 
of emollient remedies), or the emesis in such cases 
should be effected with a decoction of Madhuk'am, 
K^shmari and Draksha saturated with the aforesaid 
powder. Thus the emetic remedies made of Madana 
fruits are discharged. 

Pulverised Jimutaka flowers may be used in the 
same manner and through the same medium or with 
the same adjuvants and for same purposes, as the 
preceding (Madana fruit). Jimutaka fruits should be 
pulverised in their raw or unripe state and dried in 
the sun, and a gruel made with milk boiled with the 
same powder should be given to a patient for emesis ; 
or milk-cream, boiled with the powder of Jimutaka fruits 
(lit : — flowers*) powdered in their mature or hardened 
(Romesha) state, should be given ; or the surface cream 
of milk boiled with the powders of full grown Aromasha), 
greenish yellow Jimutaka fruits, or a Sura (wine) made 
of their decoction should be prescribed. These emetic 
remedies should be used in cases of disincHnation for 
food through the action of deranged Kapham (lymphatic 
derangements), cough, dyspnoea, jaundice and in phthisis 
as well, like the compounds of Madana fruits described 

* Fruits include flowers. 



398 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLIII. 

before. Mature Kiitaja or Kritavedha.na fruits may 
be used for emetic purposes in similar combinations 
and through similar mediums as the Madana fruits 
described before. Powders of Ikshaku fruits (Kushuma), 
similarly prepared with milk, curd, etc., may be used 
for emetic purposes in cases of cough, asthma, vomiting 
and non-relish for food due to the action of deranged 
Kapham (lymphatic disorders). 

The emetic compounds of Dhamargava flowers 
are identical with those of the kernels of Madana 
fruits, the former being regarded as specifically indicated 
in cases of chemical poisoning, Gulma (internal gland), 
abdominal drops}', cough, asthma, as well as in diseases 
due to the action of deranged Kapham (lymphatic 
disorders). The pulps or kernels of Kritavedhana seeds 
should be soaked in the expressed juice of emetic 
drugs and subsequently reduced to powder. The 
powder, so prepared, should be strewn over an 
Utpala or any other flower and the patients should be 
made to smell it in the case where the Kapham would 
be found to have changed its seat with the bodily 
Vayu. Likewise, in cases of excessive derangement of 
the bodil)' humours, the patient should be given a 
stomachful of barle}' gruel and then made to eject the 
contents of his stomach by causing him to smell such a 
medicated flower. Sternutatoric (Shiro-virechanam) or 
emetic or purgative drugs prove most efficacious after 



Chap. XLIII. ] SijTRASTHA'NAM. 



399 



being soaked in or saturated with the expressed juice of 
their own. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject : — Thus a general outhne of the leading 
characteristics of the emetic drugs in general has been 
given. An intelligent physician should choose an 
emetic remedy in consideration of the season of the 
year and the strength of the disease, and should tr}- to 
set in the process of ejection in a patient either with 
the help of the expressed juice, paste or powder of 
the prescribed drug duly administered through the 
medium of an article of food or drink, or through an 
electuary. 

Thus ends llie forly-third Cliapler of the Sulraslhanain in llie Sushiula 
Sanihila which deals wiih ihe choice and mode of administering emetics. 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
treats of the choice of purgatives (Vircchana- 

Dravya-Vikalpa - Vijiiariiya - madhya'- 
yam.) 

Metrical Texts :— Of the purgative roots, 
the roots of reddish Trivrita should be deemed the 
most effective. The barks of Tilvaka and the fruit 
known as Haritaki are the most potent of all 
purgative barks and fruits. Similar!}-, the oil of 
castor seeds (Erauda-Taila), the expressed juice of 
Karavellika and the milky exudations of Sndha plant 
are the most effective of all such purgative oils, ex- 
pressed juices and milky exudations of plants, etc. 
These drugs or substances form the principal purgative 
remedies (in our pharmacy), and we shall discuss the 
mode of their administration in successive order. 

A purgative remedy consisting of the sound and 
matured roots of Tri\Titam, soaked in the expressed 
juice of the principal purgative drugs and subsequently 
pulverised and mixed with a considerable quantity of 
Saindhava salt and powdered Magara, should be 
administered through the medium of curd or sour 
rice gruel, etc. to a patient, suffering from a disease 
due to the derangement of the bodil)' Vayu. 



aiap.XLIV] SUTRASTHANAM. ^Ol 

The same powder mixed with modifications of sugar- 
cane juice (such as treacle, sugar etc.), oi with 
decoctions of drugs belonging to the Madhuradi group 
(Kakolyadi-gana), or with milk, should be prescribed 
for a patient laid up with Pittaja distemper. "* In 
diseases due to the deranged action of the Kapham the 
same powder should be administered with a decoction 
of Guduchi, Arishta or Triphala, or with the addition 
of pulverised Vyosha and cow's urine. 

One part of the same powder (Trivrit), mixed with one 
part of old treacle and the drugs known as Trivarnaka, 
and Tryushana, should be administered for purgative pur- 
poses in a disease (due to the concerted action of the 
deranged Viyu and Kapham). As an alternative, a 
Prastha mea sure (four seers) cf the decoction of the 
Trivrit roots, mixed with a Kudava measure (half a seer) 
of their paste, and a Karsha (two tolas) weight of 
Saindhava salt and Xagara, and boiled together, and then 
formed into a condensed compound should be used ; or 
one part of the paste of the same roots, mixed with half 
a part each of rock-salt and powdered Nagara, should 
be administered through the vehicle of cow's urine. A 
compound consisting of one part of each of the following 
drugs viz., powdered Trivrita roots, Nagara and Haritaki, 
and a half part of each of such drugs as powdered 
Maricha, Devadaru, Vidanga and ripe Puga nuts, 
mixed with rock-salt, and administered through 

51 



402 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. Xliv . 

the medium of cow's urine, should be considered as an 
effective purgative (in diseases of whatsoever type). 

Powders of purgative drugs taken in adequate 
measures and soaked in their own juice should be 
boiled with their roots and made into pills (Gutikd) 
with clarified butter and administered as occasion 
would arise. As an alternative, powders of pur- 
gative drugs pasted with clarified butter boiled 
with their roots should be made into boluses, and 
the intelligent ph5^sician should administer them 
through the medium of clarified butter, prepared as 
above, whenever necessary. A quantity* of treacle 
should be kept boiling over an oven, and a (halt part) of 
the pu'verised purgative roots should be cast into it, a 
little before it is completely boiled. Then the basin should 
be taken off the fire, and powders of aromatic drugs 
known as Trij^ta strewn over it, and the compound sub- 
sequently made into boluses (Gutika) of adequate size 
according to the requirements of the case under treatment. 

One part of any of the pulverised purgative drugs 
(such as the Trivrit roots, etc.) should be boiled with 
four parts of their own decoction, and one part of pow- 
dered wheat steamed in the fumes of a separate quantity 
of a similar boiling decoction, should be pounded with a 
quantity of clarified butter boiled and prepared with 

* The quantity of old treacle should be equal to the aggregate weight of 
the other drugs in the compound under similar circumstances. 



Chap. XLIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^O^? 

the same decoction. Then having cooked a quantity of 
thin treacle in a separate utensil, powders of wheat 
and purgative drugs prepared as above, should be 
cast into it, immediately before being completely 
cooked, and the vessel should be taken down from 
the oven and allowed to cool. Then this confection 
(Modaka) should be perfumed with aromatic drugs 
and regarded as ready for use. In short, this purgative 
Modaka is good food as well. 

Purgative preparations of lYIudga, 
etc.: — The soup of Mudga pulse saturated with the 
decotion of a purgative drug, and taken with clarified 
butter and rock salt, acts as a good purgative as well. 
Similarly, soups of other pulses (such as the Musara, 
etc.) soaked in a decoction of any of the purgative 
drugs and drunk with the aforesaid adjuvants, exert 
purgative virtues. Drugs possessed of emetic properties 
may be used through the preceding media of pulse- 
soups as well. 

A bit of sugar-cane should be longitudinally split, 
and then paste of Tribhandi should be placed in its 
middle ; then it should be tied up (with the blades of 
Kusha grass), and plastered over with a coat of clay, and 
inserted in a gentle fire of dung cake. After that, it 
should be taken out of the fire, fully roasted ; the juice 
squeezed out and cooled, would prove a good purgative 
to a patient laid up with a Pittaja distemper. 



404 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLIV. 



A compound consisting of equal parts of sugar and 
powdered Ajagandha, Tvakkshiri, Vidari and Trivrit and 
licked with honey and clarified butter, proves curative 
in a fever with thirst and a burning sensation of the 
body. 

A compound consisting of one part of pulverised 
Trivrit and a quarter part each of the drugs known as 
Tvak, Patram and Maricha, and administered with 
an adequate quantity of honey and sugar, should be 
regarded as a good purgative for delicate persons. 

A Pala weight of sugar should be boiled with a half 
Kudava weight of hone)', and Trivrita powders to the 
weight of a quarter part (of the combined weight of 
honey and sugar) should be added to the boiling 
compound at the later part of the cooking. The 
remedy should be administered cool, and looked upon 
as a good purger of Pittam. 

A compound consisting of equal parts of pow- 
dered Trivrit, Shyama (Vriddha-Daraka), Yavakshara, 
Shunti and Pippali, and taken with honey, acts as 
one of the most effective purgatives in diseases due 
to the action of the deranged Kapham. 

Over-ripe Pathya, Kdshmari, Dhatri, Dadima and 
Kola fruit taken with their seeds or stones, should 
be boiled (with a quantity of water weighing 
sixteen times their combined weight). The decoc- 
tion thus obtained should be boiled with (castor) 



Chap. XLIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^oc 

oil, and the juice of Amlaphala etc. (to the weight of a 
quarter part thereof), should be added to it. The 
whole should be boiled together until reduced to a 
considerable consistence. The powders of the three 
aromatic drugs (Trisugandha) and Trivrit* should ' be 
then added to it, which should be administered to a 
patient as an electuary with hone)". This remedy 
will prove a good purgative in respect of a delicate 
person of Kaphaja temperament. 

A compound, consisting of one part of powdered 
Nili fruit, one part of powdered Tvak and Ela, and 
two parts of pulverised Trivrit, and mixed with an 
adequate quantity of sugar, and taken with honey 
and the juice of Amlaphalam, should be regarded as a 
purgative remedy possessed of the virtue of destroying 
the concerted action of the three deranged humours 
of the body. 

A compound, consisting of equal parts of powdered 
Trivrit, Shyama (Vriddhadaraka), Pippali and Triphal^ 
and made into a confection ( Modaka) (with the addition 
of honey and sugar), should be regarded as one of the 
most potent cures (purgatives) for S^nnipata (simul- 
taneous derangement of the three vital humours), 
haemoptysis and fever. 

A compound consisting of three parts of Trivrit, 

* The weight of honey and pulverised Trivrit should be equal to a 
fourth part of the entire quantity of medicine taken at a time* 



4o6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap XLIV. 

one part of Triphala, one of Yavakshara, one of 
Krishna (Pippali), and one of Vidanga, pounded 
together and used as an electuary with the addi- 
tion of honey and clarified butter, or made into 
bolases (Gutika) with treacle, proves curative in 
cases of enlarged spleen, in Gulmas due to the action of 
the deranged Kapham and Vayu, in Halimaka .Chlorosis), 
as well as in cases of abdominal dropsy, etc. The 
present remedy (purgative) is one of the most harmless 
purgative compounds (of our pharmacopoeia}. A pur- 
gative compound consisting of Shyama (Vriddhadaraka), 
Trivrit, Xili, Katvi, Musta, Duralabha, Chavya, Indra- 
yava and Triphala, administered through the vehicle 
of clarified butter, essence of meat, or water, is com- 
mended to persons of dry temperament. 

Preparations of Purgative Asavas 
(Wines): — All purgative drugs* should be duly 
boiled in water. Three parts of the decoction thus 
prepared should be mixed with two parts of cold 
powdered barley (Phanitam) and again boiled over a 
fire. Then after boiling it, it should be taken down 
from the oven, cooled and poured into a pitcher 
previously coated inside with a special plaster.t Then 
according to the difference of the season (cold or hot), 

* Several authorities exclude the plant known as Sudh^ (ManasS), 
while others stick to Trivrita alone in exclusion of all other drugs. 

t A new earthen pitcher is first washed with water and dried in the 
shade. Then its inside is coated with a plaster of honey and powdered 
Pippali and is fumigated with the fumes of Aguru (Eagle wood). 



Chap. XLIV. ] SUTRASTHANaM. 407 

the pitcher should be kept buried in a heap 
of paddy for a month, or a fortnight. It should 
be taken out and understood to be ready for use 
as soon as it would emit a winy or fermented 
odour. Asavas (fermenting liquours) of animal urines 
and alkaline substances should be likewise prepared 
in the foregoing manner. 

Preparations of purgative rice Surar 

(Wines) etc. : — Quantities of Masha pulse and Shali 
rice should be respectively first soaked and washed in a 
decoction of purgative roots. Then they should be dried 
and pounded together and made into balls, which should 
be subsequently dried in the sun and again pulverised.* 
After that a separate quantity of Shali rice steamed 
in the vapours of the aforesaid decoction, and kept 
apart, should be made into cakes. Then three parts 
of these cakes should be mixed with one part of the 
aforesaid powdered ball. The compound thus obtained 
should be soaked in an adequate quantity of that 
purgative decoction previously kept apart in an earthen 
pitcher of the plastered type, described before. The Sura 
should be deemed ready for use, as soon as it would 
emit the peculiar honey-like smell. Suras of emetic 
drugs should be likewise made in the same manner. 

Preparations of purgative Souvira- 

kas (Barley Wines) ;~-Trivrit roots and drugs 

* For imparting to it liie necessary Enzyme, 



4o8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLiv. 

belonging to the groups of Vidarigandha and major 
Panchamulam, as well as Murva, Sh^rngashta, Sudha, 
Haimavati, Triphala, Ativisha and Vacha should 
be mixed together and then set apart in two 
equal parts. A decoction should be made of one of 
them, while the other should be reduced to a state 
of powder. After that, a quantity of well thrashed 
and huskless barlej^ should be soaked in the aforesaid 
decoction for seven days, and should be subsequently 
dried and fried a little. Then three parts of the 
latter and one part of the aforesaid powder (powdered 
Trivrita roots etc.) should be mixed together and soak- 
ed in the aforesaid cold decoction of those drugs. 
The mixture should be then kept into an earthen 
pitcher of the foregoing type and administered in ade- 
quate doses as soon as the characteristic winy smell 
of the mixture (Jatarasa) would be detected. The pre- 
paration is called the purgative Sauvirakam. 

Preparations of purgative Tusho- 
dakam (fermented liquors of barley with husks): — The 
drugs enumerated in connection with the foregoing 
preparation should be mixed together and di^•ided in 
halves and kept in two separate vessels. One half of 
the mixture should be well-thrashed and tied up in a 
piece of clean linen with a quantity of unthrashed 
barley in husks and should be boiled with a decoction 
of Ajashringi in a separate basin. Then barley in husks 



Chap. XLIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 409 

should be separated from the rest of the components of 
the mixture after it has been thoroughly cooked. Then 
three parts of these barley grains subsequently thrashed 
should be again soaked in their decoction, and a fourth 
part of the aforesaid pulverised drugs 'such as the roots 
of Trivrit, etc.) should be added to it, and the entire 
mixture should be kept in an earthen pitcher of 
the before mentioned type. This preparation is called 
Tushodakam (lit: Washings of husks , and should be 
used as soon as the characteristic smell of fermentation 
(Jatarasa) would be emitted from the pitcher. The 
processes of preparing Sauvirakam and Tushodakam 
have been described. They should be used after the 
expiry of six or seven nights from the date of their 
being in the pitcher. 

The rules and processes regarding the preparation 
of Tri\Tit compounds hold good in cases of similar pre- 
parations made of the rest of purgative drugs (such 
as, Danti, Dravanti, etc.) 

The roots of Danti and Dravanti should be first 
pulled up and collected, after which they should be 
dried in the sun. After that, they should be mixed with 
honey and pasted Pippali and placed in a box of Kusha 
grass firmly tied up and plastered with a layer of clay. 
The box should be put into a fire of dried cowdung 
cakes. The compound inside the plastered grass box 
should be cooked according to the process of Putapaka, 

52 



4IO THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLIV. 

and should be taken out and used in diseases due to 
the action of the deranged Kapham and Pittam and in 
combination and through vehicles described in connec- 
tion with the purgative compounds of Trivrit. 

Pastes (Kalkas' and decoctions of Danti and Dra- 
vanti should be boiled with clarified butter, and Chakra 
Tailam (sesamum oil pressed in an oil mill). The clarified 
butter, thus cooked and prepared, would prove curative in 
cases of Erysipelas, Kaksha, burning sensation of the 
body and Alaji, while cases of Meha, Gulma, retention 
of flatus, (kapham) and obstruction of the bowels 
would prove amenable to the oil above described. 
Diseases due to the retention of urine, semen and 
Vavu or fecal matter readily yield to one of the four oily 
substances (Chatuh-sneha, oil, clarified butter, lard and 
marrow) cooked and prepared with the paste and 
decoction of Danti and Dravanti. 

A compound consisting of Danti, Dravanti, Maricha, 
Kanakahvaya, Yavasaka, \'ishs^a-veshaja, Mridvika, 
and Chitraka powdered together and successi^"ely soaked 
in cow's urine for seven days, should be administered 
for purgative purposes, through the medium of clarified 
butter. A diet of powdered barley, stirred in honey, 
should be given to the patient after the assimilation of 
the abovesaid medicine. Diseases such as indigestion, 
pain at the sides, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen 
as well as those due to the combined action of the 



Chap. XLIV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 41 j 

deranged Kapham and Pittam readily yield to the 
curative efficacy of this purgative remedy. 

Twenty pulverised Pathyas mixed with the powders 
of Danti and Chitraka roots, each weighing a Pala in 
weight, as well as with two tola weights each of 
powdered Pippali and Trivrit, should be cooked 
with eight pala weights of treacle. The com- 
pound thus prepared should be made into ten large 
balls of confection (Modaka), each of which should be 
taken on every tenth da}'. Warm water should be used 
for drinking and bathing purposes while using the medi- 
cine, which does not entail any strict regimen of 
conduct (as non-exposure to cold wind, etc.). It proves 
curative in dysentery, jaundice, pile and cutaneous 
affections and subdues the three deranged humours of 
the bod5\ 

Trivrida'Shtaka :~The nine following drugs, 
viz. Trikatu, Trijata, Musta, Vidanga and Amalaka 
taken in equal parts, and eight parts of Trivit, and two 
parts of Danti roots should be separately pulverised and 
sieved through a piece of thin linen. The powders thus 
prepared should be pounded together and mixed with 
six parts of sugar and a little quantity of honey and 
rock salt.* Cold water should be given to the patient 
after he had taken the medicine, which proves curative 

* The term little (Ishat) in the present instance stands for a quarter 
part. 



412 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLIV. 

in colic pain in the bladder (Vasti-Shula), thirst, fever, 
vomiting, anasarca (Shotha), chlorosis and vertigo. It 
does not entail any strict regimen of conduct like other 
purgatives and acts as a good eliminator of poison. The 
compound is called the Trivridashtakam and is specially 
recommended in Pittaja affections. Persons, suffering 
from diseases due to the action of the deranged Pittam 
and Kapham, should take the medicine through the 
vehicle of milk. The medicine should be prescribed 
for rich persons, owing to its dietetic character. 

Purgative barks : — The external skin of the 
Lodhra bark, to the exclusion of its inner lining, should 
be taken and pulverised. The powder, thus prepared, 
should be divided into three equal parts, two of which 
should be soaked in a decoction of the same (Lodhra) 
bark and filtered twenty- one times according to the 
process laid down in connection with the preparation of 
alkalis. The remaining third part of the powders should 
be soaked in the aforesaid filtered decoction and 
subsequently dried in the sun, and again soaked in a 
decoction of the drugs, which coUectiveh' go by 
the name of Dashamulam. The medicine should be 
prescribed in forms (wines, electuaries, etc.) pre- 
viously described in connection with the Trivrit 
compounds. 

The mode ol preparing and administering purgative 
medicines out of barks endued with similar virtues has 



Chap. XLIV.] SUTRASTHANAM. 413 

been described. We shall presently deal with those 
made with purgative fruits. 

Fruit Purgatives :— Sound and stoneless 
Haritakis administered in the wa}' of Trivrit com- 
pounds prove curati^'e in all forms of disease and 
in malignant sores and internal abscesses. Thev are 
the best of elixirs and improve the intellectual 
faculties. Haritaki and Vidanga, as well as rock salt, 
Xagaram, Trivrit and Maricha mixed in equal parts 
and taken with cow's urine, act as good purgatives. 
Similar!}', powders of Haritaki, Bhadra-daru, Kushtham, 
Puga-phalam, Saindhava salt and Shringaveram taken 
through the medium of cow's urine, act as good purga- 
tive. For purgative purposes, a man should lick a com- 
pound consisting of the powders of Xilini fi-uits, Nagara, 
Abhaya and treacle and subsequently drink a good 
draught ot vrarin water. A compound composed of 
Haritakis pasted with a decoction of the drugs con- 
stituting the group of Pippalyadi and a bit of 
Saindhava salt, exerts an instantaneous purgative action. 

Haritakis eaten with Nagaram or treacle and with 
a bit of rock salt added to it, is an excellent stomachic. 
The specific virtue of Haritaki consists in restoring the 
normal condition of the bodily Vayu (laxative), in 
rejuvenating an used up or exhausted frame, and in 
soothingly in^•igorating the sense organs. Haritaki 
destroys all diseases, which are due to the use of 



414 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLIV . 

sweet or richly cooked dishes (Santarpanam) such as, 
thirst, etc. Amalakam is cooling, and refrigerent ; it sub- 
dues Pittam and Kapham and is antifat in its virtues. 
Vibhitakam is cooling ; it subdues Pittam and Kapham. 
The- group of medicinal fruits known as the Triphala 
consists of Haritaki, Amalakam and Vibhitakam, which 
are collectively marked by an acid-astringent taste with 
a shade of bitter and sweet. Powdered Triphala 
regularh' taken with clarified butter of a three quarter 
part of its own weight acts as a regular panacea and 
is endued with a rejuvenating virtue. 

All fruits possessed of purgative properties, 
should be used in the manner described in connection 
with Haritaki with the exception of Chaturangulas. The 
Chaturangula fruit should be collected in the proper 
season, and then kept buried for a week in a bed of 
sand. After that, they should be unearthed and dried 
in the sun, and their stones or seeds (lit. marrow) should 
be taken out. Then the essential oil of the seeds 
should be extracted by pressing them in an oil-mill like 
the seeds of sesamum, or b}' boiling them with water 
(hot expression). The oil is a good purgative for a 
child up to its twelfth year. 

Hot water taken after having licked a compound 
consisting of Castor oil saturated with powdered 
Kushtha and Trikatus, acts as a good purgative. Castor 
oil taken with a decoction of Triphalas, double its own 



Chap. XLIV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 41^ 

measure, or with milk or extract of meat, acts as a 
good purgative, which should be prescribed for infants, 
old men, or persons debilitated from the effects of 
ulcer cachexia, or of delicate constitution. 

I have finished describing the preparation and appli- 
cation of fruit purgatives. Now hear me, O Sushruta, 
discourse on similar milky exudations of plants and 
trees, etc. which are possessed of purgative properties. 
The milky juice of a Sudha plant is the strongest 
of all purgatives, which being imprudently used 
by a medical ignoramus, may be attended with 
dangerous consequences, while the same in the hands 
of a judicious physician proves strong enough to dis- 
integrate a mighty accumulation of deranged humours 
and to successfully combat man}' an irremediable dis- 
temper. 

One part of the decoction of each of the drugs 
constituting the gi'oup of major Panchamulam and 
Vrihati, etc. should be mixed with one part of the milky 
juice of a Sudha plant (thus forming an eighth part of 
the whole compound). After having boiled it over 
a charcoal fire, the compound should be taken with 
two Tola (kola) weights of any acid liquid (such as wine, 
sour rice gruel, cream of curd, etc.) in the manner of 
Trivrit compounds. A gruel made of rice saturated with 
the milky exudation of a Mahavriksha, or a sweetened, 
porridge-like preparation of the same substance (Utka- 



41 6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap.XLIv. 

rika) made with treacle, should be deemed as possessed 
of purgative properties. As an alternative, an electuary 
composed of sugar, clarified butter and the milky juice 
of a Snuhi plant, should be used for purgative purposes. 

Powders of Pippali soaked in the milk}^ juice of 
the same plant should be used with rock salt for moving 
the bowels. Powdered Kampillakam made into boluses 
with Snuhi juice ma)^ be as well prescribed for the same 
end. Powders of Saptala, Shankhini, Danti, Trivrit and 
kernel of Aragvadham, should be saturated with cow's 
urine and then soaked in the milky juice of a Snuhi 
plant successively for seven consecutive days.* A smell 
of the powder thus prepared and strewn over the 
flower-garlands, and clothes worn by a man whose 
bowels are easil}^ moved, acts as a mild purgative. 

The use and preparation of purgative remedies 
concocted with roots, barks and milk}' exudations of 
plants, etc. have been described, w-hich should be 
prescribed after carefully considering the nature of 
the case under treatment and according to their specific 
indications. 

A compound consisting of three Shana weights 
(one tola and a half) of powdered Trivrit, three 

* The mode of preparing the porridge is as follows : — First the wheat 
should be saturated with the milky juice of a JNlaha-Vriksha and then 
macerated. The powder should be then cooked with mil-< and treacle and 
made into a thick porridge. 



Chap. XLIV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 4,7 

Shana weights of powdered Triphala pulp, and three 
Shana weights of powdered Vidanga, Pippali and 
Yavakshara, mixed and pounded together, should be 
licked with honey and clarified butter, or they should 
be made into a confection with treacle for purgative 
purposes. The medicine does not entail any strict 
regimen of diet and conduct. It is one of the most 
effective remedies (of our pharmacopoeia) and proves 
curative in Gulmas, enlargement of the spleen, cough, 
Halimakam ( chlorosis ), non-relish for food and 
in diseases due to the action of the deranged 
Kapham and Vayu. A wise and intelligent physician 
should administer purgative medicines through the 
vehicles of clarified butter, oil, milk, Mad3'a (wine) 
cow's urine, meat essence, or through the expressed 
juice of drugs, or through articles of food, or in 
forms of electuar}'. The six kinds of purgatives are 
the milky exudations, expressed juices, pastes, decoctions, 
cold infusions and powders of medicinal drugs or 
herbs, and each of these preceding factors should be 
deemed stronger than the one immediately following 
it in the order of enumeration. 

Thus ends the forty-fourth Chapter of the Sutrasthinam in the Sushruta 
SamhitS, which treats of the choice of purgatives. 



53 



CHAPTER XLV. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter, which 
deals with the rules to be observed in respect of liquid 
substances in general (Drava-Dravya-Vidhi- 
madhyaryam). 

Water Group : — Atmospheric, or rain water 
is possessed of a non-patent taste. It is ambrosial 
in its nature, pleasant and beneficial to life. It is 
enlivening,* invigorating or strength-giving, f re- 
frigerent, frigorific, antipyrotic_, anti-hypnotic, and 
conquers vertigo, drowsiness and fits of fainting. 
It is most wholesome to the human body. After 
having fallen upon the surface of the earth it acquires one 
of the six different tastes according to the nature 
of its receptacle such as, a river, or a Xada (a river 
with a masculine name), a pond, a tank (Vapi) i, 
a Kupa §, a Chunti \\, a fountain, an Artesian 
spring a Vikira 1, fallow land (Kedar), or a pond 
covered over with a growth of aquatic plants 

* Enlivens ihe body during fits of fainting and such like cases. 

+ Imparts strength to the exhausted or emaciated frames. 

J A tank or a large well with its sides protected by buttresses of 
masonry work. 

§ A well with flights of masonry steps descending to its bottom. 

II An ordinary well, unprotected by buttresses and unpro\-ided with 
steps. 

If A flow of subterranean water dug out of a bed of sand. 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 419 

(Palvala). Certain authorities maintain that heavenly 
or atmospheric water having fallen on a red, brown, 
grey, yellow, blue or white coloured soil, respectively 
assumes a sweet, acid, saline, pungent, bitter or an 
astringent taste. But the theory is not a soTind 
one in as much as the comparative predominance 
of the attributes of the five material principles in 
a particular soil determines the taste of the water 
contained therein. Water, contained or collected in 
a soil marked by a predominance of the attributes 
of earth-principle, acquires an acid and saline taste. 
Water, contained in a soil marked by a predominance 
of the attributes of fire, acquires a bitter and pungent 
taste. Water, contained in a soil marked by a pre- 
dominance of the attributes of air, acquires an 
astringent taste. The sky is devoid of all tastes, and 
hence, the water contained in a soil, which is largely 
possessed of the specific attributes of that element, 
is characterised by the absence of any taste whatever. 
Only the last named kind should be used for drinking 
purposes where atmospheric water would not be 
available. 

Atmospheric water (Antariksha Jalam), in its 
turn, may be divided into four classes such as, 
rain water, hail water, frost water or dew, and 
snow water, of which the first is the best for its 
lightness. Rain water may be divided into two 
classes such as the Gangam and the Samudram, 



^20 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLV. 

according as the rain- cloud is charged with vapours 
evaporated from the bosom of the Ganges or the sea. 
Gangetic rain generally descends in the month of 
Ashvina, but both kinds should be subjected to a 
test; The test in the case of Gangam rain water 
consists in exposing to it, for a Muharta (forty-eight 
minutes), a quantity of undiscoloured Shali rice in a 
silver bowl which is not extremely softened by boiling. 
To ascertain whether it is Gangetic rain water or not, 
Gangetic rain water should be ascertained from the 
fact of the aforesaid Shali rice not being in any way 
affected in its colour ; whereas a change in its 
colour under exposure, as well as the fact of its 
being formed into shredd}' or seedy balls mixed with 
slimy secretions, would indicate that the rain water had 
been formed of the vapours of the sea ; Samudram), and 
should be regarded as extremely unwholesome. Rain 
water from a cloud entirely formed of sea-vapours and 
collected in the month of Ashvina, is as wholesome 
as what is technically known as Gangetic rain water, 
but the latter is the best of the several kinds of atmos- 
pheric water. 

The means of collecting atmospheric (rain) water 
is as follows : — A broad piece of clean and white 
linen should be hung out in the open air, (with a stone 
placed across the middle to dip its centre of gravity). 
The rain water thus collected should be kept in a 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTKASTHANAM. 421 

vessel. As an alternative, rain water flowing from 
the waterspouts of a house should be collected 
in a clean receptacle, and subsequently poured into 
a golden, silver or an earthen vessel. The water thus 
collected can be taken at all times, and ma}^* be 
substituted by any other terrestrial water in the 
event of its not being available at the time. 

Terrestrial water is generally marked by a pre- 
dominance of the specific properties of the sky, and 
admits of being grouped (under seven sub-heads such 
as, well-water, river-water, lake- water, tank- water, 
fountain water, spring (Artesian) water, and Chunti (well 
unprovided with masonry steps) water. Atmospheric 
or spring water should be used for their high efficacy 
during the rains (Varsha). All kinds of water may be 
used in Sharat on account of their clearness. Lake or 
tank water should be used in Hemanta ; well and foun- 
tain water, in spring* (Vasanta) and summer ; and 
Chunti water, as well as all water not of recent origin, 
nor due to an excessive down-pour or inundation, 
should be used during Prdvrit. 

Metrical Texts : — He falls an easy victim to 
internal and external diseases (cutaneous affections), 
etc., who drinks of or bathes in a pool of water, 

* The " rains " in the present passage should be interpreted to mean 
the end of the rainy season or the month of Ashvina, and not the month of 
Bh^dra, as its use is specially forbidden in that month. 



422 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLV. 

which is full of poisonous worms, or is saturated 
with urine or fecal matter, or is defiled with germs 
of vermin or decomposed animal organisms, or is 
covered over with the growths of aquatic plants, or 
is stiewn over with withered and decomposed leaves, 
or which in any way is rendered poisonous and 
contaminated, as well as he, who drinks and bathes 
in the freshly collected water of a pool or a reservoir 
during the rains. 

A sheet of water, which is entirely covered over 
with the growths of aquatic plants such as, moss, 
zoophytes, water weeds, lotus leaves, etc., or which 
looks turbid owing to oozy mire, or is not exposed to 
the currents of fresh air, nor illumined by the sun or 
the moon, and is possessed of a definite smell, colour, 
and taste, should be regarded as contaminated or 
defiled (V3'apannam). Water may be affected with regard 
to the six categories of touch, sight, taste, smell, 
potenc}^, and chemical transformation or re-action (lit : 
digestion). Roughness, sliminess, warmth, and the 
production of a shivering sensation (lit : tooth-edge) 
are the tactual defects (Sparsha- Dosha) of defiled water, 
whereas a varied colour, and the presence of mire, sand, 
and shreds of moss are the defects, which mark its look 
or appearance (Rupa-Dosha). A distinct taste marks the 
water, which is affected as regards its taste (Rasa-Dosha), 
while an unpleasant smell is the characteristic 



Chap. XLV. J SUTRASTHANAM. 423 

of the water, which is aiEFected as regards its 
smell (Gandha-Dosha). The water, which being taken 
gives rise to thirst and to a sense of heaviness of the 
limbs, colic, and a fluent coryza, is said to be affected 
or vitiated in its potency (Virya-Dosha , whereas 
that, which takes a long time to be digested, or is 
retained in the stomach for an inordinate length of 
time, is said to be affected as regards digestion or 
chemical transformation (Vipaka-Dosha). Atmospheric 
water is free from the abovesaid defects. The defiled 
or contaminated water should be purified by boiling 
it, or by heating it in the sun, or by immersing a 
red-hot iron, or hot sands or stones in the same, and 
its smell should be removed by perfuming it with the 
Nageshvara, Champaka, Utpala, or Patala flowers, etc. 

IVIetrical Texts :— Water should be drunk 
perfumed in a golden, silver, copper or an earthen 
goblet, or in a bowl made of bell metal or of precious 
stones. Contaminated water, as well as rain water 
accumulated in an improper season, should never 
be used for drinking purposes, inasmuch as it 
tends to derange the fundamental humours of the 
body, and is positively injurious to the human" system. 
The man, who drinks, or bathes in, any contaminated 
water without previously purifying it as before directed, 
incurs the risk of being speedily affected with oedema, 
jaundice, cutaneous affections, indigestion, dyspnaa, 



424 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

cough, catarrh, colic pains, abdominal glands, ascites or 
any other dreadful disease. 

There are seven modes of purif3'ing water such 
as, b}- immersing the Kataka fruits, the gems known 
as the Gomedha, the roots of lotus plants, or 
of aquatic mosses, a piece of linen, or a pearl, or a crystal 
in a pitcher or vessel containing it. The bottoms of a 
water pitcher are made of five different shapes such as, the 
Phalakam (rectangular wooden stool), the Try^ashtakam 
(octagonal wooden tripod), the Manju Valayam (ring 
made of the blades of Manju grass), the Udaka-Manchika 
(wooden scaffold for a pitcher) and the Shiky 
(pendent bracket\ There are seven ways of cooling 
water, such as by exposing a water pitcher to 
currents of air, immersing a water pitcher (tied round 
with a piece of wet cloth) neck-deep in a vessel full of 
water, churning it with a stick, by fanning, or siphoning 
it by means of a piece of linen, or b}' burying a water 
pitcher underneath a bed of sand, or by keeping it 
suspended in a pendent bracket. 

IVIetrical Texts :— The water, which is devoid 
of all smell or taste, and is pure, cool, limpid, 
transparent, refrigerent and pleasant, should be regarded 
as possessed of all the commendable traits. The water 
of rivers, (which drain the J^ngala countries) and 
flow into the western sea, is light, and therefore 
wholesome. The water of rivers, which traverse 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. .35 

the marshy (Anupa) countries and empty themselves into 
the eastern sea, is heav}' and therefore not com- 
mended to be used. The water of rivers, which run 
into the southern sea, is neither too heavy nor too light 
owing to the fact of its traversing countries which 
have a Sadharana character. 

The water of rivers, which have their sources in the 
Sajhya mountains, begets cutaneous affections ; while the 
water of those, which rise from the Vindhya mountains, 
produces Kushtha and Jaundice. The water of rivers, 
which rise on the mount Mala)'a, begets worms and in- 
testinal parasites, while the water of those, that 
have their sources in the Mahendra mountain, begets 
elephantisis and abdominal dropsy. The water of rivers, 
which rise on the Himalaya, produces angina pectoris, 
(Hridroga), anasarca, diseases of the head, elephantisis, 
or goitre in persons using it for the purposes of life. 
Similarh% the water of rivers, which drain the eastern 
portion of the country of Avanti, or flow through its 
western part, begets piles ; while the water of those, 
which rise on the mount of Paripatra is wholesome, 
strength -giving, and conducive to health. 

IVIetrical Texts : — The water of clear and 
swift- running rivers is light, while the water of those, 
which are sluggish in their course and are covered 
with mosses and other aquatic plants, is heavy. The 
water of rivers, which run through Marudesha (Modem 

54 



426 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

Marwar) is possessed of a bitter saline taste, or is 
endued with a sweet taste blended with a shade of the 
astringent, and is easil}" digestible and strength-giving 
in its properties. 

Every kind of terrestrial water should l)e collected 
early in the morning, since it is obtained the clearest 
and coolest at that part of the day ; and since these 
two attributes by far form the most commendable traits 
in water. 

lYIetrical Texts : — The water, which gets the 
light of the sun in the day and reflects the moon in the 
night, and which, moreover, neither produces Kapham 
nor a parched condition in the body, should be regarded 
as one in virtue with the atmospheric water. Atmos- 
pheric water, collected in a good and proper receptacle, 
has the virtue of subduing the three deranged humours 
of the body, and acts as a pure tonic and elixir, 
its virtue varying with the excellence of the vessel in 
which it is contained. The cool and limpid washings 
of the gem known as the Chandrakanta Mani (the moon- 
stone) should be regarded as possessed of the mystic 
virtue of warding off the attacks of monsters and 
demons, and of subduing the deranged Pittam. They are 
beneficial in fever and in cases of poisoning marked by 
a burning sensation of the body, etc. 

Cold water usually proves beneficial in epileptic fits, 



Chap. XLV.l SUTRASTHANAM. 



427 



in hot seasons, and in a burning sensation of the body 
due to the deranged action of the Pittam, in blood- 
poisoning, ha3moptysis, abuse of wine (Mad^tya), 
loss of consciousness, fatigue or exhaustion, vertigo, 
Tamaka and vomiting. The use of cold \v*ater 
should be avoided in pain at the sides (pleurodynia ?), 
in catarrh, in rheumatism, in diseases of the 
larynx, in distention of the stomach by gas or air, in 
cases of undigested faeces, in the acute stage of fever, 
and just after the exhibition of any emetic or purgative 
remedy, in hic-cough, and immediately following upon 
an oily or fatty drink (Snehapana). River water pro- 
duces Vayu and a parched condition in the body, and 
is light, stomachic and (Lekhana) liquefacient. On the 
contrary, that which is heavy, comparatively denser in 
its consistency, sweet, and cooling, brings on catarrh. 
The water of a lake ( Sarasam) quenches thirst and is 
strength-giving, light, sweet and astringent. The 
water of a pond or a tank (Tadaga) produces V^yu, 
and is sweet, astringent, and pungent in digestion. The 
water from a Vapi (a large tank) subdues the deranged 
Vayu and Kapham, and generates Pittam, and is pungent 
in taste and is found to be charged with a solution of 
alkali. The water from a Chunti is a good digestant, 
sweet, and parchifying, though it does not give rise to 
Kapham in the system. The water from a well (Kupa) 
generates Pittam and is appetising. It subdues the 
deranged Kapham, and is light and alkaline. The 



428 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. Chap. XLV. 

water of a fountain is light, appetising, and pleasant, 
and destroys Kapham. The water of an Artesian spring 
is sweet, and subdues Pittam. It is antacid in its 
digestive reaction. The water from a Vikira is light, 
appetising, pungent, and is charged with potash (Khara). 
The water accumulated in an open field, or in fallow 
land, is heavy to digest and tends to augment 
the deranged humours of the body. The water of 
a Palvalam is possessed of the same virtue as the 
preceding one, with the exception that it greatly 
aggravates the deranged humours of the body. 
Sea-water has a fishy smell, and a saline taste ; 
it aggravates all the three deranged humours of 
the bod3\ The water of an Anupa (marshy) country is 
the source of man}' an evil. It is extremely condemnable, 
as it increases the slini}^ secretions of all the bodily 
organs, etc. The water of a J^ngala country is free 
from the preceding baneful traits. It is faultless, acid 
in its digestive reaction (Vidahi), is possessed of all com- 
mendable traits, and is pleasing and refrigerant. The 
water accumulated in a Sadharana country is light, 
cool, pleasant and appetising (Dipanam). 

Warm water subdues the deranged V^yu and 
Kapham. It is antifat, appetising, diuretic, (Vasti- 
shodhak) and febrifuge. It proves beneficial in cases of 
cough and dyspnoea, and is wholesome at all times. 
Water boiled down to a quarter part of its original 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



429 



quantity and then cooled down with all its froth and 
ebullitions removed^ is light and limpid, and may be 
safely commended to the use of all. Water, boiled 
overnight, should not be knowingly given to a 
thirsty person inasmuch as it has acquired an 'acid 
taste and will augment the internal Kapham of the 
body, and becomes positively injurious. Water boiled 
and subsequently cooled down should be given to a 
person suffering from an 3^ of the diseases due to an 
abuse of wine or to Pittam, or from a complaint brought 
about through the concerted action of the three 
deranged humours. 

The water found inside the shell of a cocoanut 
is heavy,* demulcent, cool, pleasant and appetising etc. 
It is diuretic, (Vasti-shodhaka) spermatopoietic, and 
subdues Pittam and thirst. The use of water boiled and 
subsequently cooled down is recommended in dysentery, 
burning of the skin, haemoptysis, diseases due to the 
abuse of wine, or to the effects of any imbibed poison, 
as well as in thirst, vomiting, catarrh, vertigo and loss of 
consciousness. Water should be taken as little as 
possible by a person suffering from any of the following 
diseases viz., loss of relish for food, catarrh, water-brash, 
oedema, any of the wasting diseases, impaired digestion, 
abdominal dropsy, cutaneous affection, fever, diseases 
affecting the eyes, ulcer and diabetes (Madhumeha, etc), 

* Light according to Jejjada. 



430 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLV, 



The lYIilk Group :— The milk of a cow, she- 
goat, she-camel, ewe, she-buffalo, mare, she-elephant, 
or of a woman, is what generally comes to the use of 
man.* 

The milk is the white fluid essence of drugs and 
cereals, which enter into the food of the aforesaid milk- 
giving animals, and is therefore the best of all nutritive 
substances (literally life-giving). It is heavy, sweet, 
slimy, cold, glossy, emollient, laxative and mild. 

Hence it proves congenial to all sentient animals. 
And since milk is kindred in its nature to-the essential 
principles of life and so very congenial to the panzoism 
of all created animals, its use may be unreservedly 
recommended to all, and is not forbidden in diseases 
due to the deranged action of (Vayu) or Pittam, or in 
ailments affecting the mind (Mansa), or the vascular 
system of man. Its beneficial and curative efticac}' 
ma}' be witnessed in cases of chronic fever, in cough, 
dyspnoea, phthisis and other wasting diseases, in 
Gulma (abdominal glands), insanity, ascites, epileptic 
fits, in vertigo, in delirium, in burning sensation 
of the bod}^, in thirst, in diseases affecting the heart 
and the bladder, in chlorosis and dysentery, in piles, colic 
and obstinate constipation, in Grahani, Pravahika, 

* From the construction of the present sentence in the original texts, we 
are warranted to include the milk of a doe, or of a she-mule, or of a cow- 
rhinoceros in the list, as they sometimes prove beneficial for external appli- 
cations. 



Chap. XLV.l SUTRASTHAiNAM. 431 

miscarriage and other diseases peculiar to the female 
reproductive organs, and in ha^'moptysis. It is a 
refrigerant and acts as a bracing beverage after physi- 
cal exercise. It is a sacred, constructive, tonic, spermato- 
poietic, rejuvenating and aphrodisiac. It expands* the 
intellectual capacities of a man, brings about the adhe- 
sion of broken or fractured bones (Sandhana) rejuvenates 
used and exhausted frames, forms an excellent enemata, 
increases the duration of life, and acts as a vitaliser. It is 
an emetic and a purgative remedy, and imparts a healthy 
rotundity to the frame, and which through its kindred or 
similar properties augments the quality of bodily albu- 
men (Ojah) and is the most complete and wholesome 
diet for infants, old men and persons suffering from 
cachexia witnessed in cases of ulcers in the chest, as 
well as for persons debilitated from insufficient food, 
sexual excesses or excessiAC, physical labour. 

Metrical Texts :— Cow-milk is demulcent, 
and does not ■ set up or increase the normal quantity 
of slimy secretions in the internal channels of the body. 
It is heavy and is a good elixir, and proves curative in 
hajmoptysis. It is cold, and sweet both in taste and 
chemical reaction. It subdues both Vayu and Pittam 
and is accordinglj' one of the most efficient of vitalising 
agents. 

The milk of a she-goat is possessed of properties 
similar to those of a cow, and is specially beneficial to 



432 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLV. 

persons suffering from phthisis.* It is light, astringent, 
appetising (Dipana), and is efficacious in dyspnoea, cough 
and haemoptysis (Amlapitta— A. T.). The milk of a 
she-goat proves curative in all diseases owing to the 
smiillness of her limbs and her agile habits, as well as 
for the fact of her drinking comparatively a less quantity 
of water and living upon bitter and pungent herbs. 
The milk of a she-camel is parchifying, heating, hght, 
palatable and possessed of a little saline taste. It 
proves curative in oedema, abdominal glands, ascites, 
piles, intestinal worms and Kushtha, and is a good 
antitoxic agent. The milk of a ewe is sweet, demulcent, 
heavy and proves aggravating in disorders of Pittam 
and Kapham. It forms a good diet in Kevalavata 
and in cough due to the deranged condition of the bodily 
Vayu. 

The milk of a she-buffalo is sweet in taste, tends 
to impair digestion and increases the slimy secretion 
of the organs. It is heavy, soporific, cooling, and 
contains more latty matter than cow's milk. 

The milk of a she-animal with unbifurcated hoofs 
(Ekashapha) such as, the mare, etc., is tonic, light, 
parchifying, sweet and acid in taste, leaving a saline 
after-taste, and proving curative in cases of rheumatism 
restricted to the extremities. 

* It has been recently discovered by a German physician thai tuber- 
culosis bacilli do no not thrive in goat's- blood — Translator. 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 433 

The milk of a woman is cold and sweet, leaving an 
astringent after-taste. It proves beneficial as an errhine 
and acts as a good wash in eye diseases. It is whole- 
some, vitahsing, light and appetising. The milk 
of a she- elephant is sweet though it leaves an astringent 
after-taste. It is spermatopoietic, heavy, demulcent, 
cooling and tonic. It invigorates the e5'esight. 

The milk of a she-animal, milched in the morning, 
is heavy, cold and takes a long time to be digested 
owing to her entire repose (literally want of physical 
exercise or locomotion) during the night, when cooling 
attributes preponderate. Similarl)^, the milk milched 
in the evening is found to be possessed of refrigerant 
and eye-invigorating properties. Moreover, it restores 
the bodily Vayu to its normal condition owing 
to the physical labour undergone by the animal 
in the day time, exposed to the ra3's of the sun 
and the currents of free air. Cold or unboiled 
milk is extremely heavy, and serves to increase the 
slimy secretions of the organs, whereas by boiling 
it is freed from those injurious traits. But this 
rule does not hold good in the case of woman's milk, 
which is wholesome in its natural or unboiled state. 
Freshly milched warm milk should be regarded as 
extremely wholesome, which, being cooled down, loses 
its efficacious virtues and becomes unwholesome. On 
the contrary, over-cooked milk is heavy and fat-making 
55 



434 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

(lit : — imparting stoutness to one's body). The milk, 
which emits a fetid smell, or has become discoloured 
and insipid, or has acquired an acid taste and looks 
shreddy and curdled, or tastes saline, should be regarded 
as Unwholesome and injurious. 

The Curd-group :— There are three kinds of 
curd such as, the sweet, the acid, and the extremely 
acid curd. Milk curd generally leaves an astringent 
after-taste. It is demulcent and heat-making in its 
potency, as well as spermatopoietic, vitahsing and 
auspicious. It proves curative in Pinasa (nasal catarrh), 
intermittent fever (Vishama Jvara, dysentery, non- 
relish for food, difficult urination, and general cachexia. 

Metrical Text :— Sweet curd greatly in- 
creases the slimy secretions of the organs and the 
quantity of fat and Kapham in the body. Acid 
curd deranges the Pittam and the Kapham^, while 
the extremely acid curd vitiates the blood. Curd, 
which has been not perfectly curdled (Mandajatam) 
is acid in its (digestive) chemical reaction, acts as 
an inordinately strong purgative and diuretic agent, 
and deranges the three fundamental humours of 
the body. 

Curdled cow's milk is demulcent, sweet in digestion, 
appetising, srength- increasing and acrid. It subdues the 
bodily Vayu and imparts a relish to one's food. 
Curd prepared with the milk of a she-goat is light, 



Chap. XLV.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 4^5 

and subdues the deranged Pittam and Kapham. It 
proves curative in Vata and wasting diseases, and 
is a good appetiser. Its beneficial effect is witnessed 
in cases of piles, dyspncea and cough. Curd, pre- 
pared with the milk of a she-bufFalo, is sweel in 
digestion, and spermtopoietic. It pacifies the deranged 
Vayu and Pittam, and serves to augment the normal 
quantity of bodih' Kapham. It is specifically a 
demulcent substance. Curd prepared with the milk 
of a she-camel is pungent in digestion. It is found 
to be charged with alkali, and is heavy and a purgative. 
A continued use of curdled camel's milk proves 
curative in Vata, piles, cutaneous affections (Kushtha), 
worms in the intestines, and abdomimal dropsy. 
Curd prepared with the milk of a ewe proves aggra- 
vating in derangements of the Vayu and Kapham, 
as well as in cases of piles. It is sweet in taste and 
its chemical reaction increases the slimy secretions 
of the organs, and tends to derange the bodily humours. 
Curd, prepared with the milk of a mare, is appe- 
tising. It proves injurious to the eyes, and tends 
to augment the bodily Vayu. It is pajchifying and hot 
in its potenc}^ and is astringent in taste. It diminishes 
the secretions of stool and urine. Curd prepared 
with the milk of a womin is demulcent, sweet in 
digestion, tonic, pleasant, heavy, and specially beneficial 
to the eyes. It subdues the deranged humours and 
is specially efficacious in its virtues, and is the best 



4-6 THE SUvSHRUTA SAMHITA, fChap. XLV. 

of all kinds of curd, and of all emollient remedies 
(Santarpanam). Curd prepared with the milk of a 
she-elephant, is light in digestion, subdues Kapham, 
and is heat-making in its potency. It impairs digestion, 
leaves an astringent after-taste and increases the quan- 
tity of fecal matter. Of all the preceding kinds of 
curd, the one prepared with cow's milk should be 
regarded as the best in virtue and quality. This curd 
well filtered through a piece of clean linen, imparts a 
relish to the food, whereas the curd, which had been 
prepared with boiled milk, should be deemed the 
most efficacious. The cloth-filtered curd subdues 
the deranged Va^ai. It is demulcent and restorative, 
though it tends to increase the Kapham without bring- 
ing about a similar augmentation of the Pittam. 
The curd prepared with boiled milk subdues the 
deranged V^yu and Pittam, imparts a relish to the food, 
and acts as a good stomachic remedy. It increases the 
strength and the root principle of life. The cream 
of curd is heavy and spermatopoietic. It subdues the 
deranged Vayu, impairs digestion and is phlegma- 
gogic and aphrodisiac. Curd made without cream is 
parchifying, astringent and arrests stool and urine 
(Vistambhi), It increases the bodily Vayu. It is appe- 
tising and is comparatively lighter, a little astringent in 
taste, and imparts a rehsh to food. 

The use of curd is generally prohibited in (Vasanta) 



Chap. XLV] SUTRASTHANAM. 



437 



spring, (Grishma) summer, and (Sharat) autumn, whereas 
it is recommended during the rains (Varsha) and in the 
forepart of winter (Hemanta), and in the cold season 
proper (Shishira). The residuar}^ sediment of curd 
(Mastu) is frigorific and refrigerant, light and purifying 
to the internal channels of the body. It has a sweet 
and astringent taste and is anti-aphrodisiac. It 
destroys the deranged Vayu and Kapham, and is 
pleasant and palatable. It acts as a speedy purga- 
tive, and imparts strength to the system and relish 
to the food. In this group have been described the 
virtues of the seven kinds of curd such as, the sweet, 
the acid, the extremely acid, the curd of incomplete 
curdling, the curd of boiled milk, curd cream, and 
the creamless curd, as well as the residuary sediment 
(Mastu). 

The Takra Group :— The Takra (whey) is 
sweet and acid in taste, and leaves an astringent after- 
taste. It is light, appetising and heat-making in its 
potency, and has a parchifying effect upon the organism. 
Its curative efficacy is witnessed in cases of chemical or 
combinative poisoning, oedema, dysentery, diarrhoea, 
jaundice, piles, enlarged spleen, abdominal glands, non- 
relish for food, intermittent fever, thirst, vomiting, water- 
brash, colic and obesity. It subdues the deranged V^yu 
and Kapham, and is non-aphrodisiac. It is sweet in 
its digestive reaction and pleasant to the system. It 



438 THE SUSHRUTA SAAIHITA'. [ Chap. XLV. 

proves curative in difficult urination, and in diseases due 
to the abuse of emollient medicinal remedies and 
applications. 

IVIetrical Texts : — A compound made of equal 
parts of curd and water and subsequenth' churned so as 
to have the contained cream or butter completely 
skimmed off, and which is neither too thick nor too 
thin, is called Takram. It possesses a taste blended 
of the sweet, acid and astringent. Waterless curd, 
churned with the entire butter or creamy sub- 
stance inherent in it, is called Gholam {a kind 
of whey). The use of Takram is prohibited in the 
hot season, nor should "it be given to a weak person, nor 
to one suffering from an ulcer, or laid up with an attack 
of hccmoptysis, or to one suffering from epileptic fits, 
vertigo (Bhrama), or from a burning sensation in the 
body. The use of Takram is recommended during the 
cold months of the 3'ear, as well as to persons suffering 
from diseases due to the action of the deranged Kapham, 
or from suppression of stool or urine, etc., or from 
the effects of the deranged Vayu. 

Again sweetened Takram soothes the deranged 
Pittam and aggravates the Kapham. Acid Takram 
subdues the Vayu and produces Pittam. 

IVIetrical Texts : — In a case of deranged or 
disordered V^yu, acid Takram should be drunk mixed 
with rock-salt, and with sugar in disorders of the Pittam, 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



439 



while in a case of deranged Kapliam it should be mixed 
with Yavakshara and the powders of the drugs known 
as Vyosha. TakrakurcMka (Inspissated milk) is astrin- 
gent (^Gr^hi), parchifying and hard to digest. It produces 
Vayu. The Manda or the residuary sediment of a«com- 
pound made of the aforesaid Kurchika and Dadhi 
Takram fcurd-whey) is lighter than whey. Kilata* is 
heavy, hypnotic, spermatopoietic and subdues V^yu. 
Similarly, Morathat and Piyusha? are sweet to the 
taste and restorative and aphrodisiac in their properties. 

Fresh butter (Navanita'i is an albuminous substance, 
and is light, sweet, cooling, demulcent, pleasant, appe- 
tising, slightly acid and astringent. It subdues the 
deranged Vayu and Pittam. It is spermatopoietic, 
antacid in its reaction, and conduces to the improve- 
ment of one's memory and intellectual capacities. 
It proves beneficial in cases of consumption, cough, 
d3'spnoea, ulcer, piles and fecial paralysis. 

Butter (of a few days standing) is heav)\ It 
increases the quantity of fat and Kapham, and imparts 
strength and rotundity to the body, and proves especially 
wholesome to children. Butter made of thickened 
milk is the best of all oily or (Kshira) substances. It 

* Boiled milk curdled and subsequently heated and made into a paste is 
called KiMta. 

t The milk of a cow recently delivered of a calf is called I'iyusha 
till the seventh day after its birth, while, it is subsequently called JNIoratha 
till it is perfectly purified and becomes fit for the use of man. 



440 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLV. 

is sweet, cooling and astringent ; and imparts softness 
to the body, improves the eye-sight, and proves curative 
in haemoptysis and eye-diseases. 

Cream subdues the deranged Vayu. It is 
a pleasing (Tarpani ) tonic, is spermatopoietic, demulcent, 
palatable, heavy and sweet in taste and digestion, 
and proves remedial to hsemoptj'^sis. 

Metrical Texts : — The virtues and properties 
of these modifications of curdled cow-milk have 
been described in detail since it is the best of all kinds 
of milk described before. The virtues and properties 
of similar preparations made from the milk of other 
animals should be regarded as identical with those 
of the milk of the animal out of which they have been 
prepared. 

Clarified Butter (Ghritam) :~Ghritam 

or clarified butter is Saumj^'a or cooling in its essence 
and potency, and is mild and sweet. It slightly in- 
creases the slimy secretions of the organs, and acts as a 
lubricating moistener, proving efficacious in Ud^varta 
insanity, epilepsy, colic, fever (chronic) and distention 
of the abdomen from the suppression of stool and 
urine (Anaha). It is appetising and subdues the Vayu 
and the Pittam. It improves memory, intelligence, 
complexion, voice, personal beauty, amiabihty of features 
and the principle of strength ;albumen,Ojas) in the body. 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 441 

It is vitalising, rejuvenating, spermatopoietic and heavy. 
It improves the eyesight, increases the quantity of bodily 
Kapham and the duration of life. It is sacred and is 
regarded as an appeaser of adverse fate. It eliminates 
poison from the body and wards off the invasions of 
monsters and demons. 

IVIctrical Texts :— Clarified butter made 
of cow milk is sweet in digestion, and cool in 
its potency. It subdues the deranged Vayu and 
Pittam, and serves to eliminate poison from the 
system. It improves the eyesight and possesses 
excellent tonic and invigorating properties. Cow- 
butter, in its clarified state, is the best of all kinds 
of butter. Clarified butter made of the milk of a 
she-goat is appetising (Dipanam), eye-invigorating and 
strength-increasing. It proves a wholesome diet in 
cases of cough, dyspnoea and consumption (any wasting 
disease), and is h'ght in digestion. Clarified butter 
prepared with the milk of a she-buffalo is sweet, heav)"- 
in digestion, and proves remedial in haemoptysis. It is 
coohng and increases the quantity of bodily Kapham, 
and subdues the deranged Vayu and Pittam. Clarified 
butter made with the milk of a she-camel is anti-toxic, 
appetising and pungent in digestion. It subdues 
the deranged Vayu and Kapham, and proves curative 
in oedema, worms in the intestines, cutaneous 
affections, abdominal glands, and ascites. Clarified 
butter made with the milk of a ewe is light in 

56 



442 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLV. 

digestion. It does not enrage Pittam, and proA'es 
beneficial in cases of rigour, phthisis (Shosha) and in 
diseases due to the action of the deranged Vayu 
and Kapham, as well as in those which affect the 
female organs of generation. Clarified butter made 
with the milk of a mare (lit : — any female mammal 
with unbifurcated hoops) is light in digestion, heat- 
making in its potency, and astringent in taste. It is 
appetising, anuretic, and subdues the action of the 
deranged Kapham. 

Clarified butter made with the milk of a woman 
is possessed of e3'e-invigorating virtues, and should 
be regarded as the protot5'pe of divine ambrosia 
on earth. It is light (in digestion), anti-toxic, stomachic, 
and constructive. Clarified butter prepared with 
the milk of a she-elephant is astringent in taste, 
and brings about a suppression of stool and urine. 
It is bitter, light, and stomachic (Agnikara), and proves 
curative in cutaneous affections (Kushtha), poisoning, 
worms in the intestines, and derangements of the 
Kapham. 

Butter churned out of thickened milk and clarified 
(Kshira Ghritam) is astringent, and proves beneficial in 
eye-diseases, hcemoptysis, epileptic fits, and vertigo. 

The condensed upper stratum of clarified butter 
( Jhrita-manda) acts as a laxative, cures aching 
pain in the vagina, ears, eyes, or in the head, 



Chap. XLV.] SUTRASTHA'NAM. ^^^ 

and is recommended to be used as an errhine, an enema 
or as eye-drops. 

Old clarified butter is laxative and pungent in 
digestion. It subdues the three deranged bodily 
humours, and proves curative in epileptic fits, obesity, 
insanity, abdominal dropsy, fever, chemical poison- 
ing, oedema, hysteria, and in aching pain in the 
vagina, ears, eyes or head. It is appetising and is 
recommended to be used as eye-drops and enema, 
and for sternutatory purposes. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject:— Old or matured clarified butter proves 
curative ni Timira (Gutta Serena), dyspnoea, 
catarrh, fever, cough, epileptic fits, and Kushtam, in 
cases of poisoning, mental aberration, and hysteria 
ascribed to the influence of malignant planets. 
Clarified butter matured from eleven to a hundred 
years is called the Kumbha Gritam (Pitcher clarified 
butter), while that, which is older than the one of 
the preceding kind, is called the Maha GLritam 
(the great clarified butter). Kumbha Ghritam is 
said to be possessed of the mystic potency of 
warding off' the invasions of monsters, while the Maha 
Ghritam is highly efficacious, sacred, and specifically 
curative in the disease known as Timira. It acts as a 
prophylactic against the malignant influences of all 
evil spirits and baneful planets, and should be taken 



^^^ THE SUSHRUTA SAAIHITA. L Chap. XLV. 

by men in whom V^yu predominates. It subdues the 
deranged Kapham, and improves the strength and 
intellect. 

The Oil Group :— Oils, which belong to the 
category of fiery (Agneya) substances, are hot or heat- 
making in their potencies, irritating, and sweet in taste 
and digestion, and are constructive (Vrinhanam), and 
pleasant. They expand through the entire system im- 
mediately after being drunk or rubbed (Vyavayi), and are 
subtile, clear, heavy, and laxative (Sara). They tend to 
expand the bone-joints and contribute to their free and 
easy movements (Vik^si). They act as spermatopoietics 
(Vrishyam), and purify the skin, improve the memory, 
and impart softness to the skin and complexion. They 
are flesh-making and strength-imparting, and increase 
the firmness of the body. They are possessed of eye- 
invigorating virtues, and are anuretic, liquefacient 
(Lekhana), bitter and stomachic (P^chana). They cure 
V^yu and Kapham. They are vermifuge and pro- 
duce a slight Pittam, leaving an astringent after-taste. 
They relieve aching pain in the head, ears, and the 
female organs of generation (Yoni), act as purifying 
agents in respect of the uterus, and prove curative in 
urticaria. 

The use of sesamum oil is recommended in cases of 
cut, cleft, punctured, severed, lacerated, blistered, 
thrashed or contused wounds and ulcers, and in burns 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 445 

and scalds whether due to the application of heat 
or any vesicant alkaline solution, as well as in bites 
of wild beasts and* birds, etc., and act beneficially in 
baths, unguents and lubrications. 

Metrical Texts :— Oil should be used in 
snuffing, and as enematas (Vasti), eye-drops, ear-drops, 
as well as in seasoning soups, curries and cordials, etc. 
It pacifies the bodily Vayu. 

Castor Oil is sweet, hot in its potency \ irritating and 
appetising. It leaves a pungent astringent after-taste, 
and is subtile. It acts as a cleansing agent in respect of 
the internal channels of the body, and is wholesome 
to the skin. It is spermatopoietic, sweet in digestion 
(Vipaka), and rejuvenating. It purifies the semen, 
vagina, and removes vaginal and uterine disorders, and 
contributes to the preservation of sound health. It 
improves the memory, complexion and intellect (of its 
user), subdues the bodily Vayu and Kapham, and 
cleanses the system from all injurious principles by 
inducing purging. 

Oils obtained from the seeds of Nimba, Atasi, Mulaka, 
Jimutaka, Vrikshaka, Kritavedhana, Arka, Kampillaka, 
Hastikarna, Prilhvika, Pilu, Karanja, Ingudi, Shigru, 
Sarsapa, Suvarchala, Vidanga or of Jyotishmati seeds, 
are irritating, light, non -heat-making in their potency, 
and pungent in taste and digestion. They act as a good 
laxative, and prove curative in diseases due to the 



446 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLV. 

deranged V.-Cyu, or Kapham, as well as in cases of 
Kushtha, Prameha, head disease, and intestinal parasites. 

IVIetrical Texts :— Ksliaiima (Linseed) oil is 
sweet. It subdues the bodily V^yu and is strength- 
giving, and pungent in digestion. Devoid of an}' eye- 
invigorating properties, it is hot tliough demulcent, and 
heavy. It increases the Pittam. 

Mustard oil is light, and acts as a vermifuge. It 
proves curative in itch and cutaneous affections, 
reduces V^yu, Kapham and fat, and is pungent, appetising 
and Lekhana (liquefacient). Oil obtained from the seeds 
of Ingudi is a vermifuge, and is light, and slightly bitter 
in taste. It proves curative in Kushtha and parasitic 
disorders, and affects the strength, semen and the 
eyesight of its user. The oil obtained from Kushnmbha 
flowers is pungent in digestion and leads to the derange- 
ment of all the bodily humours. It is irritating, and acid 
in its reaction (Vidahi). It is devoid of any eye-cleans- 
ing property and brings on haemoptysis. 

The Oils obtained from the Kirata-tiktaka, Atimuktaka, 
Vibhitaka, N^rikela, Kola, Akshoda, Jivanti, Piydla, 
Karvudara, Surjavalli, Trapusa, Erv^ruka, Karkaru, 
and Kushm^nda seeds, etc. are sweet in taste, potency 
and digestion, and tend to pacify the deranged V4yu and 
Pittam. Cooling in their potency, they increase the slimy 
secretions of the organs, impair digestion, and help the 
copious evacuation of stool and urine. 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



447 



The Oils of the Madhuka (Maula), Kishmarya, and 
Palasha seeds are sweet and astringent. They pacif}^ 
the deranged Kaph^m and Pittam. The oils of the 
Tuvaraka and Bhallataka are heat-making, sweet 
and astringent, and leave a bitter after-taste. The}^ ptove 
curative in diseases due to the action of deranged V^Cyu 
and Kapham, as well as in obesity, Meha, cutaneous 
affections, and intestinal worms, and cleanse the system 
both b}' their emetic and purgative actions. The Oils 
obtained from the piths (Sara of such trees as, Sarala, 
Devadaru, Gandira, Shiushapa and Aguru, are bitter, 
pungent and astringent in their tastes, and act as 
purifying agents in respect of bad ulcers. The}' prove 
curative in skin diseases and destroy the deranged Va)^!, 
Kapham, and intestinal worms. The Oils obtained from 
the seeds of Tumvi, Koshamra, Danti, Dravanti, 
Shyama, Saptala, Nilika, Kampiilaka, and Siiankhini, 
are bitter, pungent and astringent in their tastes. They 
serve to cleanse the system from all impurities and 
baneful principles through their purgative properties. 
They act as purifying agents in respect of malignant 
ulcers, and prove curative in diseases due to the 
deranged V^yu and Kapham, as well as in skin-diseases 
(Kushtha), and parasitic complaints. Yavatikata-oil 
tends to subdue all the deranged humours, is slightly 
bitter, and acts as a good elixir. It is appetising, acid, 
and liquefacient. It is holy and wholesome (Pathyam), 
and serves to improve the memory of its user. The 



448 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. xLv. 

Oil From Ekaishika seeds is sweet, and extremely 
cooling. It subdues the Pittam, increases the Kapham 
and aggravates the V^yu. The Oil of the seeds of 
mango stones is slightly bitter in taste, and extremely 
aromatic. It subdues the Va}^! and Kapham. It is 
parchifying, sweet and astringent, palatable, and not 
highly Pittam-making. 

IVIetrical Texts : — The therapeutic properties of 
the oils from the seeds of fruits, which have not been 
specifically described in the present chapter, should be 
considered as identical with those of the fruits or 
seeds of which they have been so pressed out. All the 
vegetable oils (Sneha) described above should be 
regarded as possessed of the virtue of subduing the 
bodily Vayu, and they possess some of the properties, 
which specifically belong to Besainum oil. Sesamum 
oil is the most commendable of all oils inasmuch 
as the very word, which signifies oil (Tailam), is 
etymologically derived from Tilam (sesamum). 

The oil, myosin (Vasd), fat, marrow, and Ghritam 
obtained from animals, which live in villages (Gramya), 
or frequent the marshy swamps (Anupa), or are aquatic 
(Audoka) in their habits, are heavy, heat- making in their 
potency, and sweet in taste. They subdue the bodily 
Vayu, while those obtained from J^ngala (such as 
deer, etc.) or carnivorous animals, or from those 
possessed of unbifurcated hoofs, are light, cool in their 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



449 



potenc}', astringent in taste, and prove curative in cases 
of haemoptysis. The fat, marrow, etc. of animals of the 
Pratuda and Vishkira species (doves, pigeons^ etc.) 
reduce the bodily Kapham. Of clarified butter, oil, 
myosin (Vasa), fat and marrow of animals eacli is 
heavier in digestion, and possesses a greater power of 
subduing the bodily Vayu than the one immediately 
preceding it in the order of enumeration. 

The Honey Group : — Honey is sweet, and 
leaves an astringent after-taste. It is parchifying, cold, 
stomachic, cosmetic, tonic, light, softening, palatable, 
liquefacient (Lekhanan), and fermenting (Sandhanam). 
It acts as a purifying and healing agent in respect of 
ulcers and eyes, is aphrodisiac, astringent, and tends to 
permeate all the minutest channels and capillaries of the 
organism. It is antifat and pacifies the deranged 
Pittam and Kapham, and proves curative in hiccough, 
Meha, dyspnoea, cougli, dysentery, vomiting and thirst. 
It is a vermifuge, antitoxic and demulcent, and 
influences the subduing of the three deranged humours. 
Owing to its lightness it subdues the deranged Kapham, 
and proves a good antidote to the deranged Vayu 
and Pittam owing to its sliminess, sweetness and 
astringent taste. 

IVIetrical Texts : — Eight different kinds of 
honey are commonly used such as, the Pauttikam, 
Bhr^maram, Kshaudram, Mdkshikam, Chh^tram, 

57 



450 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLV. 

Argh3'am, Auddalakam and Dalam.* Of these the 
honey obtained from the hives of bees, known as the 
Puttikas, is hot and parchifying owing to their habit 
of sucking the juice or sap of flowers and plants without 
eliminating therefrom other foreign or poisonous matter, 
that might have become naturally or accidentally 
mixed with it. This kind of honey is intoxicating and 
acid in its re-action, and tends to aggravate the Vayu, 
blood and Pittam. It acts as a liquefacient or dis- 
cutient agent. Honey, known as the Bhramaram, is 
extremely heavy owing to its extremely sweet taste 
and slimy character, while the one known as the 
Kshaudram is extremely cool, light and liquefacient. 
Honey known as the Makshikain is lighter, dryer and 
more efficacious than the honey of the preceding class 
(Kshaudram), and proves specially benencial in cases 
of dyspnoea, etc. Honey, known as the Chhatram, is 

* (l) The kind of honey obtained from hives of large, yellow bee*, 
is called the Pauttikam. 

(2) The kind of honey obtained from hives of bees of the Bhramara 
species is called Bhramaram. 

(3) The kind of honey ol^tained from hives of small, tawny brown bees 
is called the Kshaudram. 

(4) The kind of honey obtained from the hives of large, brown bees of 
the jNIakshik^ species is called Makshikam, 

(5) The kind of honey obtained from the umbrella shaped hives of bees 
of the Chhatra species is called Chhdtram. 

(6) The honey obtained from the hives of thin-mouthed bees of the 
Argha species often found in ant-hills is called Arghyam. 

(7) The kind of honey obtained from the hives of small brown bees of 
the Uddiilakam species is called Auddalakam. 

(8) The kind of honey found accumulated in leaves of honey-bearing 
plants is called D^lam. 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



451 



sweet in digestion, heav}", cooling and slimy. It acts 
as a vermifuge, proves curative in haemoptysis, psoriasis 
and Meha, and is* possessed of a high efficacy. Honey 
known as the Arghyam is possessed of properties 
highly beneficial to the eye. It is a gi^eater subduer of 
Pittam and Kapham than any other kind of honey, 
is astringent in taste, and pungent in digestion. It 
is a bitter tonic and does not generate Vayu in 
the system. Honey known as the Auddalakam 
improves the voice and relish for food. It is antitoxic, and 
proves curative in cutaneous affections. It is heat-mak- 
ing in its potency, and acid and astringent in taste. 
It generates Pittam, and is pungent in digestion. 
Honey, known as the D^lam, is parchifying and proves 
beneficial in cases of vomiting and Meha. Fresh 
honey is constructive and aphrodisiac, acts as a mild 
laxative, and to a small extent subdues the deranged 
Kapham. Old honey is astringent and liquefacient, 
and reduces fat and obesity. Honey, that has 
attained a thickened or condensed state in course 
of time (Pakka Madhu), tends to subdue the three 
deranged humours, while thin and im matured honey 
(Ama Madhu) is possessed of contrary properties, 
and tends to agitate the three fundamental 
humours of the body. In conjunction with many other 
drugs and medicinal remedies, honey proves curative in 
various diseases, and partakes of the virtues of the drugs 
or substances with which it is so used (Yoga-Vahika). 



4^2 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLV. 

Honey is not collected from the flowers of any 
particular species. On the other hand, the honey- 
making bees cull it from the sap and juice of flowers 
and plants, which are incompatible with one another 
in respect of their nature, taste, virtue, potency and 
re-actionary (chemical) effect. For these reasons, and 
further from the fact of it being prepared by 
poisonous bees, honey becomes positively injurious 
after contact with heat or fire, and accordingly the 
u^e of hot or boiled honey is forbidden. 

Metrical Texts : — On account of its poisonous 
contact in its origin honey exerts a similar injurious 
virtue. Used in a boiling or heated state, or in 
a hot country, or during the hot season of the 
year, or in a heated state of the body, honey is 
sure to prove fatal like poison. Honey is specially 
made injurious by hot contact owing to its placidity 
and coolness, and further for the reason of its 
being collected from the sap of a variety of 
flowers and plants. Atmospheric water (rain-water), 
like heat, serves to impart an injurious character 
to all kinds of honey (except the one known as 
the Arghyam Madhu). 

Wletrical Texts :— For emetic purposes honey 
may be administered with any other hot substance, 
inasmuch as it is intended in such a case that 
the imbibed lioney, instead of being retained or 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 453 

digested in the stomach, should be ejected immediately 

after its use.* 

* 
Undigested honey is more painful, or gives rise to a 

greater discomfort than all other undigested substances 

in the stomach, more so because internal fermenfation 

and use of hot water, which are usually resorted to in 

a case of deranged digestion, can not be used in a case 

of undigested honey retained in the stomach, owing to 

the poisonous nature of the chemical change (Vip^ka) 

it undergoes therein in contact with hot substances 

in general. Hence, undigested honey is as fatal as any 

poison. 

The Sugar-cane group :- Sugar cane is 
sweet in taste and digestion, heavy, cool, demulcent, 
strength-giving, spermatopoietic, and diuretic. It 
produces Kapham in the bod}", and proves remedial 
in haemoptysis, and helps the germination of worms 
in the intestines. 

Metrical text : — There are many species of 
sugar-cane such as, the Paundraka, Bhiruka, Vanshaka, 
Shataporaka, K^ntara, Tapasekshu, Kastekshu, Suchi- 
patraka, Naipala, Dirghapatraka, Nilapora, and 
Koshakrit. Now we shall deal with the specific 

* Though the use of honey with hot substances is not forbidden in 
such cases, still many an experienced physician of the Ayurvedic scliool 
thinks it safe to refrain from its use, lest it might be retained in the 
stomach for a considerable time, or find out a downward outlet and pass off 
with the stool. 



454 ' THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLV. 

virtues of each of them. The Sugar-cane of the 
Paundraka and Bhiruka t^-pes is cooHng, sweet, demul- 
cent and constructive. It produces Kapham and is 
laxative without giving rise to imperfect gastric diges- 
tion. It is heavy and spermatopoietic. The Sugar- 
cane of the Vanshaka species is possessed of similar 
properties as the two foregoing ones, though a 
little alkaline in its constitution, while that of the 
Shatapora species is a little more heat-making than 
that of the preceding class, and is found to subdue 
the deranged Vayu. The Sugar-cane of the Kdntara 
and Tapasa species is possessed of the same virtues 
as that of the Vanshaka class. The Sugar-cane of 
the Kastekshu species is identical in its properties 
with that of the aforesaid Vanshaka class, though it 
tends to agitate the bodil)" Va3'u. The Sugar-cane 
of the Suchipatra, Nilapora, Naipala and Dirghpatra 
species produces Vayu in the system, and subdues 
the Kapham and Pittam. It is slightly astringent 
in taste and indigestible (gives rise to acidity after 
digestion). The Sugar-cane of the Koshakara species is 
heavy (in digestion), cooling and proves curative in 
cases of haemopt5^sis and wasting diseases in general. 
Sugar-cane is extremely sweet about the roots, sweet 
at the middle, and saline at the tops and joints. 

The juice of a sugar-cane when' eaten raw is not 
marked by any acid reaction after digestion. It is 



Chap. XLV.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



455 



spermatopoietic, and subdues the Vayu and the Kapham, 
and is pleasant to the taste. The juice of sugar-cane 
otherwise pressed* out is heavy in digestion, is long 
retained in the stomach, and is followed by reactionary 
acidity, and arrests the evacuation of stool and iiTine. 
The juice of ripe sugar-cane is heavy in digestion, 
possessed of laxative properties, keen, and demulcent. 
It subdues the Vayu and Kapham. The inspissated or 
half boiled juice of sugar-cane (Phanitam) is sweet in 
taste and heavy. It increases the slimy secretions 
of the organs, acts as a flesh-builder, and is devoid of all 
spermatopoietic properties. It brings about a simul- 
taneous derangement of the three bodil}'' humours. 

Common treacle is found to be charged with a little 
alkali. It is sweet in taste and not too cooling. It 
acts as a demulcent and purifier of the blood and 
urine. It subdues the deranged Vayu and, to a slight 
extent, deranges the Pittam as well. It increases 
fat, Kapham, and corpulency, and is possessed of 
tonic and spermatopoietic properties. White and purified 
(Shuddha) treacle is sweet in taste, and purifies the 
blood. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapham, and 
is one of the most wholesome diets for man. Its efficacy 
increases with its years. 

The different modifications of treacle such as, the 
Matsandika, Khamda, and Sharkara (sugar) which are 
progressivly more refined, should be deemed as gaining 



456 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, XLV. 

more in their cooling, demulcent and aphrodisiac pro- 
perties, and getting heavier in digestion in each of the 
successive stages of refinement. They are successively 
more frigorific, and beneficial in cases of ha3moptysis. 

lYIctrica! Texts :— To the properties considered 
as specially belonging to each of these modifications 
of treacle should be attributed its power of producing 
its own refinement and efficacy. The virtues of 
sugar such as, laxativeness, etc., should be regarded as 
proportional to its refinement, freedom from alkaline 
saturation, and the actual quantity of sweetening matter 
(lit. substance) contained in it. 

Sugar prepared from concentrated honey (Madhu 
Sharkara) is parchifying and liquefacient. It proves 
beneficial in cases of vomiting and dysentery, is 
pleasant, has a sweet and astringent taste, and is 
sweet in digestion. Sugar prepared from a decoction of 
Yavasa Sharkara (Duralabha) has a sweet and astringent 
taste, leaves a bitter after-taste, and is possessed of 
laxative properties, and subdues the deranged Kapham. 
All kinds of sugar tend to assuage burning sensations 
in the body, and prove curative in hoemoptysis, vomiting, 
epileptic fits, and thirst. The sweet and concentrated 
extract (Phanitam) of Modhuka flowers should be 
regarded as parchifying. It produces Vayu and Pittam, 
and subdues Kapham. It is sweet, astringent in its 
digestive transformation, and deranges the blood. 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 457 

Madya Varga ( Wines and spirits):— 

All species of wine are acid in taste, and appetising. 
They generate Pittam, and impart a greater relish 
to one's food. They act as mild purgatives, subdue^ the 
deranged Vayu and Kapham, and are pleasing, exhilarat- 
ing and diuretic. 

They are light in digestion and give rise to a kind of 
re-actionary acidity. They are keen and heat-making, 
stimulate the sense organs, expand the joints and 
increase the discharge of urine and stool. Now hear 
me specifically describe the properties of each kind 
of wine. 

Metrical Texts :— The wine knov" 
Madvirkam and ]-.cpared --.n the jiu>.v. aiv... nuits 
as grapes and raisins, does not gi' "^ .ise to any sort 
of reactionary acidity after its use, and accordingly 
is not forbidden by learned physicians even in 
cases of ha3moptysis. It has a sweet taste, and 
leaves an astringent after-taste. It is parchifying, light 
and easy of digestion, acts as an aperient, and 
proves curative in chronic fevers, phthisis and other 
wasting diseases. 

The wine prepared from the juice of the date palm 
(Kharjuram) possesses properties, which are slightly 
different from those of the preceding kind. It tends 
to enrage the bodily Vayu, is clear, and imparts a relish 
to one's food, and reduces fat and Kapham. It is light, 
58 



45 B THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

has a sweet and astringent taste, is pleasing and 
aromatic and increases the agility of the limbs and 
organs. 

The wine known as the Sura (made of rice- 
paste and other fermenting drugs) proves curative in 
cough, piles, chronic indigestion and diarrhoea, and 
retention of mine. It subdues the deranged Vayu and 
is tonic and appetising. It purifies the breast milk 
of a woman and proves beneficial in all types of 
diseases of the blood, as well as in wasting diseases. 
White Sura is used with benefit in all cases of cough, 
piles, diarrhoea, dyspnoea and catarrh. It builds up new 
^ugcii ,^^| tissues, and increases the quantity of blood. 
It is*gii1[}ii! P'guic in its effect, and increases the quan- 
tity of Kaphaln^ .' ■« the body. The wine known as 
the Prasinna (the cream or the limpid surface of 
Sura) may be taken with advantage in vomiting, 
non-relish for food, aching or colic pain at the sides 
or about the cardiac region, constipation, suppression 
of stool and urine or flatus, as well as in all cases of 
obstinate constipation and derangement of the bodily 
Vayu. The wine prepared from barley lYavasura) 
generates PiLtam and tends to enrage the bodily Vayu. 
It is dry and slightly generates Kapham. The wine 
prepared from Madhulika (a kind of small barley) 
is heavy and generates Kapham in the body. It 
is long retained in the stomach, and arrests the 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



459 



evacuation of stool and urine. The Ahshiki ^vine 
prepared from the bark of Vibhitaka trees etc.) 
is parchifying, digestant, and slightly produces Kapham. 
It is possessed of aphrodisiac properties. The wine 
known as the Kohala brings on the simultaneous 
derangement of the three fundamental bodily humours, 
is pleasant to the taste, acts as a purgative (Bhedya) 
and is possessed of aphrodisiac properties. The 
wine known as the Jagala (the un(lerl3nng dregs or 
residue of wine) is astringent and heat-making 
in its potency, and acts as a digestant. It is parchifying, 
and proves beneficial in cough, thirst and phthisis. It is 
pleasant to the taste, cures diarrhoea, distention of the 
stomach, piles and oedema. It forms and subdues the 
deranged Vayu as well. The wine known as the 
Vakkasa /-"'"^^■^'•I'-'^.long undigested in the stomach 
owing t''om the juice 't iing pithless. It is a 
good appetiser and tends to enrage the deranged 
Vayu, and acts as a purgative and diuretic tonic. — A.T.) 
It is heavy and slightly intoxicating. The wine 
known as the Guda Sidhu (prepared with the boiled 
juice of sugar-cane and Dhataki flowers, etc. has a 
sweet and astringent taste, and acts as an appetiser and 
digestant. Sugar wine Sharkara Sidhu) is sweet 
in its taste, increases one's relish for food, is appe- 
tising and diuretic. It subdues the deranged Vayu and 
is exhilarating, sweet in digestion, and increases 
the action (lit : rouses up) of the sense organs. The 



460 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 



wine known as the Pakka Rasa Sidhu is possessed 
of properties similar to the preceding kinds (Sharkar^ 
Sidhu). It improves the complexion and imparts 
strength to the system and relish to one's food. 
It is pleasant, laxative_, appetising and proves beneficial 
in cases of Kapham and piles and reduces swellings. 
The wine known as the Sheeta Rasika Sidhu (pre- 
pared from the unboiled juice of Sugar-cane in con- 
tradistinction with the preceding kinds prepared 
from the boiled juice of sugar- cane j, acts as an 
anti-epispastic, and a digestant and vocal tonic, proves 
curative in adeina and abdominal dropsy, improves the 
complexion, removes the suppression of flatus, urine 
and stool (Vivandha), and proves beneficial in cases 
of piles. The wine known as the Akshika Sidhu 
(prepared from a decoction of Vi^^Ve wme"ith treacle 
etc. and improved with the +l-ie limpid si^Dhataki) 
proves beneficial in cases of ulcer and jaundice. It 
is light and astringent, and has a sweet and astringent 
taste. It subdues the deranged Pittam and purifies 
the blood. The wine known as the Jamvava Sidhu 
fwine prepared from the expressed juice of the Jambalin 
fruit, a decoction of coriander seeds, treacle and 
Dh^taki flowers, etc.) is anuretic, reduces the quantity 
of urine, has an astringent taste, and tends to enrage 
the bodily Va}^!. The wine known as the Surasava 
f Asava distilled with wine instead of with water) is keen, 
pleasant, and diuretic. It subdues the deranged 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 46, 

V^yii and Kapham, or the deranged Vayii alone, and 
is palatable, and possessed of a more durable 
intoxicating povier. The wine known as the 
Madhvasava wine is light, tends to disintegrate the 
knotty accumnlations or collections of phlegm (Cl^hedi), 
and proves curative in Meha (unhealth)^ discharges 
from the urethra), cutaneous affections, and poisoning 
(antitoxic). It has a taste blended of the sweet and the 
astringent, is keen and anti-epispastic, and does not 
generate an abnormal quantity of Vayu in the system. 
The wine known as the Maireya (prepared from the 
Paishtisura, treacle- made spirit and honey) is keen, and 
has a sweet and astringent taste. It is intoxicating, and 
proves curative in piles, Kapham and Gulma (abdominal 
glands . It is antifat and a vermifuge, and is heavy in 
digestion, and subdues the deranged Vayu. Wines pre- 
pared from the juice of grapes or sugar-cane (Ikshu 
or Dhrakshasava) are tonic and choleric. They 
subdue the deranged Pittam, and serve to improve 
the complexion. Sidhu (wine) prepared from the 
Madhuka flowers is parchifying, takes a long time to 
be digested, and is followed by an acid re-action. It 
improves the strength and digestive capacity, and has an 
astringent taste. It subdues the deranged Kapham, and 
serves to aggravate the Vayu and Pittam. Wines 
prepared from the distilled juice of bulbs or roots should 
be deemed as possessed of properties pertaining to them 
individually. New wine is heavy, bad smelling, insipid, 



462 TEIE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA [Chap. XLV. 

unpleasant, unpalatable, and tends to increase the 
slini}^ secretions of the organs. It enrages the deranged 
humours of the bod}', takes a long tim<3 to be digested, 
and is followed by an acid re-action. Old Wine is sweet- 
smelli.vig, acts as an appetiser, and brings on a relish for 
food. It is pleasant and a vermifuge, and cleanses the 
internal channels of the organism. It is light and 
subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapham. 

The species of wine known as the Arishta 
(fermented liquor) is highly efficacious owing to the 
concerted action of a variety of drugs entering into 
its composition. It proves curative in a large number 
of diseases, tends to subdue the deranged humours of 
the bod}', and is a good appetiser. It subdues the 
Vayu and Kapham and is laxative and not hostile to the 
Pittam. It proves beneficial in colicpain, distention 
of the stomach, abdominal dropsy, fever, enlarged 
spleen, indigestion and piles. Asava wine prepared 
from the drugs known as the Pippali, etc. (Pippaly^di 
Asava) proves curative in Gulma (abdominal glands) 
and diseases due to the deranged Kapham. The 
Aristhas of other therapeutic virtues will be 
speciall)'' described later on in chapters on Therapeutics 
(Chikitsitam). An experienced physician should pre- 
scribe the different species of wine such as, the Aristha, 
Asava, Sidhu, etc., in different diseases in considera- 
tion of the therapeutic properties of drugs, which enter 



Chap. XLV.] SUTRASTHANAM. 463 

into their composition, or with which they have been 
purified, and according as each of them would be 
indicated in practice. 

The following kinds of wine should always be 
rejected viz., such as are thick, bad smelling, or insipid 
or full of worms, or heavy and acid in digestion, un- 
pleasant, new, strong and heat-making in their potency, 
or which have been preserved in an improper vessel, or 
which have been prepared with a comparatively 
lesser number of ingredients or have been iTecanted 
over-night, or are extremely slimy or transparent, as 
well as the dregs of all kinds of wine. 

The wine prepared from a comparatively lesser 
number of ingredients, or that which is slimy, heavy 
and takes a long time to be digested, should be deemed 
as an agitator of the bodily Kapham. The wine which 
is marked by a deep yellow colour is strong and hot, 
is only imperfectly digested and followed b}^ a kind of 
acid re-action. It tends to aggravate the Pittam. The 
wine, which is frothy or putrified, heavy or insipid or 
is marked by the germination of worms in its body, or 
is decanted over-night, tends to enrage or agitate the 
bodily Vayu. The wine which is well-matured, 
and possessed of its characteristic taste, and the virtue 
of improving the appetite and bringing on a relish for 
food, and which subdues the Vayu and Kapham, and is 
mild, good, aromatic and exhilarating, should be re- 



464 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

garded as the only wine fit for use. Wines may be 
divided into a variety of species according to their 
different tastes and strength. The potency of a 
wine promoted by the bodily heat of a man 
courses upward through the arteries, and ultimately 
reaches the heart ; and thence, through its own subti- 
lity and expansiveness, permeates the entire organism 
and gradually attacks and overwhelms the organs of 
sense perception, dethrones the mind from her throne of 
reason, usurps the permanent seat of intellect, and thus 
brings on intoxication.* A man of phlegmatic tempera- 
ment (Kapha-prakriti) can carry his wine well, and 
symptoms of intoxication usually appear later in him. 
A man of bilious temparament (Pitta Prakriti\ 
under such circumstances, gets easily intoxicated, 
while the man whose temperament is marked by 
a predominance of Vayu is often found to be 
tipsy after his first cup. A man of a Sattvika frame of 
mind exhibits under the influence of wine, a decided 
predilection for fine dress, jollity, and acts of purity and 
compassion. He sings, or reads, or evinces a strong 
desire for female company. A man of a Rajasika frame 
of mind becomes extremely melancholy or pugnaci- 
ous in his cups, indulges in despondent reveries, and 
evinces suicidal tendencies ; while wine in a subject of 
a Tamasika cast of mind exhibits the latent and innate 

* These couplets emphatically prove that the framers of ancient 
-Ayurveda were fully conversant with the circulation of the blood — Tr, 



Chap. XLV.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



465 



vileness of his soul. Such a person generally sleeps 
when intoxicated, falsely boasts of his own excellence, 
and evinces a de5ire for women with whom connection 
is forbidden by both social and canonical laws. 

Fermented liquors known as the Shukta (treacle, 
honey, fermented rice gruel, and curd cream kept in a 
new and clean vessel underneath a bushel of paddy for 
three consecutive days) bring on an attack of haemoptysis. 
They disintegrate the lumps or knots of accumulated 
Kapham, are digestant and prove curative in jaundice 
and diseases due to the derangement of Kapham. They 
are light and vermifugenous, and strong and heat making 
in their potency. They act as diuretic, are pleasant, and 
pungent in digestion. Bulbs and roots pickled in Shukta 
acquire the properties of the latter. Of the Shuktas 
prepared with treacle, juice of sugar-cane, or honey, each 
preceding one should be deemed heavier and as giving 
rise to greater secretions of internal organs than the one 
immediately following it in the order of enumeration. 

The different kinds of fermented rice gruel known as 
the Tushamvu and Sauvira are pleasant and appetising 
beverages. They prove efficacious in cases of jaundice, 
worms in the intestines, dysentery, piles, and in diseases 
affecting the heart. They are possessed of purgative 
(Bhedi) properties. 

The fermented gruel known as the Dhanyamlam 
is a good appetiser (tonic — D. R) owing to the fact 
59 



^66 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

of its being a preparation of paddy. As a plaster, it 
alleviates the burning sensation of the skin, and as a 
potion it subdues the V^yu and Kapliam, and alla3's 
thirst. Used as a gargle it forms one of the best remedies 
for reducing Kapham owing to its keenness. It is light 
of digestion, acts as a deodorant, removes the sense of 
exhaustion and bad taste from the mouth, allays thirst, 
acts as a good appetiser and dissolvent, is possessed 
of purgative virtues, and is advantageously used as an 
enemata (Asthapanam). It is very wholesome to sea- 
faring men. 

The Urine Group :— The urine of cows, 
buffaloes, goats, sheep, mules, horses, and camels* are 
commonly hot and bitter, and leave a saline after-taste. 
They are light and are used as piu-ifying agents, and will 
prove curative in diseases due to the derangement of the 
Vayu or Kapham, as well as in worms in the intestines, 
obesity, poisoning, abdominal glands, piles, ascites, 
cutaneous affections, oedema, non-relish for food, and 
jaundice. In general they act as cardiac stimulants 
(Hridyam) and appetisers. 

Authoritative verses on the Sub- 
ject :— They are all pungent, strong, hot, light and 
have a saline after-taste. They act as blood- piu-ifiers 
or disinfecting agents, reduce corpulency, act as vermi- 

* The urine of a cow, she-buffalo, ewe and she-goat should be taken 
and used, while similar secretions of the male should be taken where 
man, camel and elephant should be indicated. 



Chap. XLV. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 467 

fiiges and are anti-toxic. They subdue the deranged Vayu 
and Kapham. They prove beneficial in cases of piles, 
ascites, abdominal tumours, oedema and non- relish for 
food. They prove beneficial in jaundice, and act as 
cardiac stimulants, and are possessed of appetising, 
purgative and stomachic virtues. 

The urine of a cow is pungent, strong and hot, and 
does not generate Vayu on account of its being saturated 
with alkali. It is light, stomachic, slightly generates 
the Pittam^ and subdues the Vayu and Kapham. It 
proves beneficial in cases of colic, abdominal glands, 
ascites and distention of the abdomen, and is used for 
the purposes of purging and enematas (Asthdpananr. In 
cases, which prove amenable to the use of urine, the 
urine of a cow should be used to the exclusion of that 
of any other animal, even to that of an ox. 

The urine of a (she) baffalo proves beneficial in 
piles, abdominal dropsy, colic, cutaneous affections, 
Meha, imperfect action of emetics or purgatives, 
constipation, oedema, abdominal glands, and jaundice. 

The urine of a (she) goat has a pungent, bitter 
taste. It slighly agitates the bodily Vayu and proves 
curative in cases of cough, dyspnoea, consumption, 
jaundice and chlorosis. The urine of a ewe contains 
alkali, and has a bitter pungent taste. It subdues the 
deranged Vayu, and is heat-making in its potency. 
It proves beneficial in cough, enlarged spleen, abdomi- 



468 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

nal dropsy, dyspnoea, consumption and in obstinate con- 
stipation of the bowels. The urine of a horse is 
appetising and pungent in taste, strong^ and heat-making 
in its potency. It subdues the deranged V^yu and 
Kapha'm, and cures mental aberrations. It is usuall}^ 
recommended in cases of ringworm and worms in 
the intestines. The urine of an elephant has a bitter 
and saline taste. It is keen and purgative, and subdues 
the Vayu and enrages the Pittam. It is commonly 
used in the treatment of (KiUsa) leucoderma and 
in the preparation of alkalies. 

The urine of an ass tends to neutralise the effects 
of poison generated through the chemical action of 
two different substances in the organism. It is strong 
and proves curative in cases of chronic d5'sentery. It 
is a vermifuge and subdues the Vayu and Kapham, 
and is appetising. The urine of a camel proves 
beneficial in cases of oedema, leprosy, abdominal 
dropsy, insanitv, worms in the intestines, piles and 
in diseases due to the action of the deranged Vayu. 
Human urine is strong anti-toxic. 

I have now briefly described the properties of all 
kinds of liquid food or drink. An experienced physician 
should prescribe them for the use of his king according 
to the nature of season and the country in which they 
are to be applied. 

Thus ends tlie forty-fifth Chapter of the Sutrasthanam in the Sushruta 
Samhitd which treats of liquids. 



CHAPTER XLVI. 

Now we shall discourse on the Chapter which 
treats of food and drink (Annapa'na-Vid'hi- 
madhya'yam). 

Having made obeisance to the holy Dhanvantari, 
Sushruta said : — "You have stated before that food 
determines the origin of beings and forms the chief 
source of their bodily strength and complexion, as well 
as of the albuminous (Ojas) principle in their organisms. 
Food primarily depends upon the six different 
tastes. Moreover tastes are inherent in substances. 
Again the substances, with their specific tastes, 
virtues, potencies and reactionary or chemical 
transformations, tend to diminish or increase the 
deranged humours and the fundamental principles of the 
body, as also to bring about a normal equilibrium 
amongst them. Food is the primary cause of the origin, 
continuance and dissolution even of such beings as 
the divine Brahma, etc. Life is impossible without 
food. Food is the source of the growth, strength, and 
healthful glow of organic beings. It is food that 
imparts strength to the organs of sense and makes them 
operative in their respective fields of action. It is 
irregularity (Vaishamya) of diet which brings about 
ill-health. Diet may be divided into four kinds such as^ 



470 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLVI. 

solid food, (Ashitha) drink, Leedham (food taken by 
licking), and the Kh^ditam (food that is chewn and 
assimilated only for the enjoyment of a specific 
taste). A variety of substances enters into the 
composition of our food, which admit of being 
grouped under various preparations and necessarily 
involve the co-operation of a large number of dynamic- 
al forces. I am eager to learn of the substances and 
their specific inherent properties, virtues, potencies and 
transfonnations (chemical reactions) which constitute 
the daily food of human beings, inasmuch as a physician, 
who is ignorant of them, is quite helpless in checking 
or curing any distemper and maintaining health in indivi- 
duals. And since food (diet) determines the origin of 
all created beings, instruct us, O Lord, on the proper 
regimen of food and drink." 

The holy Dhanvantari, thus addressed by Sushruta, 
replied as follows : — "O child, hear me discourse 
on the proper regulation of food and drink as 
requested by you. There are several species of 
Shall rice such as, the Lohitaka, Shdli, Kalama, Karda- 
maka, Panduka, Sugandhaka, Shakunahrita, Pushpdn- 
daka, Pundarika, Mahashali, Shita-Bhiruka, Rodhra- 
Pushpaka, Dirghashuka, Kanchanaka, Mahisha-mastaka, 
Hayanaka, Dushaka, and Mah^-Dushaka etc. 

IVIetrical Texts— The several species of 
Shall rice are sweet in taste, cooling in potency, 



Chap. XLVL] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 47 1 

light of digestion, and impart strength to those who use 
them. They subdue the Pittam and shghtly generate 
Vayu and Kaphara. They are demulcent and tend to 
constipate the bowels and reduce the quantity of fecal 
matter. Of these the red species (Lohitaka) is the most 
efficacious, and subdues the deranged humours. It is 
diuretic, spermatopoietic, refrigerant, eye-invigorating, 
cosmetic, tonic and pleasant. It improves the voice. 
Its efficacy has been witnessed in cases of fever 
and ulcer, and in all other diseases. It is a good dis- 
infectant and anti-toxic. The other species differ a 
little in their properties from the preceding one and 
are successively inferior in quality in their order of 
enumeration. 

Shashtika Group : — The several species of 
Shashtika, K^nguka, Mukundaka, Peetaka, Pramodaka, 
Kdkalaka, Asana-Pushpaka, Mah^-Shashthika, Churnaka, 
Kiu-avaka, and the Kedar^ka, etc. 

IVIetrical Texts : — They (Shashtikas) are sweet 
in taste and digestion, and pacify the V^yu and the 
Kapham. Their properties are somewhat identical with 
those of Shali rice inasmuch as they are constructive, 
tonic and spermatopoietic, and increase the Kapham. 
The Shashtika is pre-eminently the most efficacious of 
all the other species, and leaves an astringent after-taste 
in the mouth. It is light, mild, demulcent and imparts 
Strength and firmness to the body. It is astringent and 



472 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA.' [Chap. XLVI. 



sweet in digestion, and exhibits properties similar to 
those of the red Shali. The remaining varieties are 
inferior in quality, each succeeding one being inferior to 
the one immediately following it. 

Vrihi Dha'nyas :— The several species of 
Vrihis are known as the Krishna- Vrihi, Shalamukha, 
Jatumukha, Nandimukha, Lavakshaka, Taritaka, 
Kukkutandaka, Par^vataka, and the Patala, etc. 

Metrical Texts :— They have a sweet and 
astringent taste, are sweet of digestion and hot in their 
potencies. They tend to slightly increase the secretions 
of the internal organs and bring on constipation of the 
bowels. Their general properties are nearly identical 
with those of the aforesaid Shashtikas. The species 
Krishna- Vrihi is the best of them all. It is hght, 
and leaves an astringent after taste, the remaining 
varieties gradually deteriorating in quality from the 
one under discussion. 

Shali rice, grown on burnt land, is light of digestion, 
has an astringent taste, is parchifying, tends to suppress 
the emission of urine and the evacuation of stool, and 
reduces the deranged Kapham. Sh^li rice grown in a 
J^ngala country has a taste slightly blended of the 
pungent, astringent, sweet and has a shade of bitter. It 
subdues the deranged Pittam and Kapham, (generates 
Vayu — D. R.) and is a good digestant and stomachic. 
Shali rice grown in a Kaidara or marshy country has a 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



473 



sweet taste with a shade of the astringent. It is tonic 
and spermatopoietic, aphro disiac and heavy of diges- 
tion. It reduces the quantity of excrement, subdues 
the Pittam, and increases the Kapham. 

» 

Rice of once transplanted paddy plants (Ropya) or 
of those transplanted several times in succession (Ati- 
ropya) is light, easily digested and comparatively more 
efficacious. It acts as a constructive tonic and is not 
followed by any reactionary acidity after digestion. 
It destroys the deranged humours and is diuretic. Rice of 
paddy plants, sprouting Irom the stubbles of a previous 
harvest, is parchifying. It suppresses the evacuations of 
stool, has a bitter and astringent taste, subdues the 
Pittam, is easily digestible and generates Kapham. I 
have fully described the good and bad species of grain 
belonging to the Sh^li group. Similarly, I shall speak 
of Kudh^nyas, Mudgas and Mashas, etc. 

The Genus Kudhariya :— The several 
varieties of Kudhanyam are known as the Kora- 
dushaka, Shyamaka, Niv^ra, Shantanu, Varaka, 
Udd^laka, Priyangu, Madhulik^, Nandimukhi, Kura- 
vinda, Gavedhuka, Varuka, Todaparni, Mukundaka, 
and Venu-yava, etc. 

Metrical Texts :— They generate heat and 
have a sweet and astringent taste. They are parchifj'-- 
ing and pungent of digestion, subdue the Kapham and 

60 



474 THE SUSHUUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 

tend to produce retention of the urine, and enrage the 
bodily V^yu and the Pittam. Of these the species known 
as the Kodrava, Nivara, Shyamdka and Sh^ntanu have a 
sweet and astringent taste and prove curative in Sheeta 
pitta* (urticaria). The four (black, red, yellow and white) 
varieties of Priyangus reduce the Kapham and 
produce a parched condition in the body, each preceding 
species being superior as regards its virtues to the one 
immediatel)' following it in the order of enumeration. 
The species Madhulikas as well as the one known as the 
Nandimukhi is sweet, cool and demulcent. The species 
Varuka and Mukundaka are largely possessed of 
absorbing virtues. The species Venu-yava, is parchify- 
ing, and heat-making in its potency and is pungent of 
digestion, brings on retention of the urine, subdues 
the deranged Kapham, and tends to enrage the bodily 
Vayu. The several varieties of pulse (Vaidala) commonly 
used as food are known as the Mudga, Vana-Mudga, 
Kalaya, Makushtha, Masura, Mangalya, Chanaka, 
Satina, Triputa, Harenu, and Adhaki, etc. 

IVIetrical Texts:— They are generally cool and 
pungent of digestion, and have a sweet and astringent 
taste. They generate the Vayu, arrest the flow 
of urine and the evacuation of stool, and subdue 
the Pittam and Kapham. The species known 
as the Mudga does not excessivel}' generate Vayu 
in the system but tends to purify and invigorate the 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 475 

organ of vision. The green species is the best of all 
the varieties of Mudga pulse. The properties of 
Vanya (Mudga) are similar to those of the common 
variet}'. 

The species of pulse known as Masura is sweet of 
digestion and constipates the bowels. The species 
Makushthaka is vermigenous, while the species Kalaya 
generates Vayu copiously. The species Adhaki subdues 
the Pittam and Kapham, and does not excessively 
agitate the V^yu in the organism. The species known 
as the Chanaka generates Vayu and is cooling in its 
potency. It has a sweet and astringent taste, and 
produces a parched condition of the body. It subdues 
the Pittam and Kapham, corrects the deranged 
blood, and tends to bring on a loss of the virile powers. 
The species known as Satina and Harenu are astring- 
ent in their virtues and tend to constipate the bowels. 
All the varieties of pulse except the Mudga and the 
Masura tend to produce a distension of the abdomen 
caused by gas or air in the organism (Tympanites or 
Adhm^na). 

The pulse known as the Masha has a sweet taste, 
is heavy and pleasant, laxative, diuretic, demulcent, 
heat-making, aphrodisiac, and specifically sperma- 
topoietic, tonic and galactogoguic. It subdues the 
Vayu and increases the Kapham. The species known 
as the Alasandra (Rajamasha) does not produce Kapham 



476 THE SUSHRtJTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

and is neither laxative nor diuretic on account of its 
astringent nature. It is sweet in taste and of digestion, 
pleasant, glactogoguic and improves-'a relish for food. 
The properties of Atmagupta and Kakanda seeds are 
similzir to those of the aforesaid Masha pulse. The 
species known as the Aranya-masha is astringent in 
taste, produces a condition of parchedness in the 
system, and is not followed by any reactionary^ acidity 
after being digested. The pulse known as Kulattha 
has an astringent taste, is pungent of digestion and is 
possessed of astringent properties. It proves cura- 
tive in cases of urinary calculi arising from seminal 
derangement (Shukr^shmari), abdominal glands, catarrh, 
and cough. The species known as the Vanya-Kulattha 
subdues the deranged Kapham, and proves curative in 
cases of Anaha, obesity, piles, hic-cough and dyspnoea. 
It may bring on an attack of hoemoptysis, and proves 
beneficial in diseases affecting the eyes. Tilam has a 
taste blended of the sweet and the bitter with a shade of 
the astringent. It is astrigent, heat-making, and produces 
Pittam. It is sweet of digestion, demulcent, tonic, 
and curative as a plaster for ulcers. It is bene- 
fiicial to the skin and teeth, improves the intellect 
and'digestion, is anuretic and heavy, helps the growth 
of hair, and subdues the deranged Vdyu. 

Of all the different varieties of sesamum, the black 
species is the best in respect of efficacy. The white 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 477 

species occupies a middle position as regards its virtues, 
while the remaining varieties should be regarded as of 
inferior quality. * 

Barley (Yava) is cooling, sweet and astringent in 
taste, and pungent of digestion. It subdues the deranged 
Pittam and Kapham. It is anuretic, beneficial to ulcers ; 
and like sesamum, increases the quantity of stool and 
the emission of flatus, imparts firmness to the body 
and improves the voice, complexion and digestion. 
It is slini}^ and produces a condition of extreme 
parchedness in the system, removes obesity, and subdues 
fat. It subdues the deranged Vayu, is refrigerant and 
soothes (purifies) the blood and Pittam. The Atiyavas 
(a species of barle}^) is inferior to the barley species in 
respect of the preceding qualities. 

Wheat is sweet, heavy, tonic, rejuvicient, sperma- 
topoietic, and improves the relish for food. It is 
demulcent and extremely cooling, subdues the Vayu 
and Pittam, and generates the Kapham. New wheat is 
laxative and brings about the adhesion of fractured 
bones or helps fermentation (SandhanakritJ. 

The Shimvas (Beans) have an astringent taste and 
produce a condition of parchedness in the S3'stem. 
They are antitoxic, discutient, and reduce the Kapham 
and the power of sight. They are imperfectly digested 
and acquire a pungent taste in digestion, though 



478 THE StiSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap: XLVt." 

ordinarily sweet in taste. They cause evacuation of 
the bowels and emission of flatus. 

There are four variteies of Shimva such as, the white, 
the black, the yellow and the red, of which each 
preceding species is superior in virtues and qualities to 
the one immediately following it in the order of 
enumeration. The Shimvas are heat-making and 
pungent both in taste and digestion. 

The two varieties of Saha, as well as the species of 
beans known as the Mulakashimvi and the Kushimvi, 
are sweet in taste and digestion, and strength-giving. 
They tend to subdue the action of the deranged 
Pittam. 

Raw and unripe pulse beans (Vaidilika Shimvi) 
produce a condition of extreme parchedness in the 
system, are long retained in the stomach and but imper- 
fectly digested. They are relishing but can be digested 
only with the greatest difficulty, causing the stomach 
to distend before being digested. 

Kusumbha seeds are pungent in taste and 
digestion, and reduce the deranged Kapham. They 
are extremel)* unwholesome, owing to the fact of 
their being imperfectly digested. Linseed fAtasi) 
has a sweet taste, is heat-making in its potency, and 
pungent in digestion. It generates the Pittam and 
subdues the Vayu. White mustard 'Shveta Sarshapa) is 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM, 



479 



pungent in taste and digestion, strong and heat- making 
in its potency. It gives rise to a condition of parchedness 
in the system, and'diminishes the Vayuand the Kapham. 
An excessive and continuous use of white mustard 
may bring on an attack of haemoptysis. The properties 
of red mustard seeds are similar to those of the white 
species. 

A crop of Dhdnyam grown in an unnatural season, 
or in any way diseased or blighted, or gleaned before it 
has ripened, as well as the one raised from a soil 
naturally uncongenial to its growth, or recently harvest- 
ed, should be deemed to be of inferior quality. 

'The use of new (harvested within a year) rice tends 
to increase the secretions of the internal organs, while 
that of a year's maturity is light.* 

Rice threshed out of paddy, which has commenced 
sprouting, is heavy, and is long retained in the stomach. 
It can be but imperfectly digested and tends to affect 
the organ of vision. 

The maturity, preparations (Sanskara), and measures 
of corn from Shili rice to mustard seeds described 
in the present Chapter are as follows : — [Rice of two 
years standing should be regarded as well matured in 
time and excellent in quality. A thing, which is hard to 

* Rice of more than two years standing becomes divested of all its 
nutritive elements. 



480 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI.^ 

digest like Vrihi, is made light by frying. Measures 
for use should vary according to the keenness of one's 
appetite.] 

The meat Group :— Now I shall de^-cribe 
the properties of the different species of edible meats. 
The flesh of animals such as those which are 
aquatic in their habits (Jaleshaya), or frequent marshy 
lands (Anupa), or dwell in villages (Gramya), or are 
carnivorous in their habits (Kra\yabhuja}, or are pos- 
sessed of unbifurcated hoofs (Ekashapha), or dwell on 
high ground (Jangala), is generally used as food. Of 
these each succeeding kind is superior to the one 
immediately preceding it in the order of enumeration. 

Again these animals may be roughly grouped under 

two broad sub-heads such as, the Jangala (living in high 

ground and in a jungle) and the Anupa (living in 

marshy places, or near pools and water- courses). The 
Jangala group may be further divided into eight 

sub-species, such as the Janghala, the Viscira, the 

Pratnda, the Guhashaya, the Pra8aha,the Parnamriga, 

the Vileshaya, and the Gramya. Of these the Janghala 

and the Viscira are the most important. The following 

animals belong to the Janghala (large-kneed group — viz. 

the Ena (black deer), the Harina (red deer), the Rishya 

(blue deer), the Kuranga (antelope\ the Karala, 

the Kritam^la, the Sharabha, the Shvadanstra, the 

Prishata, the Chitrila (Spotted deer), the Ch^rushka, 



Chap. XLVI.J SUTRASTHANAM. 481 

the Mriga-m^trika, etc. These species of venison have 
a sweet and astringent taste, are hght, keen, pleasant 
(palatable), laxative, and diuretic in their effect. They 
subdue the Vayu and the Pittam. 

IVIetrical Text :— The venison of the* Ena 
species is sweet and astringent in taste, and palatable, 
and proves curative in diseases due to the deranged 
condition of the Pittam, blood and Kapham. It is astrin- 
gent in its effect, imparts strength to the system, 
improves a relish for food and is a febrifuge. 
The venison of the Harina (red) species is sweet 
in taste and digestion, appetising, aromatic, cool, 
light, and suppresses the discharge of stool and 
urine and pacifies the deranged humours. Deer 
which are black are called Ena, while those which are 
red are called Harina. Those, that are neither red nor 
black, are designated as Kuranga. The venison 
of the Mriga-matrik^ species is cooling and proves 
curative in cases of haemoptysis, Sannipata diseases 
(due to the concerted action of the three deranged 
humours), consumption, dyspncea, cough, and hiccough 
and creates a relish for food. 

Birds such as the Lava, Tittiri, Kapinjala, Vartira, 
Vartika, Vartaka, Naptrika, V^tika_, Chakora, Kala- 
vinka, Mayura, Krakara, Upachakra, Kukkuta, S^ranga, 
Shata-Patraka, Kutittiri, Kuruvahuka and Yavalaka 
belong to the Vishkira species. [They are so called 

61 



482 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLVI. 

from the fact of their pickmg up their food 
after scattering it first with their bills and claws 
(Skr. kira, to scatter)]. The flesh of a bird of 
this group is light, cooling, sweet and astringent 
in taste and tends to pacify the deranged humours 
of the body. 

The flesh of the Lava is light, has a sweet and 
astringent taste, is pungent of digestion, and 
possessed of astringent and appetising properties. 
It is highly efficacious in diseases due to the concerted 
humours of the body. The flesh of the Tittirs is 
slightly heavy, heat-making and sweet in taste. It is 
spermatopoietic, appetising and astringent. It improves 
the intellect and complexion, and subdues the three 
deranged humours. The flesh of the yellow (Gaura) 
Tittiri proves curative in hic-cough and dyspnoea, 
and subdues the deranged Vayu. The flesh of the 
Kapinjala is light and cooling, and proves curative 
in cases of haemoptysis, and is recommended 
in diseases brought about through the deranged 
condition of the Kapham or V^yu (Manda-vata\ 
The flesh of the Krakara or of the Upachakra 
is light, pleasant (palatable), spermatopoietic, and 
appetising. It subdues the Vayu and Pittam and 
impro^■es the intellect. The flesh of the Mayura is 
astringent and saline in taste, and is beneficial to the 
skin, helps the growth of hair, improves the voice. 



Chap. XLVi ] SUtRASTHANAM. 4^3 

intellect, appetite and relish for food, and imparts 
strength and vigour to the organs of sight and hearing. 

The flesh of a wild cock is demulcent, heat-making, 
and spermatopoietic. It acts as a diaphoretic, imparts 
tone to the voice and the organism, subdues the 
deranged Vayu, and is useful as a good constructive 
tonic. The flesh of a domesticated cock or fowl is 
possessed of properties similar to those of its wild 
prototype with the exception that it is hea^ y, and 
proves curative in rheumatism, consumption, vomiting 
and chronic (Vishama-Jvara) fever. 

Birds such as the dove, pigeon Bhringaraja, 
cuckoo, Koyashtica, Kulinga, the domestic Kulinga, 
Gokshada, Dindimanaka, Shatapatraka, Matrinindaka, 
Bhedashi, Shuka, Sharika, Valguli, Girisha, Alahva, 
Dushaka, Sugrihi, Khanjaritaka, Harita, Datyuha, etc. 
belong to the group known as the Pratuda. 

Metrical Texts :— The Pratudas live on fruit, 
and their flesh has a sweet and astringent taste. 
It generates Vayu and produces a parched condition 
in the organism. It is cooling in its potency and 
reduces the Pittam and Kapham. It suppresses the 
discharge of urine and reduces the quantity of stool. 
Of these the flesh of the Bhedashi tends to vitiate 
the humours and to derange the three excrements of 
the body. The flesh of the Kana Kapota (wild dove; 
is heavy and has a palatable, saline and astringent 



484 't'HE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVl. 

taste. It proves beneficial in hasmoptysis and is sweet 
of digestion. The flesh of the Kulinga is sweet, 
demulcent, and spermatopoietic, and iiicreases the bodily 
Kapham. The flesh of the domesticated Kulinga is 
highly spermatopoietic, and proves curative in cases of 
haemoptysis. 

Animals such as the Hon, tiger, wolf, hyena 
arboreal leopard (Vriksha dipi\ cat, jackal, bear, 
and jVIrigaervaruka (a jackal-shaped, deer-eating species 
of tiger) belong to the group of the Guh^shayas 
(cave- dwelling mammals). 

IVIetrical Texts : — The flesh of animals belong- 
ing to this family is sweet, heavy, demulcent 
and strength- giving. It subdues the deranged Vayu. 
It is heat-making in its potency, and proves beneficial 
in diseases affecting the eyes and anus. 

The Prasaha Group :— Birds such as, 
the Kaka, Kanka, Kurura, Chasa, Bhasa, Shashaghati, 
Uluka, Chilli, Shyena, Gridhra, etc. belong to the 
family of Prasahas (Carnivorous birds that suddenly 
dart on their prey). 

Metrical Text :— The flesh of birds belonging 
to this group is identical in its virtues, potency, 
taste and digestive transformation with those of 
the aforesaid carnivorous mammals, such as the lion, 
etc., and is specially beneficial in cases of consumption 
and kindred wasting diseases. 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 485 

The Parna-IVIriga Group :— Animals such 
as tlie Madgu, the arboreal Musika, the Vriksha-Shayika, 
Avakusha, Puti-gKasa and the Vanara, etc. belong to the 
family of Parna-Mrigas (lit : tree-dwelling arboreal 
animals). 

Metrical Texts :— The flesh of animals of 
this group is sweet, spermatopoietic and heavy 
of digestion. It is invigorating to the eyesight and 
beneficial in cases of consumption. It is laxative and 
diuretic and cures cough, pile and dyspnoea. 

The Vileshaya Group :— Animals such 
as, the Shvavit, Shalyaka, Godha, Shasha, Vrishadansha, 
Lopaka, Lomasha-Karna, Kadali, Mriga-Priyaka, 
Ajagara, Sarpa, Mushika, Nakula and Maha-Vabhru 
belong to the group of Vileshaya (hole-dwellers). 

Metrical Texts :^The general properties of 
the flesh of animals belonging to this species 
are to increase the consistency of stool and urine. 
They are heat-making in potency, sweet in digestion as 
those of the preceding group. The}- subdue the Vayu 
and generate the Pittam and Kapham. They are 
demulcent and beneficial in cough, dyspnoea and 
cachexia. The flesh of the Shasha is sweet and astringent 
in taste. It reduces the Pittam and Kapham and 
neither produces nor subdues the Vayu owing to 
its moderately cooling potency. The flesh of the Godha 
is sweet of digestion and has a pungent, astringent taste. 



486 THE SUSHRUtA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 

It is tonic and constructive and pacifies the Vayu and 
Pittam. The flesh of the Shalyaka is tasteful, 
light of digestion, cooling in its potency and anti-toxic, 
and subdues the deranged Pittam. The flesh of the 
Mrigii-Priyaka proves a wholesome diet in diseases 
due to the action of the deranged Vayu ( Vayu-Roga), 
while that of the Ajagara is beneficial in piles. 

The flesh of a Sarpa (a species other than those 
specifically described) is curative in piles and derange- 
ments of the Vayu. It is a vermifuge and anti-toxic (a 
neutraliser of chemical or resulting poisons). It in- 
vigorates the eye-sight, is appetising and sweet 
and improves the intellect. Of these the flesh of the 
Darvicara is appetising, pungent in digestion, sweet in 
taste, and extremely efficacious in ej^e diseases. It is 
laxative and diuretic, and subdues the deranged Vayu. 

Domestic Animal Group :— Animals 

such as horses, mules, cows, bullocks, asses, camels, 
goats, sheep, and Medapuchhas (fat tailed or Turkish 
sheep) etc., belong to the group of domestic animals 
(Gr^myas). 

IVIctrical Texts :— The flesh of domestic 
animals is possessed of constructive, tonic and 
appetising properties, is sweet in taste and diges- 
tion. It destro5's the deranged Vayu and produces the 
Kapham and Pittam. Of these the flesh of the goat is 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



487 



moderately cooling in its potenc}^ does not increase the 
secretions of the internal organs, is heavy and demul- 
cent, subdues the'Pittam and the Kapham, and is bene- 
ficial in nasal catarrh. The flesh of sheep (mutton) is 
constructive, tonic and heav)', and generates the 
Pittam and Kapham. The flesh of the Medapuchcha 
is aphrodisiac and has properties similar to those 
of mutton. 

Beef is holy and refrigerant, proves curative in 
dyspnoea^ catarrh, cough^ chronic fever and in cases 
of a morbid craving for food (Atyagni), and destroys 
the deranged Vayu. The flesh of an animal with 
unbifurcated hoofs (Ekashapha such as, the horse and 
the mule etc.), has a slightly saline taste, and is possess- 
ed of properties similar to those of mutton. The flesh 
of an animal belonging to the Jangala group is said 
to increase the secretions of the internal organs. 

The flesh of beasts or birds dwelling remote from a 
village or pool tends to slightly increase the secretions 
of the internal organs, while the flesh of an animal 
living in a village or near a reservoir of water, ex- 
cessively increases that secretion. 

The Anupa Group -.—Animals, which are 
generally found to frequent marshy places (Anupas) 
may be divided into five groups, such as, the Kulacharas 
(frequenting the shores of pools and lakes), Plavas 



488 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 

(divers or swimmers), Koshastha (conchiferous aquatic 
animals such as, the molluscs etc.), the Fadinas 
and the (piscatory) Matsya. 

Of these, the elephant, the Gavaya, buffalo, 
Ruru (an animal of the deer species which casts its 
antlers and wanders roaming about in the forests in 
autumn) Chamara, Srimara (an animal of the Zebra 
species with gi'een and red stripes), Rohita (red 
deer), boar, rhinoceros, Gokarna, K^lapuchchaka, 
together with the Nynku (a species of antlered deer) 
and the wild cow, etc., frequent the cool shores 
df swamps and lakes, and are accordingly included 
within the group of Kulacharas (shore-dwellers). 

The Metrical Texts :— The flesh of an 
animal of this group is spermatopoietic and 
destroys the deranged Vayu and Kapham. It is sweet in 
taste and digestion, cooling, tonic, demulcent and 
diuretic, and increases the quantity of Kapham. 

The flesh of the Elephant tends to produce a state 
of extreme parchedness in the system, and is lique- 
facient and heat-making in its potency. It vitiates 
the Pittam and has a palatable acid and saline taste, 
and destroys the Vayu and Kapham. The flesh of 
the Gavaya is demulcent and sweet in taste, and proves 
beneficial in cough and is sweet of digestion. It tends 
to increase sexual capacity. The flesh of the Buffalo 
is demulcent, heat-making (in its potency), sweet. 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



489 



spermatopoietic, pleasant and heavy of digestion It 
increases strength and virihty and imparts firmness to 
the tissues, and "is hypnotic and galactagoguic. The 
flesh of the Rum is shghtly sweet and leaves an 
astringent after taste. It is heavy, spermatopoietjc and 
pacifies the Vayu and Kapham. 

Similarly, the flesh of the Chamara is demulcent, 
cures an attack of cough, is sweet in taste and digestion 
and subdues the deranged Vayu and Pittam. The flesh 
of the Srimara is heavy and spermatopoietic, leaves an 
astringent after-taste in the mouth and tends to subdue 
the deranged Vayu and Pittam. The flesh of the boar 
(Baraha) or common pig is constructive, tonic, sperma- 
topoietic and diaphoretic, and imparts a greater strength 
to the system. It is heavy (as regards digestion), demul- 
cent, cooling, refrigerant, and pleasant, and destroys the 
deranged Va)^. The flesh of the rhinoceros has an as- 
tringent taste, and is pleasing to one's departed manes in 
the shape of an oblation (Pitryam). It is sacred, imparts 
longevity, tends to suppress the discharge of urine, 
produces a condition of parchedness in the organism, and 
destroys the deranged Vayu and Kapham. The flesh 
of the Gokarna is sweet, demulcent, mild (soft), sweet 
in digestion and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis, 
and generates Kapham in the system. 

The Plava Croup :— Birds such as the 
62 



490 '^^^- SUSHKUTA SAMHITA'. i Chap. XLVI. 

Hansa, Sarasa, Kraimcha, Chakravaka, Kurura (belong 
also to the Prasaha group) Kadamva, Karandava, 
Jivan Jivaka, Vaka, Valaka, Pimdarika, Plava, Sarari- 
mukha, Nandimukha, Madgu, Utkrosha, Kachdksha, 
Mallikaksha, Shuklaksha, Puslikarashdyika, Kon^laka, 
Amviikukkiitika, Megharava and Shvetacharana etc. 
belong to the Plava family. These birds are found to 
move about in large flocks. 

IVIetrical Text : — The flesh of any one of 
this family is cooling, demulcent, and spermatopoietic 
and destroys the deranged Vayu. It proves beneficial 
in cases of h9emopt5^sis, is sweet in taste and of digestion, 
and is possessed of laxative and diuretic properties. 
The flesh of the Hansa is heavy (of digestion), heat- 
making, sweet and demulcent. It tends to improve the 
voice and complexion, and imparts strength to the 
system. It is spermatopoietic, tissue-building and tonic, 
and proves curative in nervous diseases (V^ta-Vikara). 

The Conchifcrous (Koshastha) Spe- 
cies : — Animals such as, the Shankha, Shankhanakha 
(a species of small bivalve molluscs), Shukti, Shambuka 
and Bhalluka, etc., belong to the Koshastha (conchifcr- 
ous) group. 

The Pa'dina Species :- Animals such as, 
the tortoise, alligator, crab, black crab, porpoise, etc., 
belong to this species. 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



491 



Metrical Texts : — The flesh of animals of 
the Shankha and Kiirma orders is sweet in taste and 
digestion, cooling* in its potency, demulcent, and bene- 
ficial to stool and the Pittam. It destroys the deranged 
Vayu and produces Kapham. Of these, the spectes of 
black crab is strength-giving and heat-making in its 
potency, and tends to destroy the deranged Vayu. The 
white species is laxative and diuretic in its effect, and 
tends to bring about an adhesion of fractured bones 
(or produces fermentation). It destroys the Vayu and 
Pittam. 

The Piscatory Order : — The piscatory 

group may be roughly divided into two broad sub- 
divisions, such as the Marine and the River (fresh water) 
fish. The species such as the Rohita, Pathina, 
Patala, Rajiva, Varmi, Gomatsya, Krishna-Matsya, 
Vagunjara, Murala, Sahasra-danstra, etc., belong to the 
fresh water family. 

Metrical Texts : — The fresh M^ater (Xadeya) 
fish (river fish) are sweet in taste, heavy of 
digestion, bring on haemoptysis and destroy the 
deranged Vayu. They are heat-making in their 
potencies, spermatopoietic and demulcent and tend to 
reduce the quantity of stool. Of these, the Rohita 
leaves an astringent after-taste, and destroys the 
deranged Vayu. This species lives on such aquatic 
plants and herbs as grow in fresh-water pools 



492 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLV. 

and do not inordinately generate Pittam. The 
Pathinas produce Kapham and are spermatopoietic. 
They are carnivorous and somnolent' in their habits, 
tend to vitiate the blood and the Pittam, and originate 
dermal affections. The species of fish known as 
the Murala is constructive, tonic, spermatopoietic 
and galactagoguic. Fish bred in tanks or ponds are 
palatable to the taste and demulcent in their effect, 
while those reared in large lakes are usually found to 
gain in strength and size, while the species reared in 
shallow water is weak and stunted. 

The Sarnudra (Marine) Species :~ 

The Timi, Timingila (a species of large whales) Kulisha, 
Paka matsya, Niralaka, Nandi-Varalaka, Makara, 
Gargarka, Chandraka, Mahamina, and Rajiva etc., con- 
stitute the family of marine fish. 

Metrical Texts : — Sea fish are heavy, demul- 
cent, and sweet, and do not inordinately produce Pittam. 
They are heat-making (in their potency), and sper- 
matopoietic and beneficial to the stool, and destroy 
Vayu and generate Kapham. 

Sea fish are extremely strength-giving in their 
effect owing to the fact of their living on animal 
food. Fresh water fish are possessed of greater 
tissue-building properties than their marine kindred, 
while those which are found in wells and Chuntis 



Chap. XLVI. J SUTRASTHANAM. 



49: 



are said to be possessed of gi-eater carminative (Vataghna) 
virtues than the two preceding orders. Fish reared in 
tanks (Vapi) are* superior to the two preceding species 
owing to their greater demulcent and palatable pro- 
perties. River fish are heavy at the middle, &wing 
to the fact of their moving about with the help 
of their head and tail, while those which are 
cultured in tanks and ponds (Sarah and Tadaga) 
are speciall)' light about their heads. Fish, 
which are found in hill streams or fountains, are 
extremely heavy about the parts a little below the 
region of their head, on account of their being con- 
fined within narrow limits and the consequent absence 
of an}^ lengthy sweep. Fish reared in large tanks 
(Sarasi) are lighter in the foreparts of their body and 
heavy in their lower parts, as the}' put their entire 
pressure upon their breast at the time of swimming. 
Thus I have finished describing tl^e specific properties 
of the flesh of animals that frequent swamps or 
marshy grounds and which increase the secretions 
of the internal organs of a person using them for food. 

Dried or putrid flesh, as well as the flesh of a 
diseased, old, emaciated, poisoned, or snake-bitten 
animal, or of one of extremely tender years or struck 
with a poisoned dart or weapon, or of that which 
has fed on unnatural food, should be carefull}^ 
avoided inasmuch as dried or putrid meat is 



494 I'HE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap.XLVl. 

shorn of all its potency. The flesh of a diseased or 
snake-bitten animal would be found to be poisoned or 
vitiated in its properties ; that of a wounded animal is 
affected, that of an old animal is enfeebled in its 
potency, and that of an extremely young animal is 
immature in its virtue and hence would prove positively 
injurious to the system. 

IVIctrical Texts :— Dry meat is heavy, brings 
on catarrh and a non-relish for food. The flesh of an 
animal killed by poison is fatal. The flesh of an 
animal of tender years may produce vomiting. The 
flesh of an old animal produces cough and dyspnoea, 
while the use of that of a diseased animal may be 
attended with a simultaneous derangement of the three 
fundamental humours of the body. Putrid meat pro- 
duces nausea, while the use of that of an enfeebled or 
emaciated animal tei;ids to aggravate the Vayu. 

Meat falling under a category other than those 
described above should be deemed as good and whole- 
some. The flesh of a female quadruped, or of a male 
bird, or of a small-bodied creature of a large-sized 
genus, and vice versa, is principally recommended 
to be used amongst quadrupeds, birds, and animals. 
Similarly the flesh of a small-sized creature amongst 
large-bodied ones of the same species should be pre- 
ferred as food. 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 495 

Now we shall discourse on the heav}' or light 
character of flesh obtained from different parts 
of the body of an«animal. Of the different fundamental 
principles of the body from the blood to the semen, 
each succeeding one is heavier than the one* im- 
mediately preceding it in the order of ennumeration. 
Similarly, (of the different limbs or organs of a 
quartered animal such as), the thighs, the shoulders, the 
loins, the head, the legs_, the fore-extremities, the waist, 
the back, the skin, the kidneys, the liver and the 
intestines, each succeeding one is respectively heavier 
than the one immediately preceding it in the order. 

Metrical Texts : — The head is heavier than 
the shoulders ; the shoulders, than the waist ; and the 
waist, than the back. Similarty, the upper parts of 
the Sakthi (thighs) are heavier than their lower ends. 
Of the seven fundamental principles of the organism 
(such as the lymph chyle, blood, flesh, fat, bone, 
marrow, and semen) each succeeding one is heavier 
than the principle immediately preceding it in the 
order of enumeration. The trunks of all animals 
are heavy. The lo\k^er part of a female frame and the 
upper one of a male are respectively heavier [than 
their upper (fore) and lower (hind) parts.] 

The head and breast of a bird are heavier than 
its other limbs. The trunk or the middle part of a 
bird is so equipoised as to facilitate the movements 



496 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 

of its pinions in flight. The flesh of a fruit-eating 
^bird produces a state of extreme parchedness in 
the organism (of a person using k as food,) while 
that of a carnivorous one acts as a good constructive 
tonic. The flesh of a bird, vrhich Hves on "fish, 
produces Pittam, while that of one, which lives on 
paddy (Dhan3^a), subdues the V^yu. Of the animals, that 
live in dry land or frequent marshy places, as well 
as of those which are domesticated, or are carnivorous 
in their habits, or are possessed of unbifurcated hoofs, 
or live by darting on their preys, or dwell in holes, 
or are possessed of long legs, or eat by pricking, or 
are in the habit of first scattering their food with 
their claws, the flesh of each preceding one is lighter 
and tends to give rise to a lesser secretion from the 
internal organs than the one immediately following 
it in the order of enumeration. 

Of animals belonging to the same genus, the flesh 
of one, which attains to an abnormally large size, 
should be rejected as inferior in pith or substance, and 
heavy as regards digestion. The flesh about the 
region of the liver of all animals should be regarded 
as the very best in respect of its dietic proper- 
ties, in absence whereof the flesh of a young animal 
not at all used up, or afllicted with any disease 
and just quartered that day, should be regarded as 
coming next best. 



Clmp. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 407 

Authoritative verse on the sub- 
ject : —The age, body, development of limbs, tem- 
perament, natures, sex, constitution, size and habit 
of an animal should be taken into consideration 
before determining whether its flesh is wholesome 
or not. The measure in which it may be used 
as food with decided advantage to the organism and 
to what extent it will purify or improve its virtues, 
should also be considered. 

The Fruit Group (Phala-vargaj :---Xow we 
shall discourse (on the specific virtues) of fruits, 
such as the Dadima, Amalaka, Kapittha, Vadara, 
Kola, Karkandhu, Sauvira, Shimvitikaphala^ Matulunga, 
Amra, Amrataka, Karamarda, Piyala, Lakucha, Bhavya, 
Paravata, Vetraphala, Prachinamalaka, Tintidika, Nipa, 
Koshamra, Amlika, Xaranga, and Jamvira, etc. 

Metrical Texts :— (We ,may describe the 
general properties of fruits by saying that) they are 
acid in taste and heav)' of digestion, heat-making in 
their potencies, (expectorant) of (Kapham), generate 
Pittam and subdue the Vayu. Of the fruits enumerated 
in the above list the Dadima leaves an astringent 
after-taste and does not generate the Pittam to an 
inordinate degree.* It acts as an appetiser, brings on 

* Charaka and Bhatlaraka Harishchandra exclude Dadima (pome- 
granate) from the list of Pittakara agents, while JejjadScharya is of 
opinion that it neither generates nor subdues the Pittam. 

63 



498 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

flesh and a relish for food, is palatable to the taste, and 
tends to constipate the bowels by (imparting a greater 
consistency to the fecal matter). Dadimas may be classi- 
fied into two distinct species according as they are sweet 
or acid to the taste. The sweet species subdues the three 
deranged bodily humours, while the acid one subdues 
the Vayu and Kapham. The fruit known as the 
Amalaka has a taste blended of the sweet, pungent and 
astringent ones with a shade of the bitter. It is laxative, 
spermatopoietic and beneficial to the eye-sight, and is 
capable of subduing all the three deranged humours 
The Vataghna virtue of this fruit should be ascribed 
to its acid taste ; its power of subduing the Pittam, 
to its sweetness and coolness ; and its efficacy in 
subduing the Kapham, to its affecting the tongue as 
a dr)'- astringent substance. This fruit is by far the best 
known fruit as possessing high therapeutic properties. 
The Karkandhu, lil^e the Kola or the Vadara, generates 
the Kapham and Pittam in its unripe or immature 
stage, while in its ripe or matured stage it is sweet, 
demulcent, purgative and subdues the Vayu and 
Pittam. The fruit known as the Sauvira is possessed 
of properties similar to those of the Vadara ; moreover it 
is sweet, demulcent, and subdues the "\'ayu and 
Pittam. The Shimvitika-fruit is cooling, astringent 
and palatable and has an astringent taste. The 
Kapittham in its unripe stage produces hoarseness. 
It is astringent and subdues the Kapham and increases 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^^g 

the Vayii, while in its ripe stage it subdues the 
Vayu and Kapham, is heav}', and has a sweet and 
acid taste. Th5 fruit known as the Matulunga is 
light, acid, appetising, and pleasant. It proves beneficial 
in cough and asthma, brings on a relish for food*, allays 
thirst and cleanses the throat. The rind of a Matulunga 
is a bitter vermifuge and is difficult to digest ; it subdues 
the Vayu and Kapham. The layer of skin (lit. flesh), 
immediately underlying the rind of the Matulunga, 
is palatable, cooling in its potency, demulcent and 
heav}' of digestion, and also subdues the Vayu and 
Pittam. The membranous or cellular covering, which 
envelops its seeds, is light, stomac'nic, astringent and 
palatable. It produces Kapham and proves curative in 
cases of piles, abdominal glands (Gulma) and vomiting. 
The expressed juice of the Matulunga is recommended 
to a person suffering from colic pain (gastralgia), indiges- 
tion, constipation of the bowels, iippaired digestion as 
well as from disorders brought about through the derang- 
ed condition of the Vayu and Kapham, and more so 
in cases where the patient has lost all relish for 
food. An unripe Amra, in its first stage of develop- 
ment, tends to generate the Vayu and Pittam, 
while one with closed pollen i Vaddha-keshara type) 
generates the Pittam. Ripe Amra is pleasant, 
cosmetic, relishing and tonic, helps the formation 
of fresh blood, and leaves an astringent after-taste. 
It is sweet and heavy, is a tissue-builder and tends 



500 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLVI. 

to increase the formation of semen and also subdues 
the Vayu and Pittam. The Amrataka f Hog-apple) is 
spermatopoietic, is surcharged with a kind of oily matter 
and tends to increase the Kapham in the system. The 
Lakuclia tends to destroy the semen, is long retained 
in the stomach, and serves to derange the three funda- 
mental humours of the body. The Karamardakam 
is relishing and acid in its taste, allays thirst, and 
generates the Kapham. The Piyalam is heavy, cooling 
and spermatopoietic. The Bhavyam is pleasant, taste- 
ful, astringent, and acid in taste. It cleanses the 
mouth and subdues the Pittam and Kapham. It is 
astringent, heavy, cooling and is long retained in the 
stomacii. 

'I'he fruit known as the Pardvatam is sweet 
and relishing, and it destroys the Vayu and a ^-oracious 
appetite. The Nip?., like the old Amalaka fruits, tends 
to neutrahse the effects of poisons originated through 
the chemical combination of incompatible substances 
in the organism. Unripe Tintidika (tamarind) subdues 
the Vayu, and tends to generate the Pittam and 
Kapham in the organism, while in its ripe state it is 
astringent, h^at-making and stomachic. It destroys the 
Vayu and Kapham and restores a relish for food. 
The Koshamra is possessed of properties nearlv 
identical with those of the Tamarind. The properties 
of a ripe .Amlika fruit are the same as those of 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHyVNAM. ^OI 

the latter with the exception that it further acts 
as a purgative. The Narang'a has a sweet and acid taste, 
is pleasant and refreshing, and gives a relish to food. It 
is heavy, difficult to digest and subdues the Vayu. The 
Jamvira tends to allay thirst and cures colic pain, Vater- 
brash, vomiting and asthma ; it subdues the action of the 
deranged Vayu and Kapham, removes constipation of the 
bowels, and helps to create a healthy secretion 
of the Pittam. The Airavata and Dantashatha 
(different varieties of Jamvira are acid and tend to 
bring on an attack of haemoptysis. 

The fruit lof such trees as the Ashvatha, 
the Plaksha, the Audumvura, etc., which pass 
by the general name) of Kshira-Vrikshas as well as 
those which are known as the Jamva, Rajadana, 
Todana, Tinduka, Vakula, Phanvana, Ashmantaka, 
Ashvakarna, Phalgu, Panishaka, Gangeruka, 
Pushkara, Varti, Villa and Vimvi, etc. are cooling, 
and astringent in their effect. They subdue the 
Pittam and Kapham, tend to produce a condition of 
parchedness in the system, and have a sweet and 
astringent taste. 

Of these the fruit of trees which belong to the 
genus Kshiri-Vrikshas is heavy and cooling, and 
is long retained in the stomach in an undigested 
state. It has a sweet, acid and astringent taste and 
does not inordinatel}' derange the Vayu. The fruit 



502 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLVI. 

known as the Jamvava generates the Vayii. It is 
astringent, and subdues the Pittam and Kapham, while 
the Rajadana is demulcent, sweet, astringent and heav}'. 
The Todana is acid, astringent, and sweet in its taste 
and is parchifying and subdues the Pittam and Vayu. 
It is (heat- making) in its potency, easily digestible 
(light of digestion), astringent, demulcent and appetising 
and further generates the Pittam. Unripe Tinduka fruit 
is astringent, and heavy in digestion and produces Vayu 
in the organism, while in its ripe or fully matured 
stage it is sweet, and subdues the Kapham and 
Pittam. The Vakula fruit has a sweet and astrin- 
gent taste, is demulcent and astringent in its proper- 
ties, imparts a greater firmness to the teeth, and removes 
the viscid condition of the membranes. The fruit of 
the Dbanvana has an astringent taste, and is cooling 
and palatable and subdues the Vayu and Kapham. 
The fruit of the |xangeruka and Ashmantaka is 
possessed of similar properties as the preceding ones. 
The Phalgu fruit is long retained in the stomach in 
an undigested state, has a sweet taste, and is heavv 
of digestion, refreshing, and demulcent in its effect. 
Raw or unripe Parushaka fruit is extremly acid in 
taste with a shade of the sweet, leases an astringent 
after-taste, is light of digestion, generates the 
Pittam, and subdues the Kapham ; while in its 
ripe state it is sweet in taste, subdues the Vayu 
and Pittam, is sweet in digestion and coohng in its 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^O^ 

potency and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis. 
The Pushkara fruit is sweet, and is long retained in 
the stomach in ^n undigested state. It produces the 
Kapham and is tonic, and heavy of digestion (hard 
to digest). Raw and tender Vilva fruit subdues the 
Vayu and Kapham. It is keen, demulcent astringent, 
and appetising, has a pungent, bitter and astringent 
taste, and is heat-making in its potency, while in its 
ripe state it leaves a sweet after- taste. Further it 
is heavy of digestion, can be but incompletely 
digested, and is long retained in the stomach, causing 
it thus to distend and producing the emission of a 
fetid- smelling flatus. The Vimvi fruit, as well as 
that known as the Ashva karna, is galactagoguic. 
They destroy the Pittam and Kapham and prove 
beneficial in cases of thirst, burning sensation of the skin, 
fever, hgemoptysis, cough, asthma and consumption. 

The fruits such as, the Tala, Narikela, Panasa 
and Maucba, etc. are sweet in taste and of di- 
gestion, and subdue the Vayu and Pittam. They 
are cooling in their potencies, and act as constructive 
tonics. Of these the fruit of a Tala is sweet in 
taste and heavy of digestion. It subdues the deranged 
Pittam. The pulp found inside its seeds is sweet 
of digestion and diuretic, and it subdues the Vayu and 
Pittam. The Narikela fruit is heavy of digestion, 
demulcent, anti-choleric, sweet, cooling in its potency. 



I 



504 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

tonic, tissue-building, pleasant, laxative and diuretic. It 
subdues the Pittam, The Panasam is sweet and 
astringent in taste, demulcent and heiivy of digestion. 
The Maucham has a sweet and astringent taste, not 
cooling in its potency, proves curative in cases of 
hccmoptysis, acts as a spemiatopoietic and improves the 
relish for food. It generates the Kapham and is heavy 
of digestion. 

The fruits such as the Drakshas, Kashmaryas, 
Madhukas, Kharjuras, etc., have a sweet taste, are 
heavy of digestion and prove curative in cases of 
haemoptysis. Of these grapes are laxative, beneficial 
to the voice, sweet, demulcent, and cooling in 
their potency. They prove beneficial in cases of 
haemoptysis, fever, asthma, thirst, burning sensation 
of the skin, and consumption. The fruit known 
as the Kashmarya Phala is pleasant and diuretic. 
It purifies the blood, improves the intellect and growth 
of hair, and is rejuvenescent and subdues the Vayu 
and Pittam. Kharjuras are possessed of the virtue of 
ari'esting all bodily wastes. They prove beneficial in 
Urakshata, are pleasant, cooling in their potenc)', refresh- 
ing, heavy of digestion, sweet in taste, and prove 
curative in cases of haemoptysis. The flowers of 
Madhuka trees are tissue-building, unpleasant and 
heavy of digestion, while their fruit subdues the 
Vayu and Pittam. 



Chap. XLVI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 



505 



Fruits such as the Vatama, Akshoda, Abhishuka, 
Nichula, Pichu, Nikochaka, and Urumana, etc. are 
demulcent, heat-ifiaking in their potency, heavy of 
digestion, constructive, tonic, and sweet in taste. They 
subdue the Vayu, Pitta m and Kapham. * 

The fruit known as the Lavali is astringent and 
shghtly bitter in taste, improves a rehsh for food, and 
is pleasant, aromatic and refreshing to the whole 
system. It subdues the Kapham and Pittam. The 
fruits such as the Vasiram, and the Shitapakyam, as 
well as the stems of Bhallataka trees, are hard to 
digest and are long retained in the stomach in an 
undigested condition. They tend to produce a state of 
dryness in the organism, derange the Vayu, are cooling 
in their potency, sweet of digestion, and prove curative 
in cases of heemoptysis. 

The fruits known as the Aii'avata and the 
Dantashatba have an extremely acid taste and tend to 
bring on an attack of haemoptysis. The fruit known 
as the Tanka is coohng in its potency, has a sweet and 
astringent taste, is heavy and generates the Vayu. 
The fruit known as the Aingudam is demulcent, and 
heat-making in its potency, has a sweet and bitter 
taste, and subdues the V.4yu and Kapham. The 
Shami fruit is heavy, sweet and heat-making, produces 
a state of parchedness in the organism, and helps 
the falling off of hair. The Shleshmataka fruit is 

64 



5o6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

heavy of digestion, generates the Kapham, and is 
sweet in taste and cooling in its potency. 

Fruits such the Karira, Akshaka Pilu and 
Trinashunya have a sweet, bittei and pungent 
taste, and are heat-making in their potency. They 
subdue the Vayu and Kapham. Of these the Pilu 
has a bitter and astringent taste. It generates the 
Pittam, acts as purgative, is pungent in digestion, keen, 
heat-making and oily. It subdues the "\'ayu and p 
Kapham. The Arushkara and Tauvaraka fruits have 
an astringent taste, are pungent in digestion, 
heat-making in their potency and prove curative in 
cases of worms in the intestines, fever, constipation 
of the bowels (Anaha) and Meha. Fruits such as, 
the Karanja, Kinshuka, and Arishtaphalam (Nimva) 
are vermifugenous and pungent in digestion, and 
prove curative in , cases of Leprosy, Gulma (internal 
tumour). Ascites, Piles and Prameha. The Vidanga ^ 
fruit produces a state of dr3ness in the body, is 
heat-making in its potency, light, and pungent in 
digestion, subdues the Yayu and Kapham and is slightly 
bitter and anti-toxic. The Abhaya (Chebulic Myrobaians) 
proves curative in cases of ulcers, is heat-making (in 
its potenc)'), and acts as a purgative, tends to reduce 
corpulency and subdues the deranged humours. It is 
appetising and invigorating to the eye-sight, has an acid 
and astringent taste, and proves curative in oedema and 



Chap. XLVi. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 507 

cutaneous affections. The Aksham fruit is possessed 
of purgative properties, is light (of digestion), and pro- 
duces a state of •dryness in the organism. It is heat- 
making in its potency, produces hoarseness Aphonia), 
is a vermifuge and is beneficial to the sight, h^is an 
astringent taste, is sweet in digestion and subdues 
the Pittam and Kapham. The Puga fruit subdues the 
Pittam and Kapham, produces a state of dryness in the 
organism, cleanses the mouth of all secretions and 
impurities, has a slightly sweet and astringent taste, 
and is possessed of laxative properties. The fruits 
and vegetables such as the Jatikosha, the Jati 
Phalam, the Kataka Phalam the Kakkolakam, 
Lavauga and the Karpura etc., have a bitter pun- 
gent taste, subdue thirst and Kapham, are light 
in digestion, and remove bad odours from the mouth 
and cleanse it of all impurities. The Karpura has a 
shghtly bitter taste, is aromatic, cooling in its potency, 
and light in digestion. It is possessed of liquefacient 
properties and is specially recommended in dryness of 
the mouth and fetid breath. The Lata-Kasturika is 
similar in its virtue to the Karpura and is cooling and 
both laxative and diuretic. The pith of the Piyala fruit 
has a sweet taste, is spermatopoietic and subdues the 
Vayu and Pittam. The pith (the kernel found inside 
the seeds) of the Vaibhitaki fruit is intoxicating and 
subdues the deranged Vayu and Pittam. The pith 
or the kernel of the Kola fruit has an astringent sweet 



5o8 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVl. 



taste, subdues the Vayu and Pittam allays thirst and 
alleviates nausea and vomiting. The kernel of the 
seed of the Amalaka resembles the last named pith 
in its properties. The kernels of such fruits as the 
Vijapuraka, Shampaka and Koshamra are sweet in 
digestion, appetising, demulcent, and subdue the Vayu 
and Pittam. These kernels of seeds should be regarded as 
possessing identical properties as the pulps of the fruits 
from which they had been extracted. All fruits with 
the exception of Vilva are efficacious in their ripe and 
matured condition. The latter (Vilvas) have been 
enjoined to be eaten unripe for medicinal purposes as 
well as with a view to derive a greater efficacy 
from iheir use. Unripe Vilvas are astringent and appe- 
tising in their eftect, heat-making in their potency, 
and have an astringent-pungent-bitter taste. 

Fruit, which is bliglited or that affected by any 
other disease or that which has grown in an improper 
season, or raw or over-ripe, or worm-eaten, should be 
lejected as unfit for use. Here the description of 
the fruit- group is ended. 

The group of Potherbs :— Now we shall 
deal with the properties of potherbs. The fruits of such 
creepers as tlie Fushpaphala, Alavu and Kalindak des- 
tro}^ the Pittam, generate the Vayu, and slightly produce 
the Kapha m. They tend to increase the discharge of 
the stool and urine, and are sweet in taste and digestion. 



Chap. XLVI. 1 SUTRASTHANAM. 509 

Of these the tender Kushmandas are h'ght in digestion, 
heat-making in their potency, and contain a greater pro- 
portion of alkalifle matter. They are appetising, diuretic 
and pleasant in their effect, and tend to subdue the 
action of all kinds of deranged humours, and prove Vhole- 
some in cases of mental aberration, such as, insanity, etc. 
The Kalindak tends to reduce the quantit}^ of semen and 
impairs the eye- sight. It generates both the Vayu and 
Kapham, while an Alavu is a purgative, produces a con- 
dition of parchedness in the system, is heavy in digestion 
and extremely cooling in its potency. The species, 
known as the bitter Alavu, is unpalatable and has an 
emetic property, and subdues the Vayu and Pittam. 

The fruits such as the Trapusha, Ervaruka, Karkaru, 
and Shirna-Vrinta are heavy in digestion and long 
retained in the stomach in an undigested state. They are 
palatable, cooling in their potency, generate Kapham, 
tend to facilitate the discharge of stool and urine, 
contain a little alkaline matter, and are sweet in taste. 
A green and tender cucumber subdues the Pittam, 
while one which is of a pale yellow colour acts as 
a stomachic. A ripe and yellow Trapusham tends 
to subdue the Pittam only in the event of its possess- 
ing an acid taste. Similarly, ripe Ervarukas and 
Karkarus generate the Vayu and Kapham, have a 
sweet taste, and are found to be charged with alkaline 
matter. The}^ are appetising, relishing and do not inordj- 



^lo THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLVI. 

nately generate the Pittam. A Shirna-Vrinta (water 
melon) contains a little alkaline matter, is sweet, and 
purgative. It generates the Kaphamg is pleasing and 
appetising in its property, and proves curative in cases 
of Anr\ha and Ashthild. 

The spices and herbs include the Pippali, Maricha, 
Shringavera, Ardraka, Hingu, Jiraka, Kustumvuru, 
Jamviraka, Sumukha, Surasa, Arjaka, Bhustrina, 
Sugandhaka, Kasamaraddka, Kalamala, Kutheraka, 
Kshavaka, Ksharapushpa, Shigru, Madhu-Shigru, 
Phanijhyaka, Sarshapa, Rajika, Kulahala, Benu, 
Gandira, Tilaparnika, Varshabhu, Chitraka, Mulaka- 
Potika, Lashuna, Palandu and Kalaya, etc. 

IVIctrlcal Texts :— Potherbs have a pungent 
taste, are relishing, and heat-making in their potency, 
and subdue the Vayu and Kapham. They are 
variously used for seasoning food. Of the above- said 
spices and herbs, the unripe or immature Pippali is 
heavy in digestion, sweet in taste, cooling in potency 
and generates Kapham. 

Dried Pippali subdues the Vayu and Kapham, 
acts as a spermatopoietic and slightly soothes the 
Pittam. Green or immatured Maricha is sweet of diges- 
tion, heavy and phlegmagoguic in its effect. Dr}' 
Maricha has a pungent taste, is light of digestion and 
heat-making in its potency. It is anti-spermatopoietic, 
destroys the Vayu and Kapham, and slightly subdues 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTKASTHANAM. 51 ] 

the Pittam. The white Maricha is neither too cooling 
nor too heat-making in its potency, is more efficacious 
than the two "preceding varieties and is specially 
invigorating to the eye-sight. The Nagaram destroys 
the Vayu, has a pungent taste, and is s\\*eet of 
digestion. It is heat-making in its potency, acts as a 
spermatopoietic and aphrodisiac, is pleasant and imparts 
a relish to food. It is appetising, light of digestion, 
and charged with an oily substance. The Ardrakam 
has a pungent taste, is heat-making in its potency, 
acts as a pleasant spermatopoietic, subdues the Vayu 
and Kapham, proves beneficial to the voice, and relieves 
colic pain and suppression of the stool and distension 
of the stomach. The Hingu is light of digestion, 
heat-making in its potency, acts as a digestant, and 
is appetising. It subdues the Vayu and Kapham, has a 
pungent taste, is demulcent, laxative and sharp, and 
relieves colic pain, indigestion *and suppression of 
stool. The Jiraka (whether white or yellow) is sharp 
and heat-making in its potency, pungent in digestion 
and imparts a relish to food. It has a pungent taste, 
is appetising and aromatic, increases the Pittafn, and 
destro3"S the Vayu and Kapham. The species, known 
as Karavi and Karavi, like the Upakunchika, are 
possessed of properties similar to those of the aforesaid 
Jiraka, and are variously used m seasoning dishes 
and condiments. Raw or undried Kustumvari (cori- 
ander seeds) is sweet, aromatic and pleasant, while in its 



iI2 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 



dried state it is sweet in digestion, acts as a demulcent, 
allays thirst, and alleviates the burning sensation of the 
skin. It has a slightly bitter and pungent taste, tends 
to subdue the deranged humours of the body and 
purifies, its internal channels. Jamvira is digestant, 
sharp and acts as a vermifuge. It subdues the Vayu and 
Kapham, and is aromatic, appetising and pleasant. It 
tends to remove the bad taste in the mouth, and 
alleviates cough, dyspnoea and diseases due to the action 
of the deranged Vayu and Kapham or due to poison. 
The Surasa generates the Pittam, reHeves the colic and 
pain at the sides, while the Sumukha is said to be 
possessed of the same properties with the exception that 
it neutralises the effects of poisons brought about 
through the chemical combination (of several incompati- 
ble substances in the organism). The herbs known as 
the Surasa, Arjaka and Bhustrina destroy the Kapham, 
are light of digestion, and tend to produce a state of 
parchedness in the organism. They are demulcent, 
generate the Pittam, and are heat-making in their potency 
and pungent in taste and digestion. The herb called 
the Kasamardaka has a bitter and sweet taste. It 
subdues the Yayu and Kapham, is a digestant, cleanses 
the throat and specially subdues the Pittam. The 
Shigru has a pungent, alkaline, sweet and bitter taste 
and generates the Pittam, while the Madhii- Shigru 
variety is laxative, has a bitter and pungent taste; is 
appetising and removes oedematous swelling of the 



Chap. XLVi. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 513 

body. The Sarshapa herbs, as well as those known as 
Gandira and Vega, can be but imperfectly digested. 
They tend to suppress the discharge of stool and 
urine, produce a state of dryness in the organism, are 
sharp and heat-making in their potency, and serv^e to 
derange the three fundamental humours of the body. The 
herbs called Chitraka and Tilaparni are light (of diges- 
tion), and subdue the Kapham and oedema. The 
herb known as the Varshabhu subdues the Vayu and 
Kapham. It proves beneficial in cases of oedema, 
abdominal dropsy and piles. The Mulaka-Potika has 
a pungent bitter taste. It is pleasant, appetising, light 
and throat- cleansing, tends to impart a greater relish 
to food, and subdues the action of all kinds of deranged 
humours. Raw or immature Mulaka of the larger 
species is heavy in digestion and long retained in the 
stomach in an undigested state. It is irritating and 
lends to produce a derangement of tlie three humours 
of the body, while boiled with oil or butter it acts as a 
denmlcent and subdues the ^'ayu, Pittam and Kapham. 

Dried Mulaka subdues the action of the three 
deranged humours. It is anti-toxic and light 
(of digestion). All dried herbs with the exception of the 
preceding one generate the Vayu and take a long 
time to be digested. 

The properties described in connection with the 
Mulaka bulb in its different stages of growth and 
65 



su 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 



conditions can also be attributed to its flowers, 
leaves and fruits respectivel3\ Mulaka flowers subdue 
the Pittam and Kapham, while their fruit subdues 
the Vayu and Kapham. Rasona is demulcent, i 
heat-making, sharp, pungent, slimy, heavy and ] 
laxative. It has a palatable taste and is tonic, 
spermatopoietic, and tends to improve the voice, intellect *. 
and complexion and to bring about an adhesion of 
fractured bones. It alle^iates heart-disease, indigestion, 
fever, Vivandha, Kukshi-Shula, Gulma, a non-relish 
for food, cough, asthma, piles, Kushtha, dulness of 
appetite, swelling (Shopha), worms and diseases due to the ^ 
Vayu and Kapham. Palandu is not excessively heat- 
making in its potency, has a pungent taste, is 
heavy, tonic and appetising. It slightly generates 
the Pittam and Kapham. It subdues the Vayu. | 

The species, known as the Kshira-Paldndu, is 
demulcent, cooling in its potency, and relishing, imparts 
a steadiness to the fundamental principles of the body, 
is tonic, promotes the growth of flesh, improves the 
intellect and increases the Kapham. It is palatable, 
heav)'', slimy and proves beneficial in cases of 
haemoptysis. The potherbs called Kalaya subdue 
the Pittam and Kapham, generate Vayu, are heavy 
and sweet in digestion, and leave an astringent after- 
taste in the mouth. 

The leaves of plants and trees known as the .t 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^,^ 

Chuchchu, Juthika, Taruiii, Jivanti, Vimvitika, Xandi, 
Bhallataka, Chagalantri, Vriksliadani, Phanji, Shalmali, 
Shelu, Vanashpcfti-prasava, Shana, Karvudara and 
Kovidara etc., have an astringent, sweet and bitter 
taste, and prove curative in haemoptysis. They slibdue 
the Kapham, generate the Vayu and are astringent in 
their action and light of digestion (easily digestible). 
Of these, the Chuchchu is light of digestion, and 
acts as a vermifuge. It is slimy, proves beneficial 
to ulcers, is sweet and astringent in taste and 
action. Jt tends to subdue the action of the three 
deranged humours (Tridosha). The Jivanti herb is 
beneficial to the eyes and subdues all kinds of 
deranged humours. The leaves of the Vrikshadani 
plant subdue the Vayu. Phanji leaves are slightly 
tonic. The leaves of trees or plants belonging to 
the Kshira-Vriksha or to the Utpala group are cool- 
ing in their potency, astringent \i} their taste and 
action, and prove beneficial in dj^sentery, (intestinal 
haemorrhage) and haemoptysis. 

The leaves of the Punarnava, Varuna, Tarkari, 
Uruvuka (white castor), Vatsadani, and Vilva etc., are 
heat-making in their, potency, and have a sweet and 
bitter taste and pacify the deranged Vayu. Of these, the 
Punarnava are specially possessed of the virtue of 
removing oedema (ShophaV 

The potherbs, such as the Tanduliyaka, Upodika, 



-l6 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap, xr.vi. 

Ashvavala, Chilli, Palankya, and Vastuka etc., are 
laxative and diuretic, and have a sweet and alkaline 
taste. They slightly generate the Vayu and Kaphani. 
and cure hsemoptysis. 

Metrical Text : — Of these, the species known 
as the Tanduliya is sweet in taste and digestion, and 
proves curative in cases of haemoptysis and somnolence 
(due to the effects of poison, wine or vitiated blood). 
It is antitoxic and extremely cooling in its potency, 
and produces a state of parchedness in the system. 
The Upodika species is sweet in taste and digestion. 
It is spermatopoietic, anti-narcotic, cooling, laxative, 
demulcent and tonic. It generates the Kapham, and 
subdues the Vayu and Pittam in the system. The 
species called the Vastuka is a pungent (in digestion), 
vermifuge, and is tonic. It improves the intellect and 
digestion and is alkaline, laxative and relishing, and tends 
to subdue all kinds of deranged humours of the bod>'. 
The species Chilli resembles the Vastuka in its proper- 
ties, while those of the Palankya is identical with 
those, of the Tanduliya. It generates the V^vu, 
produces a state of parchedness in the system, and 
tends to suppress the discharge of stool and urine. 
It proves remedial to the deranged Kapham and 
Pittam. The potherbs Ashvavala produces a condition 
of dryness in the organism and tends to suppress the 
discharge of stool and urine and Vayu (emission of flatus). 



Chap. XLVI. • SUTRASTHANAM. 



517 



The potherbs (leaves of edible plants) such as the 
Mandukaparni, Saptala, Siinishannaka, Suvarchala, 
Brahma- siivarch?lla, Pippali, Gudiichi, Gojihva, Kaka- 
machi; Prapunnada, Avalguja, Satina, Vrihati-phala, 
Kantak^rika-phala, Patola, Vartaku, Kararellaka, 
Katukika, Kevuka, Uruvuka, Parpataka, Kiratatikta, 
Karkotaka, Arishta, Koshataki, A'etra, Karira, Ataru- 
shaka, Arkapushpi, etc., are light and palatable, and 
prove curative in haemoptysis, Kushtha, Meha, fever, 
dyspnoea, cough and create a relish for food. 

Metrical Texts : — The Mandukaparni and 
the Gojihvika species are alike in their properties, 
the former being astringent and beneficial to the 
Pittam, sweet in taste and digestion, cooling in 
its potency and of easy digestion. The Sunishannaka 
species is easily digested and is unattended witli 
anv acid reaction. It* is astringent in its action and 
tends to subdue the three deranged bodily humours, 
and it also arrests the evacuations of the bowels. 
The Abulguja has a bitter taste, is pungent in diges- 
tion and subdues the deranged Pittam and K^pham. 
The potherb Satina is slightly bitter and astrin- 
gent in taste and tends to subdue the three deranged 
humours of the body. The Kakamachi herb 
is neither too coohng nor too heat-making in its 
potency and removes cutaneous affections. It 
subdues the deranged humours as the preceding 



5i8 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI, 

species. The fruit of (the two species of; Vrihati 
plants has an astringent and bitter taste, and is 
b'ght of digestion. It is vermicidtil and proves 
curative in cases of itch and cutaneous diseases 
(Kushtha), and subdues the deranged Vayu and 
Kapham. The leaves and fruit of the Patola creeper 
have a bitter taste. They are beneficial to ulcers, 
pungent in digestion, heat-making, spermatopoietic, 
relishing and appetising. The}- subdue the deranged 
Pittam and Kapham without producing the Vayu. The 
V^rtakam subdues the Vayu and Kapham. It has a 
bitter and pungent taste, is light, relishing and 
appetising. Matured Vartakam is alkaline (in its 
taste) and generates the Pittam. The Karkotakam 
and the Karavellakam are possessed of properties 
similar to those of the preceding species > Vartakam . 
The herbs and creepers such as the Atarushaka, 
Kiratatikta, Parpataka and Guduchi together with the 
tender shoots of the Vetra and the Nimva, have 
a bitter taste and subdue the Pittam and Kapham. 
The leaves of the Varuna and Prapunnada destroy the 
deranged Kapham and give rise to a condition of 
dryness in the system. They are light of digestion, 
cooling in their potency, and tend to enrage or agitate 
the bodily Vayu and Pittam. The potherbs known as 
Kalashakam are appetising and pungent in taste and tend 
to neutralise the effects of poison originated through the 
chemical action of two incompatible substances in 



Chap. XLVI.] StJTRASTHANAM. 519 

the organism. The species called Kaushumbha has 
a sweet taste, and produces a condition of dryness 
in the organism. It is heat-making in its potency 
and light of digestion, and subdues the deranged 
Kapham. The species called Xalika-shakam has^ sweet 
taste. It generates the Vayu and subdues the Pittam. 
The species called the Changeri has an acid, astrin- 
gent and sweet taste. It is appetising and heat- 
making in its potency, proves beneficial in cases of 
deranged Vayu and Kapham and curative in cases of 
mesenteric disorders (Grahani) and piles. 

The leaves of the Lonika, Jatuka, Triparnika, 
Pattura, Jivaka, Suvarchala, Kurmaka, Kathinjara, 
Kuntalika, Kurantika etc., are sweet in taste and 
digestion and cooling in their potency. They subdue 
the Kapham and do not inordinately generate the 
Pittam. They leave a saline after-taste in the mouth 
and produce a condition of dryness in the organism. 
They are alkaline and laxative, and generate the Vayu. 
The potherbs known as Kuntalika have a sweet and 
bitter taste. The species Kurantika has an as|;ringent 
taste. The species called the Rajakshavak-Shakam, as 
well as the one called Sathi-Shakam, is astringent in 
its property, cooling in its potency, easily digestible and 
is not hostile to (does not enrage or aggravate), 
(subdues D.R.) the humours. The species known 
as the Harimanthajam is sweet in taste and diges- 



5-20 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVi. 



tion but is difficult to digest. The species known 
as Knlayani (leaves of the Matara pulse; is purgative 
and sweet in taste. It produces a state of dryness in 
the organism and extremely generates the' Vayu. It 
tends t(i dislodge the deranged humours from their loca- 
tions in the upper part of the body Sramsanam). 
The Putikaranjas are heat- making in their potency and 
alleviate oedema and anasarca. They are pungent in 
digestion, easily digestible and subdue the Vayu and 
the Kapham. The leaves of the Tamvula are sharp, 
heat-making (in their potency; and bitter, astringent 
and pungent in taste. They tend to aggravate the 
Pittam, are aromatic, prove beneficial to the voice, and 
remove viscidness in the organism. They pacify the 
Kapham and Vayu in the system, are appetising, pun- 
gent in digestion and deodorant, and tend to remoAe 
the fetid smell in the mouth, cleanse it of all impurities 
and alleviate all itchinf^ sensations experienced inside its 
cavity. This ends the description of potherbs. 

The Flower Croup :— The flowers of such 
trees as.the Kovidara, Shana, and Shalmali are sweet in 
taste and digestion and prove curative in cases oi 
haemoptysis The flowers of the Vrisha and Agastya 
have a bitter taste, are pungent in digestion and 
alleviate a wasting cough (Phthisis). The flowers of 
the Madhu-shigru and Karira are pungent in digestion. 
They destroy the Vayu and increase the discharge of 



Chap. XLVI. J SUTK ASTH A N A M . 



5^1 



stool and urine. The Agastya flower is neither too 
coohng nor inordinately heat-making in its potency 
and proves specftilly beneficial in cases of night- 
blindness (Nyctalopia). The flowers of the Rakta- 
Vriksha, Ximva, ]\Iushkaka, Arka, Asana and Kutaja 
trees subdue the Pittam and Kapham, and prove 
curative in skin diseases ( Kushtham). 

The Padnia has a bitter and sweet taste, is 
cooling in its potency, and subdues the deranged 
Pittam and Kapham. The Kumuda has a sweet 
taste, and is shmy, demulcent, pleasing and cool- 
ing in its potency. The two varieties of the same 
species known as the Kuvalayam and the Utpalam, 
slightly differ from the preceding varieties in their 
properties. The Sindhuvaram is renowned for its 
virtue of destroying the Pittam. The Mallika and 
Malati flowers have a bitter taste and subdue the 
Pittam owing to their sweet scent. The Vakulas, like 
the Patala flowers, are sweet smelling and pleasant, their 
pleasing and odoriferous property instantaneously per- 
meates the whole system. The Xagam (flower), lik.e the 
Kumkumum, is antitoxic and subdues the Pittam and 
Kapham. The Champakam is curative in cases of 
haemoptysis. It is both cooling and heat-making in its 
potency and subdues the deranged Kapham. The 
Kinshukam, like the Kurantakam, subdues the 

Kapham and Pittam. 
66 



522 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap.XLVI. 

A flower should be understood as possessed of 
the same properties which are natural to the tree or 
plant on which it grows. The (tehder stem) of the 
Madhu-Shigru is pungent in taste and subdues the 
deranged Kapham. 

The Kshavaka, the Kulechara, and the tender 
sprouts of Vansha^ etc., generate the deranged Kapham, 
and tend to increase the discharge of stool and 
urine. 

Metrical Texts : — The Kshavakam helps the 
germination of worms in the intestines. It is slimy and 
sweet in taste, and tends to increase the secretions of 
the internal organs. It generates the Vfiyu and does 
not inordinately increase the Pittam and Kapham in 
the body. The tender sprouts of Venu generate 
Kapham and are sweet in taste and digestion. The}' 
can be but imperfectly digested and produce the Vayu 
in the organism. They ha-se a slightly astringent taste 
and tend to produce a state of extreme parchedness in 
the system. 

The Udbhida Group :— Mushrooms are 
generally found to grow on stacks of straw (Paiala), 
or are seen vegetating on the stems of bamboo (^Venu) or 
sugar-cane (Ikshu , or as sprouting up from beneath tlie 
surface of the ground (Udbhida), or growing on a 
heap of decomposed cow- dung (Karisha.) Of these, 
those which grow on stacks of (decomposed) straw 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^23 

(Palalam) are sweet in taste and digestion and tend to 
produce a state of dryness in the organism. They 
subdue the three'deranged humours of the body. Those 
which vegetate on the stems of sugar-canes (Ikshujam) 
have a sweet pungent taste. They leave an asti'ingent 
after-taste in the mouth and are cooh'ng in their 
potency. Mushrooms growing on decomposed cow- 
dung (Karisha) should be regarded as possessed of 
properties similar to those of the preceding class. They 
aggravate the Vayu, are heat-making in their potency, 
and have an astringent taste. Those which vegetate on 
the stems of bamboos (Venuja) have an astringent taste 
and tend to enrage or aggravate the bodily Vaj^u. 
^Mushrooms which grow on the ground (Bhumija) are 
heav}' of digestion and do not inordinately generate 
the V^yu, their tastes varying according to the soil 

they grow on. 

• 

Pinya'ka Group : — The* Pinyaka {levigated 
pov,'deror cake of linseed or mustard pressed in an 
oil-mill), the Tilakalka (the levigated powder of 
sesamum of which the oil has been similarly pressed 
out), and the Sthunika-shuska-Shaka (leaves and stems 
of plants pasted and made into pills or balls) tend to 
enrage all the deranged humours. 

IVIctrical Texts: — Sthunika balls are long 
retained in the stomach in an undigested state, 
thus giving rise to a distension of that organ, and 



^24 '^HP: SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. xlm. 

tend to enrage or aggravate the bodily Vayu. 
Moist Sindakis are the (leaves and stems of the 
Mulaka, etc. slightly boiled and pasted with pungent 
and aromatic spices and then made into balls.) 
There' are two kinds of Sindakis the dr}-- and the 
moist. They generate the Ysiyu and are appetising, 
and tend to impart a greater relish to food. All 
sweet or palatable potherbs are purgative and heavy 
of digestion, produce a state of dryness in the organism, 
are generally indigestible and long retained in the 
stomach in an undigested state, causing it to distend. 
They are marked with a shade of the astringent in 
their taste. 

or flowers, leaves, fruits, stems and bulbs, each 
succeeding one is hea^ ier (of digestion) than the one 
immediately preceding it in the order of enumeration. 
Potherbs and leaves of edible plants which are found 
to be rough or pu.trified or worm-eaten, as well as 
those growing on an improper or incongenial soil, or 
making their appearance in an unnatural season of 
the year, should be rejected as unfit for use. This 
ends the description of the Pushpa-shakas. 

The Bulb Group :— Now we shall discourse 
on the virtues of edible bulbous plants or herbs (Kandas). 
The bulbs of plants and creepers such as the \'idari-kanda, 
Shatavari, Visha (bulbs of the lotus plant), Mrinala (the 
upper stem of the lotus plant), ^Shringataka, Kasheruka, 



Chap. XLVI.J SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



525 



Pindaluka, Madhvaluka, Hastyaluka, Kasthaluka, 
Shankhaluka, Raktdluka, Indivara and Utpala etc. 
alleviate lifemo^tysis, are cooling in their potenc)', 
sweet in their taste and lieavy of digestion. The}" 
tend to increase the semen in large quantities and 
augment the quantity of milk in the breast of a 
human mother. The bulb known as the Vid^ri- 
Kanda has a sweet taste, and acts as a construc- 
tive tonic and is spermatopoietic. It is cooling in its 
potency, beneficial to the ^oice, and imparts strength 
to the system. It is extremely diuretic and subdues the 
Vayu and Pittam, The Shatavari has a sweet and 
bitter taste and is spermatopoietic. It subdues the 
Vayu and Pittam, the one belonging to the large- 
sized species being palatable and appetising and 
tonic. The latter improves the intellect and proves 

curative in cases of mesenteric diarrhoea (Grahani) 

* 
and piles, and is spermatopoietic, Rejuvenating, restora- 
tive, and cooling in its potency. The under-sprouts 
of this creeper (large-sized Shatavari) have a bitter 
taste and subdue the Pittam and Kapham. The 
Visham* proves curative in cases of haemoptysis, 
and is long retained in the stomach in an undigested 
state, though it falls under the category of sub- 
stances which can be but partially digested. It 

* Bulbs of lotus plants — though certain authorities aver that the inner 
lining or membranous fibres of a lotus-stem are called Visha, the 
outer covering being known as the MrinSlam, 



526 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 



is tasteless or insipid, generates the Va3'u, and is hard 
to digest, producing a condition of dryness in the 
organism. The bulbs known as the "Shringataka and 
the Kasheruka are heavy of digestion, are long re- 
tained ' in the stomach in an undigested state, and 
are cooling in their potency. The Pindalukam gener- 
ates the Kapham, is heavy of digestion, and tends to 
enrage or agitate the bodily Vayu. The Surendrakanda 
is pungent in digestion, generates the Pittam and sub- 
dues the Kapham. The sprouts of the Venn are heavy 
of digestion, and tend to enrage the Kapham and V^3'u. 

The bulbs (Kanda) known as Sthula-Kanda, Shurana- 
Kanda, and Manaka, etc. have a slightly astringent 
and pungent taste, and tend to produce a state of 
dryness in the organism. They are heav}' of digestion, 
and subdue the Pittam, and are long retained in the 
stomach in an undigested condition. 

Metrical texts : The species known as the 
Manaka is sweet, and cooling in its potency and 
heavy of digestion, while the one called the Sthula 
Kanda. is not inordinately heat-making in its potency. 
The species Surana is usually found to be curative 
in cases of piles and rectal polypi and condylomata. 
The bulbs of such aquatic plants as the Kumuda, 
Utpala and Padma have an astringent taste and 
are sweet in digestion. They are cooling in their 
potency and tend to enrage the Vayu and yacify 



Chap. XLVL] SUTRASTHANAM. 



527 



or subdue the deranged Pittam. The bulb known as 
the Vrahakanda is pungent in taste and digestion, 
and is possessed of spermatopoietic, tonic^ rejuvenating 
and restorative properties. It subdues the Kapham, 
and proves efficacious in cases of MehU, skin 
diseases (Kushtham), and in aihuents due to the 
presence of parasites in the intestines. The top- 
piths of such trees, as the Tala, Narikela, Kharjura 
etc., are sweet in taste and digestion. They prove 
curative in cases of haemoptysis, and are spermato- 
poietic. They subdue the Vayu and generate the 
Kapham in the body. Edible bulbs, which are ex- 
tremel}' tender or immature, diseased, decomposed or 
sprouting in an improper season of the year, or are 
worm-eaten, should be rejected as unfit for use. This 
finishes the description of the bulb group. 

The Salt Gnoup (Lavana Varga) :— The 
different varieties of salt such as the Saindhava, the 
Samudra, the Vida, the Sauvarchala, the Romaka and 
the Audbhidam (prepared from vegetable alkah), etc., 
should be successively deemed as more heat, Vayu, 
Kapham, and Pittam making, and more demulcent, 
sweeter and more purgative and diuretic, considered in 
the inverse order of enumeration. 

Saindhava salt is beneficial to the eyes, palatable, 
relishing, light, appetising, demulcent, slightly sweet 
in digestion, spermatopoietic and cooling in its 



528 "I'HE StTSHRUTA SAMHlTA. [Chap. XLVi. 

potency. It is one of the most potent auxiliaries 
in combating the action of the deranged humours 
of the body. The variety called the Samudram 
(sea-brine) is sweet in digestion, and not inordi- 
nately neat-making in its potency. It is not indiges- 
tible, but purgative, slightly demulcent, and does not in- 
ordinately generate the Pittam, and is good in attacks of 
colic pain (Shula). The variety known as Vida salt is 
a little alkaline (in its taste) and is appetising. It tends 
to produce a condition of dryness in the organism, 
and proves beneficial in cases of colic (Shula,) and in dis- 
eases affecting the heart. It imparts a relish to food, is 
sharp and heat-making in its potency, and restores the 
deranged bodily Vayu to its normal state (restoring or 
setting aflow the nerve-current by removing any 
obstruction). Sauvarchala salt is light of digestion, 
heat-making in its potency, and pungent in taste. It is 
appetising, has an agreeable aroma, removes any viscid- 
ness from the internal organism, and proves curative in 
cases of abdominal glands, colic pain and incarceration 
of scybala in the bowels. Romaka salt is sharp 
and intensely heat-making. Its action permeates 
the whole system immediately after its use, and is 
pungent and light of digestion. It subdues the 
Vayu, tends to increase the secretion of the internal 
organs, enters into the minutest capillaries of the 
body, and is purgative and diuretic. Audbhida 
salt is light, sharp, and heat- making in its potency. 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^29 

It acts as a moistener to the internal organs, has a pung- 
ent bitter taste, and is charged with a small quantity of 
alkali. It permeates the minutest capillaries, and tends 
to restore the deranged Vayu to its normal condition. 
Gutika salt destroys the deranged Vayu and K^pham, 
and is vermifugal, appetising, digestant and purgative. 
It tends to aggravate the Pittam and acts as an inter- 
nal liquefacient or antifat. The salt quarried from a salt 
mine situated at the foot of a hill (Shailamulaja), or from 
a sandy (Valukelam) or alkaline soil (Ushakshara\ 
has a pungent taste, and helps the disintegration of 
Kapham, etc. (Chhedi). It is also called pungent 
(Katu) salt. 

The group of Alkalis .—The different 
varieties of alkali (Kshara) such as the Javakshara 
vCarbonate of potash), the Svarjikakshara^ the Pakima 
and the Tankana cifre abdominal glands, piles, 
mesenteric diarrhoea, and gravel and stone in 
the bladder. All these varieties of alkali should 
be regarded as possessed of digestant or stomachic 
properties. Their abuse is known to have brgught 
about cases of hcemoptysis. Of these_, the varieties 
known as the Javakshara and Svarjikakshara are 
inflammatory as fire, and they tend to reduce Kapham, 
remove Vibondha (suppression of stool etc.), piles, and 
abdominal glands and prove curative in cases of enlarged 
spleen. They are anti-spermatopoietic. The alkali 

67 



^^O THE Sl'SHKUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XL\i. 

known as Usharaksliara is heat-making in its potency, 
and subdues the deranged V^yu. It tends to increase 
the shmy (mucous; secretions in the organs and is detri- 
mental to the strength of the body. The variety called 
P^kima tends to reduce obesity, causes a free 
and increased discharge of urine, thus full}- reliev- 
ing the bladder of all its contents (lit : bladder-cleanser). 
The alkali known as the Tankanakshdra (borax) tends 
to produce a condition of dryness in the organism, 
generates the Vayu, subdues the Kapham, and is appe- 
tising in its property. It is moreover known to bring 
about a derangement of tlie Pittam. and is sharp in its 
potency. 

The lYletal group: --Gold has a sweet ;uid 
agreeable taste, acts as a tonic or restorative elixir, im- 
parts rotundity to tlie body, and subdues the action 
of all the three deranged humours of the body. It is 
cooling and antitoxic in its potency and invigorates 
the eyesight. Silver has an acid taste, is laxative and 
cooling (in its potency), presents a glossy or oily aspect, 
and destroys the Pittam and Vayu, Copper has a sweet 
and astringent taste, and acts as a liquefacient and corro- 
sive agent. It is laxative and cooling in its ]~)otency. 
Kansya Indian bell -metal) has a bitter taste, and acts 
as a liquefacient agent. It subdues the Kapham and 
Vayu, and is beneficial to the eyesight. Iron generates 
Vayu, is cooling in its potency, allays thirst and subdues 



Chap. XLVi.] StJTRAStHANAM. ^31 

the deranged Pittam and Kapham. Zinc and lead are 
vermifugal, as well as liquefacient and corrosive. They 
have a saline tas*e. Pearls, corals, diamonds, sapphires, 
Vaidurya (lapis lazuli), crystals, etc. are beneficial to 
the sight, and cooling in their potency. They ar« anti- 
toxic and act as liquefacient or corrosive agents. 
They are possessed of sacred prophylactic virtues, and 
bring good luck to men who wear them, and cleanse 
their wearers from all impurities. Thus the description 
of the salt group is ended. 

IVIetrical texts : —The intelligent shall deter- 
mine the properties of cereals, flesh, fruits, potherbs, 
etc., (other than those described under their respective 
heads in the present chapter), which should be deter- 
mined with the help of their respective tastes, as 
well as from the nature of the predominant material 
principles which enter * into their composition. The 
Shastika, barley, wheat, Rakta-Shali, and the pulses 
such as the Mudga, the Adhakia, and the Masura 
should be regarded as the best and by far the most 
nutritious of the cereals which fall under the respective 
heads of the Paddy Group (Dhanyavarga). The flesh 
of the Lava, Tittiri, Saranga, Kuranga, Ena, Kapin- 
jala, Mayura (peacock), Varmi and Kurma (tortoise) 
should be regarded as the best of those of all other ani- 
mals respectively belonging to their own species. Of 
fruits, those called Dddimva, A'malaka, Drdkshd, 



532 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 



Kharfura, Parushaka, Rcijddana and ■ Mdtulunga 
should be considered as the most commendable 
and efficacious. Of potherbs those- known as the 
Satma, Vdstiika, ChuchcJmka, Chilli, Mulaka-Potikd, 
Mandi'ikaparnij and Jivanti should be regarded as 
possessed of the most commendable properties. Cow's 
milk is the best of milks, and similarly, clarified butter 
made from the milk of a cow should be considered as 
pre-eminently the best and the most efficacious of 
clarified butters. 

Saindhava salt is the best of all other salts. 
Dhdtri and Dddhnva fruit are the best of all 
the acid kinds ; Pippali and Ndgara of all pungent, 
and Patola and Vdrtdkam of all bitter vegetable 
substances. Honey and clarified butter occupy 
the highest place in the list of all sweet articles. 
Pugaphalam and Parushakam are the best of all 
astringent fruit. Sugar is pre-eminently the best of 
all the modifications of the sugar-cane juice, while 
Madvirka and Asava (grape-juice) are the best of all 
cordials. Similarly, the corn (lit : paddy) of a year's 
standmg or matured for a year after being harvested, 
is the most efficacious. The flesh of a young animal, 
as well as well-cooked rice prepared, that day, fully 
ripe fruit, and fresh and tender potherbs should be 
deemed as the best of their respective kinds. 

The kritarina varga :- Now we shall fully 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 533 

deal with the properties of cooked and prepared 
food (Kritaniias). A gruel (Manda) of fried paddy 
seasoned with ^/owdered Pippali and Nagara proves a 
wholesome diet to a patient after the exhibition of pur- 
gatives and emetics, inasmuch as it is digestantf appeti- 
sing and agreeable, and tends to restore the bodily Vayu 
to its normal condition. Peyd is diaphoretic, appetising, 
light of digestion, diuretic (lit : bladder-cleanser). It 
allays thirst and hunger, and tends to remove the sense 
of fatigue and exhaustion. It serves to rekindle an 
impaired appetite and restore (lit : soothes down) the 
deranged Vayu to its normal condition. Vilepi acts as 
an emulcent food and soothes the entire organism. It is 
tonic, and imparts strength and rotundity to the frame. 
It is light, astringent, appetising, agreeable, quenches 
thirst and satisfies hunger. The Yavdgii, when cooked 
with meat, potherbs and fruit, is hard to digest. It is 
otherwise agreeable, soothing, s}iermatopoietic, tissue- 
building, and tonic. ]\Ianda is prepared by carefully 
excluding all the residuar)- shreds of its component 
substances, while Peya is cooked without any such 
exclusion. A gruel, which abounds with such^ seedy 
shreds, is called Vilepi, while the variety, which is 
slightly fluid and extremel}' seedy in its consistency, 
is named Yavagu. The preparation known as the 
Payasa (a sort of porridge cooked by boihng rice 
with milk and sugar) is long retained in the stomach 
in an undigested state and is heavy of digestion, 



534 T'HE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [ Chap. XLVi. 

though it tends to impart strength to the body, and 
generates fat and Kapham in the organism. 

The dish called Krishara (a gruel cooked by boiling 
rice with flesh and sesamum) generates the Kapham and 
Pittam, imparts strength to the body, and subdues the 
Va5''u. A meal consisting of white coloured, well 
threshed, sweet smelling rice, which has been washed 
with care and properly boiled, and well strained 
afterwards, is digested with ease and in the shortest 
space of time, in the event of it being eaten 
hot or warm. On the contrary, a meal consisting 
of uncleansed and unwashed rice improperly boiled 
and taken cold without having been properly strained 
takes a longer time to be digested. Fried rice is 
light and aromatic, and generates the Kapham. Rice 
boiled and cooked with clarified butter or any 
such fatty substance, as well as with meat, acid fruits, 
or with any kind of pulse, forms a rich and hea^•^• 
food which helps to build up new tissues, and imparts 
strength and rotundity to the body. Rice boiled 
and cooked with milk (in a manner other than 
that of preparing the Payasa) acquires properties 
similar to those of the preceding one. A soup made 
of anv sort of fried pulse (such as the Mudga, 
etc.! without its husks is light and wholesome. 
Similarly, potherbs (Shakas) well boiled and well 
squeezed and subsquently cooked with oil or any ohter 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. ^35 

lardaceous substance are wholesome, while those which 
are cooked in a different manner should be considered 
as possessed of Contrary virtues. 

Meat is naturally spermatopoietic and jmparts 
gloss and strength to the system. Moreover, that 
which has been cooked and prepared with clarified 
butter, curd, sour gruel (Kanjika), acid fruits 
(as the pomegranate etc.) pungent and some aromatic 
condiment, (as black pepper, etc.) should be considered 
as a very wholesome diet, though heavy of digestion. 
It is possessed of relishing, strength-giving and tissue- 
building properties. 

The condensed soup or extract of the afore said 
meat, thickened with milk curd and clarified butter, 
and seasoned and cooked with such aromatic condi- 
ments (as black pepper, asafoetida, etc.), tends to 
aggravate the Pittam and Kapham, and acts as an 
appetising, constructive tonic. The meat, which has 
been several times fried with clarified butter and then 
boiled in warm water and afterwards prepared dry with 
such condiments as Jiraka, etc. (so as to have all the 
butter and seasonings fully absorbed in its body 
— Parishushka-Mansa) should be considered as a tooth- 
some, exhilarating, emulcent food, though heavy of diges- 
tion. It imparts firmness to the limbs and increases a 
relish for food, improves the appetite and intellect, 



536 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

builds up fresh tissues, gives rotundity to the 
frame, and produces an increased quantity of semen 
and (ojas) albumen in the organism. Tue meat cooked 
and prepared in the foregoing manner, when minced 
and made into cakes, is called Ullupta-Mansam, 
which resembles the above-said Parishushka-Mansam 
in its properties, though it is lighter than the latter owing 
to the fact of its having been cooked over a charcoal fire. 
The same meat, cooked on an iron rod over a charcoal 
fire, becomes a little heavier as far as digestion is 
concerned, inasmuch as it is roasted with clarified 
butter, etc. 

The varieties of cooked meat such as, the Ullupta 
(minced meat), the Bharjita (fried), the Pishta (made 
into balls or cakes), the Pratapta (roasted with clarified 
butter over a charcoal fire), the Kandupachita (dipped in 
mustard oil and powdered aroiuatic condiments and 
roasted and done to a honey colour over a charcoal fire), 
the Parishuska and the Pradigdha go by the general 
name of Shulyam (cabob). Of the varieties of 
Shulyam, those which are boiled with oil should be 
considered as heat-making in their potency, heavy of 
digestion and as generating the Pittam, Avhile those, 
which have been fried with clarified butter, should 
be regarded as light, appetising, agreeable, relishing, 
beneficial to the eyes, and cooling in their potenc}'. 
They also subdue the Pittam and are pleasant to the 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^^j 

taste.* A tbin meat soup is a pleasant tonic, and proves 
beneficial in cases of dyspnoea, cough, and consumption. 
It subdues the Pittam and Kapham, destroys the V^yu, 
and has an agreeable taste. It is wholesome to persons 
of weak memory and reduced semen, as well as to those 
suffering from cachexia peculiar to chronic fever, from 
general emaciation of the body, from ulcerative endo- 
carditis (Urakshata;, or from diseases affecting the voice 
or the albumen (ojas). It is known to bring about an 
adhesion and reduction of fractured and dislocated bones, 
and increases the quantity of semen and oja (albumen) 
in subjects found wanting in those two important 
principles of hfe. Meat-soup, prepared with the juice 
of the Dadima, etc., and seasoned with pungent 
condiments, increases the quantity of semen and tends 
to subdue the action of all the three deranged humours 
of the body. 

The use of meat of which tjie essence has been 
previously extracted fails to contribute to the growth 
and strength of the organism, and is long retained in an 

* Addifional text : — In the dish known as the Prataptam, the meat 
is first fried with clarified butter, then pasted and flavoured with the 
addition of curd, pomegranate-juice etc. and is again cooked with clarified 
butler, Ajaji, and Sdmudra salt over a charcoal fire, each of the preceding 
substances being added to it in succession during cooking over a gridiron. 
Meat luted with sesamum paste and cooked with the addition of flavouring 
condiments to a honey colour is called Kandupakkam, while the one soaked 
in asafoetida and water and cooked over a gridiron over a smokeless fire by 
sprinkling water over it with the addition of pomegranate juice, etc, is 
called Shulyam. 

68 



538 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLVI. 



undigested state in the stomach and impairs digestion. 
It is insipid, generates the Vayu in the organism, 
and tends to produce a state of parthedness in the 
body. The dish known as the Khanshka Mansa (a 
kind ©f dried meat) is very hard to digest (heavy of 
digestion) and proves wholesome only to men of strong 
digestive powers. The cooked meat called the Veshavara 
(boneless boiled meat subsequently pasted and cooked 
with treacle, clarified butter, black pepper, Pippali, and 
Shunthi, etc.) is heav}- of digestion, demulcent, strength- 
giving, and alleviates diseases due to the action of the 
angry V^yu. The dish known as the Samira is soothing 
to all the fundamental principles of the organism. It 
specially removes parchedness of the mouth, allays 
thirst and hunger, and is palatable and cooling in its 
potency. 

Mudga soup subdues the .Kapham, and is appe- 
tising and agreeable. It forms the most wholesome 
diet to persons whose systems have been cleansed with 
the aid of purgative and emetic remedies, as well 
as to those suffering from ulcers. The soup known as 
the Raga-Shadava (which is another name for Mudga 
soup prepared with grapes and expressed pomegranate- 
juice' is light, and imparts a relish to food. It is 
not hostile to the deranged humours of the bodv 
but slightly subdues their action). The soup of the 
Masura, or of the ]\Iudga, or of the Godhuma or 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 53^ 

of the Kiilattha pulse, prepared with salt is inhostile 
to the Pittam and Kapham, and is specially re- 
commended in nervous diseases (Vata-Vyadhi . The 
soup of the Masura etc., cooked and prepared with raisins 
and pomegranate-juice is beneficial to patients suffering 
from Vata-Vyadhi. It is relishing) appetising, agreeable, 
and light (of digestion). Soups of Mudga, etc., 
prepared with Patola or Ximva tend to reduce the 
quantity of fat and Kapham in the organism, subdue 
the Pittam, are appetising and agreeable, and prove 
curative in cases of Kushtha (cutaneous affections) and 
diseases of parasitic origin. Mudga soup prepared 
with ^Nlulaka removes dyspnoea, cough, catarrh, 
water-brash, fever and a relish for food. It tends 
to reduce fat and Kapham in the organism, and proves 
cm-ative in diseases affecting the throat. 

The soup of the Kula^tha pulse cures diseases due to 
the action of the deranged Vayu, as well as asthma, 
catarrh, and Tuni, Pratituni, cough, piles, abdominal 
glands (Gulma and Udavarta. Prepared with the 
expressed juice of the Dadima or Amalaka it acquires an 
agreeable taste, pacifies the deranged humours, and is 
light, appetising and strength-giving in its virtues. It 
proves curative in epilepsy and obesity, and subdues the 
deranged Vayu and Pittam. Mudga soup cooked with 
Amalakas acquires an astringent property, and proves 
beneficial in derangements of the Kapham and Pittam. 



^4o THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLVI. 

The soups of the Yava,Kola and Kulattha pulses destroy 
the Vayu and are beneficial to the larynx. Similarly, 
soups of all the pulses, which go by the name of Shami- 
Dh^nyas, increase the strength and rotundity of the 
body. Khala and Kamvalika soups are respectively 
agreeable and subdue the V^yu and Pittam. 

All soups cooked and prepared with the expressed 
juice of pomegranate should be known as strength- 
giving, demulcent, and heavy of digestion. They 
subdue the Vayu and Pittam. Soups, made and flavoured 
acid by the mixture of whey, produce the Pittam 
and tend to vitiate the blood and besides aggravate the 
effects of anv imbibed poison lurking in the system. 

The soups and gruels respectively known iis the 
Kharayusha,* the Khara-Yavagu,t the ShadavaJ and 
the Panaka should be prepared with the advice, and 
according to the instmctions of a physician. The soup, 
which is cooked or prepared without the admixture 
of anv salt, condiments (black pepper, pungent 
spices^ or any oily or lardaceous substance, is called 
the Akrita-Yusha (unseasoned soup), whereas the one 
which is cooked and seasoned witli the foregoing 

* Mudga soup prepared with whej', horse-apple, Amrul (oxalic 
corniculata), cumin seeds, black pepper and the roots of Chit A (Plumbago 
Zeylanica). 

t Gruel prepared in the manner of Khara-Yusha. 

t Mudga soup in the composition of which things of sweet, saline, 
astringent, acid and pungent tastes largely enter, 



Chap. XLVI. J SUTRASTHAXAAI. ^^l 

spices and* substances oil, clarified butter, etc., is 
called a seasoned soup (Krita Yusha). Of the soups and 
extracts of meat respectively cooked and prepared with 
the modifications of cow-milk (curd, whey, etc.), Kanjika 
and acid fruits (pomegranate, etc.) each siltceeding 
variety should be deemed lighter and more wholesome 
than the one immediately preceding it in the order of 
enumeration. The soup cooked with the cream of the 
curd and the expressed juice of the Dadima is called 
Kamvalika soup. Articles of food prepared withsesamum 
and its levigated cake, or those in the composition of which 
dried pot herbs, rice threshed out of sprouting paddy 
or Sindaki (a species of potherbs described before) enter, 
should be considered as hea\y of digestion. They subdue 
the Pittam and increase the Kapham. The Vatakas 
resemble the Sindakis in their properties, but are heavy 
of digestion and admit of being incompletely digested, 
giving rise to a kind of acid re-acjtion. The varieties of 
soups known as the Raga* and Shadava are light, tissue- 
building, spermatopoietic, agreeable, relishing, and 
appetising in their properties. They alleviate thirst, 
epileptic fits, vertigo and vomiting, and remjove the 
sense of fatigue or exhaustion. 

The variety of food known as the Rasalat is con- 

* Is made of sugar, Saindhava sail, tamarind, Sarjikshdra, Parushaka 
and the expressed juice of Jambuline fruits ; while the Shadava soup is 
prepared with salt and acid and sweet fruits. 

t A sweet aromatic preparation consisting of acid buftalo-curd, refined 
sugar, milk, powdered cardamom, camphor and black pepper. 



542 THE SUSHKUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

structive, tonic, demulcent, spermatopoietic and relishing. 
Curd sweetend with treacle is agreeable. It generates 
the Vayu in tlie system, and tends to increase the oily 
principle in the organism. Powdered barley soaked in 
clarified' butter and made into a dough with water, 
which is neither too thick nor too thin in its con- 
sistency, is called Mantha, which acts as a tonic 
immediately on it being partaken of. It allays thirst 
and removes the sense of fatigue and exhaustion. The 
Mantha, treated with treacle and clarified butter, proves 
curative in cases of difficult urination and obstinate 
Udavarta. A Mantha prepared with sugar, raisins 
(Drdksha) and the expressed juice of sugar-cane, removes 
diseases due to the derangement of the Pittam. 
Mantha, containing raisins and Madhuka fruit, success- 
fully combats diseases brought about tliroagh the action 
of the deranged Kapham. A Mantha saturated with 
the three aforesaid sybstances (acid and lardaceous, 
sugar and raisins) tends to restore the stool to its 
normal condition. 

Th^ Pariakas :— Well diluted treacle (Panaka\ 
no matter whether it has been rendered acid or 
not with the admixture of Amla lemon juice), is diuretic 
and heavy in respect of digestion. Water saturated with 
treacle, Khanda (unrefined sugar), sugar or gi-apes, and 
made acid with the admixture of an}- acid substance, 
and scented with camphor, should be deemed the 



Chap. XLVi.j SUTRASTHA'NAM. 543 

best of refrjsshing beverages. Water saturated with the 
(expressed juice of) grapes removes the sense of fatigue, 
allays thirst, anfi alleviates epileptic fits, and burning 
sensation of the body. Water potion flavoured with the 
(expressed juice of) Kola or Parushaka is agreeable and 
long retained in the stomach in an undigested state. 
The lightness or heaviness of a potion (Panaka should 
be determined according to the quantities, properties and 
preparations of the articles and substances that enter 
into its composition. Here ends the description of the 
specific properties of Auiieties of prepared food, etc. 
(Kritanna). 

Now we shall describe the virtues of the articles of 
confectionary according to their tastes, potencies, and 
digestive reactions. 

Confectionary — Such as is made with the 
modifications of milk^ is called the Kshira Bhakshyas 
(flour dissolved and stirred in n'ilk with sugar, etc.) 
It is tonic, spermatopoietic, agreeable, appetising and 
aromatic, and tends to impart rotundity to the frame. 
It subdues the Pittam and does not belong to the 
gi"Oup of inconpletely digestibles. Of these, the 
variet}' known as the Ghritapuras articles of food 
prepared bv putting clarified butter in doughs of 
corn-flour) is strength- giving and agreeable. It subdues 
the Vayu and Pittam, is spermatopoietic, and heavy of 
digestion, and tends to create new flesh and blood. The 



544 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVi. 



articles of food known as the Gaudikas prepared by put- 
ting treacle into doughs of corn-flour) are flesh-making, 
spermutopoietic, and heavy in respect' ©f digestion. 
They subdue the Vayu and Pittam and generate the 
Kaphanr, and do not give rise to any reactionary acidity 
after digestion. The articles of food bolonging to 
the groups of Madhumastakas, Sanyavas, and Pupas, are 
heavy in respect of digestion but are flesh building in 
their properties. Modakas are extremely indigestible. 
Sattakas (curd cream saturated with unrefined sugar 
and powdered Trikatus, and then filtered through 
a piece of clean linen, and seasoned with camphor and 
pomegranate seeds) impart a relish to the food. They 
are appetising, beneficial to the voice, heavy in respect 
of digestion, extremely palatable and strength-giving. 
They subdue the Vayu and Pittam (Kapham accord- 
ing to others . Vishyandana* is agreeable, aromatic, 
sweet and demulcent. It destroys the Vayu, and 
generates the Kapham and is heavy, and strength- 
giving. Articles of food or confectionary made of 
powdered wheat (Samita act as constructive tonics, 
and subdue the Vayu and Pittam. Of these, the variety 
known as tlie Phenaka Khdja of our present-day 
confectioners) is agreeable, extremely wholesome and 
light. Cakes stuffed with Mudga-Veshavaras are long 

* Powdered wheal treated with milk, clarified butler and treacle, and- 
made into a paste neillicr to^T «:l;ick nor too ibin in its consistency is called 
Vishyandana. 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^45 

retained in* the stomach in an undigested state, while 
those containing minced and pasted meat (Veshav^ras) 
are heavy and flesh building in their properties. 
Confectionary known as the Palalas (a preparation of 
treacle, pasted sesamum and corn flour) generktes the 
Kaphani ; while the Shashkulis (Luchis and Kachuris 
of our modern confectioners) tend to increase the 
Pittam and Kapham in the organism. Cakes made 
of powdered rice (Pishtakas 1 are heat-making in their 
potency and tend to enrage or aggravate the Kapham 
and Pittam. They further give rise to a reactionary 
acidity after digestion, and are specially heavy in respect 
of digestion, and are slightly strength-imparting. Con- 
fectionary made of Vaidalas (such as the Mudga pulse 
etc.) has an astringent taste, is light in respect of 
digestion, subdues the V^yu and Kapham, is pur- 
gative, and tends to restore the Pittam to its normal 
state, though apt to be long retained in the stomach in 
an undigested state. Cakes made of Masha pulse 
are tonic, spermatopoietic and heavy of digestion. 
Similarly, those that are made of Kurchika are heavy 
in respect of digestion and do not inordinately 
generate the Pittam. Articles of confectionary made 
of sprouting Mudgas, etc., are heavy of digestion, 
generate the Vayu and Pittam, give rise to a re- 
actionary acidity after digestion, and tend to bring on 
nausea and waterbrash (Utklehsha), besides producing a 
parched condition in the organism, and also affecting 
69 



546 '^HE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA'. [Chap. XLvi. 

the eye-sight. Confectionary fried in clafified butter 
has an agi-eeable taste and aroma, is light, 
spermatopoietic, and tonic, subdues 'the Vayu and 
Pittam, and tends to improve the complexion and 
invigorate the eyesight. Similarly, that which is 
Iried in oil is heavy as regards digestion, pungent 
in its digestive reaction, and heat-making in potency. 
It destroys the A'ayu, generates the Pittam and tends 
to affect tlie sight and produces cutaneous affections. 
Confectionary made of fruit, meat, modifications of 
sugar-cane juice (treacle, sugar, etc.), sesamum and 
Masha pulse is tonic, heavy of digestion, tissue- 
building and palatable. Articles of food fried in 
broken vessels of ])aked clay, or cooked over a 
charcoal fire should he considered as light in respect 
of digestion and as possessed of the ^■irtue of aggra- 
vating the bodily Vayu, while those that are prepared 
with lumps of curdled milk should be considered as 
heavy (of digestion) and as increasing the Kapham. 
Kulnidshas ( half boiled Chanakas or gram) generate the 
A'ayu, produce loose stool, and are heavy of digestion, 
and tend to produce a condition of parchedness in 
tlie organism. Articles of food made of fried harlev 
(Vatyai prove curative in cases of Uda^■arta, cough, 
cataiTh and Meha. Dhana fried liarley) and Ulum\a 
(Mudga pulse etc., boiled over a fire) are light of 
digestion and absorb the excess quantity ot fat 
and Kapham in the bod}-. Barley powder (dissohed in 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. ^^y 

water so as to form a sort of thin, pasty potion) 
is flesh-building and spermatopoietic. It allays thirst, 
acts as an instantaneous tonic, subdues the Pittaui. 
Kapham and Vayu, and is possessed of purgative pro- 
perties. Made into thin pasty balls or lumps the^' 
become heavy as regards digestion, while transformed 
into a thin potion with the addition of a copious 
quantity of water the}' are known to acquire a contrary 
virtue (light). Barley powder used as lambative is 
easih^ and speedily digested owing to the softness of 
its consistency. Fried paddy alleviates vomiting and 
dysenter}', and has an astringent sweet taste. It 
is appetising, tonic, and light of digestion, allays 
thirst, constipates the bowels, and tends to restore the 
deranged Kapham to its normal condition. Pulverised 
fried paddy alleviates thirst, vomiting, and a burning 
sensation of the skin, arrests perspiration, and proves 
curative in cases of hasgioptysis and Dahajvara (a type of 
bilious fever characterised b}- unq\ienchable thirst and 
hyperpraxia). Prithuka (thrashed or pasted paddy) is 
heavy of digestion, demulcent and flesh-building, 
and increases the Kapham in the system. Taken 
with milk it acts as a tonic and is laxative and 
destroys the Vayu. Immature or newly-harvested rice 
has a sweet taste, is hard to digest and acts as a tissue- 
builder. Old or well matured rice brings about the 
adhesion of fractured bones and proves curative 
in cases of Meha. As a large variety of substances 



548 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. 



[ Chap. XLVI. 



enters into the composition (of our daily food\ a 
physician should prescribe a course of diet for his patient 
after carefully considering the nature of the food stuffs 
and the properties they acquire through combination 
and seasoning, as well as the natural longings of a 
person for a certain kind of food during the preponder- 
ance of certain deranged humours of the body. 

Anuparnam or After- Potions :— Now 

Nve shall discourse on drinks and potions which are 
found to be beneficial when taken after a certain kind 
of food (Anup^nas.) 

Certain people oppressed with an acid taste naturally 
long for sweets, while others in full satiet}" of sweet 
articles have a relish for acid things. Hence something 
acid is good for the eater of sweets, and sweets are good 
for men who have partaken of an acid food. 

Cold water and warm water> Asava ( wine), Madya 
(spirits), the soup of Mudga pulse etc., the juice of acid 
fruits, sour paddy gruel, milk and essence of meat 
are generally used as drinks after a full meal. Of 
these, that alone which would prove beneficial to a 
person should be given him in an adequate quantity. 
The intelligent physician should determine the kind of 
after- drink (potion) required in each case after taking into 
consideration the nature of the disease under treatment, 
the season of the year, and the properties of the solid or 
Hquid substances that enter into the composition of the 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



549 



diet. Of all kinds of after-potions, clear heavenly 
(atmospheric) water, kept in a pure vessel, should be 
deemed the bes^, inasmuch as such water contributes in 
every way to the welfare (is conducive to the bodily 
growth) of a person throughout his life, and all the six 
different tastes are inherent in that heavenly fluid. 
Briefl}^ we have stated the rule to be observed in respect of 
after-potions, now we shall dilate upon their specific pro- 
perties. Hot water should be taken after any oih' 
or lardaceous substance other than those known 
as the oils of Bhallataka and Tauvaraka. Certain 
authorities hold that the soup of Mudga pulse and sour 
rice gruel (Kanjika) should be respectively taken (in 
summer and winter) after having taken a large 
quantity of oil in the course of a meal. Cold water 
should be taken after cakes and hone)-, as well as 
after curd, Payasa porridge, and also in cases of 
poisoning and derangements due to the effects of 
wine. According to several authorities tepid water 
should be taken after an}- kind of cake (preparation 
of rice paste etc.) 

Milk or meat essence should be prescri'bed as 
an after-potion to persons habituated to meals of Shall-' 
rice or Mudga pulse, or who have become fatigued 
with the labours of a battle or of a long journey, 
or w^ho are oppressed with the heat of the sun 
or of a blazing fire, as well as to those who would 



550 THE SI\SHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLM. J; 

be found to be o^-ercome from the effects of poison or 
wine. Sour rice gruel, or cream of curd should be drunk 
after having taken Masha pulse, etc. W,me (Madya) is 
the proper after- drink for persons addicted to it, which 
is also recommended alter a meat diet. Cold water or 
acid fruit juice (such as that of the pomegranate, etc.) 
forms the best after-drink for those who are not in the 
habit of taking wine. Milk is ambrosia to persons 
enfeebled with arduous study, or excessive sexual inter- 
course, and to every one after an exposure to the sun 
after a long troubled journey. Wine (Sura) is the after- 
drink for enfeebled subjects, and water saturated with 
honey is the potion for corpulent persons. Healthy per- 
sons may use a ^■ariety of desserts and beverages during 
and after meals. Things which are demulcent in their 
virtues and heat-making in their potency should be 
considered as a wholesome diet in diseases due to 
the deranged Vayu. Substances, which are heat- 
making in their potetlcy and tend to produce a con- 
dition of parchedness (Ruksha) in the organism, should 
be prescribed as a wholesome diet in diseases brought 
about through the action of the deranged Kapham. 
Similarly, those which are sweet and cooling in their 
potency, prove wholesome in Pittaja distempers. Milk 
and the expressed juice of sugar-cane are beneficial to 
persons suffering from haemoptysis. The Asavas (wines) 
of the Arka, Shelu, and Shirisha are beneficial to those 
suffering from the effects of any poison. 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



55^ 



Now wfe shall separately describe the after-drinks 
to be taken after having used the articles of food dealt 
with under the several groups discussed before. The acid 
soup of Indian Jujubes (Kola) should be taken after 
a meal consisting of any of the afore-said cereAls such 
as, the Shukadhanyam, Kudhanyam, etc. Sour gruel 
should be used after a meal of Mudga pulse, or of any 
similar grain. The Asa\a (vN'ine of the Pippali should be 
used after a meal of the long thighed venisons, or of 
the flesh of those of the Dhanvaja family. Kola 
and Vadara wines should be used after having 
taken the cooked flesh of the fowls of the \'ishkira 
species. The wine of Kshira-Vriksha should be used 
after a meal consisting of the flesh of the Pratuda 
species. Cocoanut and date palm wines should be 
used after having eaten the flesh of the cave-dwelling 
.(guha-shaya) species. Krishna Gandha wine should 
be used after the flesh of the P^irna-Mriga (arboreous) 
familv. Ashvagandha wine should be taken after 
the flesh of the Prasaha species. Phalasara wine 
should be taken after the flesh of any of the hole- 
dwelling (Vileshaya) animals. Triphala wine should be 
taken after the flesh of an animal with unbifurcated^ 
hoops (Ekashapha). Khauira wine should be taken 
after the flesh of an animal with bifurcated hoofs. 

The Asava (wine of Shringataka or Kasheruka should 
be taken after havmg eaten the flesh of an animal of 



552 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap, XLVi, 

the Kulechara (frequenting the shores of lakes etc.l 
species. The same wines should be regarded as proper 
after-potions after a meal consisting of molluscs 
(Koshastha), or of the flesh of an animal of the Padi 
(lizard) family. Asava of sugar-cane (vinegar) should be 
taken after having eaten the flesh of an animal of the 
Plava (diving) family. Mrinalam wine should be 
taken after any Nadeya fish (whose habitat is the 
river). Matulungu wine should be taken after the flesh 
of any of the sea fish (Samudra). Padma (lotus bulb), 
wine should be taken after acid fruits. Pomegranate, 
or Vetra wines should be taken after astringent fruits. 
The Asava of Kanda [Khanda— D. R.] treated with the 
three pungent drugs known as the Trikatus should be 
taken after sweet fruits. Sour and fermented rice gruel 
should be taken after Tala fruits, etc. The wine of 
Durva, Nala, or of Vetra should be taken after 
pungent fruits. The Asava of Shvadanstra or of Vasuka 
should be taken after Pippalis, etc. Darvi, or Karira 
wines should be taken after Kushmandas, etc. The 
Asava of Lodhra should be taken after taking the 
Chuchchu, potherbs etc. Triphala wine should be 
taken after the Jivanti, potherbs, etc., and the same 
rule should be observed in respect of Kusumbha 
potherbs. 

The Asava (wine) of the drugs known as the Mahd 
Panchamula should be taken after such potherbs as 



Chap. XLVI.] SUTRASTHANAM. 553 

the Mandufta-parni, etc. Wines of acid fruit should be 
taken after the pitli or marrow of such trees as 
the Date-pahn, Tala, etc. The wine known as the 
Surasava, or fermented rice gruel should he taken after 
an excess of Saindhava salt, etc. Water may be* taken 
in absence of the proper after-drink in all cases. 

Authoritative verses on the sub- 
ject. — Atmospheric or rain water is the best of all 
drinks and cordials. That kind of water is whole- 
some to a person to which he is habituated from his 
birth. Hot water is beneficial in derangements of the 
Vayu and Kapham, and cold water is good in diseases 
which have their origin in the vitiated blood, or in 
the deranged Pittam. An excessively heavy meal, 
as well as the one which usually tends to derange 
the fundamental humours of the body, may be easily 
and speedily digested with the help of a suitable after- 
drink. A proper after-potion taken after a meal brings 
on a fresh relish for food, increases the bulk of the 
body, acts as a spermatopoietic beverage, disintegrates 
the combination or accumulation of the deranged bodily 
humours, soothes the organism, increases the softness 
of the body, removes the sense of fatigue and exhaus- 
tion, brings on pleasurable sensations in its train, 
stimulates the appetite, subdues or pacifies the deranged 
bodily humours, allays the thirst, improves the com- 
plexion, and imparts tone and vigour to the system. 

70 



554 



THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVI. 



Any beverage resorted to at the commencement of a 
meal tends to produce a gradual emaciation of the frame; 
the one taken during the course of a meal guards 
against both its thinning and corpulency, while the one 
drunk at the close of a meal serves to greath' add 
to its growth and rotundity. Hence, drinking at meals 
should be most judiciously determined and taken with 
the greatest forethought and discretion. The food carried 
down into the stomach of a person unused to such 
liquids long retains undigested and resists being con- 
verted into chyme or being digested, and becomes a 
positive source of discomfort. Hence, the use of an after- 
potion is imperatively obligatory on all human beings, 
except those suffering from dyspnoea, cough, ulcerative 
endocarditis ( Urahkshata), ptyalism, aphonia, and 
from diseases affecting the part of the body situated 
above the clavicles. 

After the use of an after-potion, a long walk, a 
lengthy conversation, singing, sleeping and reading 
should be refrained from, in order that the im.bibed 
potion may not affect the stomach, and (aggravate the 
bodily humours) which taking lodgment about the 
regions of the throat and chest may give rise to a 
secretion of mucous, impair the appetite, develop such 
distressing symptoms as vomiting etc., and produce many 
other distempers as well. 

The lightness or heaviness of a food stuff does not 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTkAS'l'HANAM. 



555 



go contrary to nature.* These properties depend more 
upon the mode of cooking or preparing them than upon 
the nature of tl?e substances themselves;* more upon 
the quantity in which they are taken than the mode ol 
their cooking or preparation ;t and more upon the food 
(ht. boiled rice) itself than upon the quantity of its 
use, I and more upon the time (of its maturity) than 
upon the food.§ 

The question of lightness or heaviness of a food 
stuff affects the idle, the unhealthy, the luxurious, 
and men of delicate constitution and impaired appe- 
tite, and such nice discernment of the properties of an 
article of food is not imperatively obligatory on strong, 
healthy men of active habits and good healthy digestion, 
who are habituated to hard and solid fares, and who 
can tolerably afford to dispense with such thoughts , 
altogether. Here ends the description of the group of 
after-potions. • 

Hear me, O my child, discourse on the rules to be 
observed in connection with eating. The kitchen 

* If it be asked why the flesh of an animal of the Janigh^l?, family is 
light ? The answer would be because il is naturally so. 

* As for example, Wihi corn is naturally heavy of digestion, but* 
fried Vribi seeds are light, t As for instance, a heavy food should be 
taken till the appetite is but half satisfied, while an article which is light 
with regard to digestion may be eaten to satiety. J As for instance, 
of the varieties of food such as the Manda, Peya, X'ilepi, Bhakta and 
Pishtaka, each succeeding one is heavier than ihe one immediately preceding 
it.§ As for example, newly hanested rice is heavier than the one of a 
year's standing. 



556 THE SUSHKUTA SAMHITA. [Ch»p. XLM. 

should be made spacious and kept clean and pure, 
and none but the trusted ones should have access 
thereto. The physician should get the food or diet 
prepared by experienced cooks (so as to impart to it 
the ta^ie and the colour he desires), and have it 
kept at a clean and pure spot, concealed from the -view 
of the public. After that, the food having been made 
innocuous by the admixture of anti-toxic medicines, 
and freed from all poison by reciting (an Arthavan) 
mantra over it, and having been besprinkled with the 
water of mystic incantation, should be served (to the 
king). 

Serving of a IVIcal : — Now I shall describe 
the mode of serving out the different dishes. Clarified 
butter should be served out in a vessel of steel (Kanta- 
Loha) ; Peya, in a silver bowl ; and all kinds ot fruit 
and confectionary (such as the Laddukas), on leaves. 
The preparations of meat known as the Parishushka and 
Pradigdha Mansam should be served on golden plates ; 
fluid edibles and meat essences in silver bowls; Katvaras 
and Kharas in stone utensils ; and cool boiled milk 
(Payah) in copper vessels. Other drinks, wines and 
cordials should be given in earthen pots ; and Raga- 
Sh^davas and Sattakas, in cool pure glass bowls, or in 
vessels made of crystal and Vaidurya gems. The cook 
should ]ilace the bowls containing preparations of pulse, 
boiled rice and lambatives on clean, spacious trays 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHA'NAM. 



557 



I 



of fanciful" design, and spread them out in front fof 
the king/ All kinds of desserts, confectionary and 
dry viands should be served on his right, while all 
soups etc., meat- essences, drinks, cordials, milk, Khada- 
Yusha, and Peya should be placed on his left. 
Bowls containing preparations of treacle, Raga-Shadava, 
and Sattaka should occup)- a place midway between 
the two sets of bowls described above. 

The intelligent physician, well conversant with 
the rules of serving dishes as above laid down, should 
attend upon the king at his table, and spread out on the 
purified level floor of a solitary, beautiful, spacious, 
blissful, perfumed and flower-decorated chamber, and 
the king should partake of those sacred and pleasant 
dishes, served neither hot nor cold, and cooked and 
seasoned in the desired mode, and possessed of their 
specific tastes. „ 

The physician in attendance should see that the 
king first partakes of the sweet dishes, then of the acid 
and saline, and of the pungent and other ones at 
the close of the meal.* First or at the forepart of a 
meal, such fruit as the pomegranate, etc., should be eaten, 
after that, Peyas and boiled rice and prepared dishes, as 

* The lasle of sweel viands ealeii al the outset would naturally go to 
subdue llie Vdyu located in the stomach ; acid or saline taste partaken 
of at the middle of a meal would rouse u|) the fire of digestion located in 
the pancreas (x\gnyashaya), while the pungent taste enjoyed at its close 
would lend to subdue the Kupham. 



558 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. : Chap. XLVi. 

well as confectionary. Certain authorities maintain that 
solid or thick viands should be eaten at the outset, 
while others a^er that the contrary should be the 
rule. Of fruits, the Amalaka has the greatest humour- 
destroying properties, and is the most harmless of them 
all. Amalaka (fruit) is therefore recommended at the 
outset, middle and the close of a meal. Such things as 
the Mrinalam (the stem of a lotus plant), the Visham (the 
lotus bulb), Shaluka, Kanda and sugar-cane should be 
eaten at the beginning of a meal, and never at its close. 
A man, who is well-read in the Science of medicine 
(Ayurveda), should sit during his meal in an easy posture 
on a high seat and partake, at the right time, with his 
body erect and his whole mind engaged in the act 
of eating light, wholesome emollient and warm viands, 
which are congenial to his temperament and abound 
in fluid preparations, with an adequate quantity 
of boiled rice, neither too hurriedly nor too slowlv, 
even when feehng the pinch of a keen and piercing 
hunger. 

Food eaten with a good appetite tastes pleasant 
and relishing. The food which is congenial to one's 
temperament begets no discomfort after the eating. 
Light food is soon digested. Emollient food gives 
tone and vigour to the system. Warm food improves 
the appetite. Food eaten neither too slowlv nor too 
hurriedly is uniformly digested. Food abounding in 



Chap. Xl.VI.j SUTRASTHAXAM. 



559 



fluid components is not iniperfecth' digested, nor is 
attended by any acid reaction. Moderation in food 
leads to a happy and perfect digestion and tends to 
maintain the fundamental ]irinciples of the bodv in 
tlieir normal state. * 

During the cold months, when the nights are longer, 
substances, which tend to subdue the bodily humours 
which are naturally deranged during that season, should 
be eaten in the morning, while during the seasons, when 
the days are inordinately long, things which are 
congenial in those seasons should be eaten in the 
afternoon. (In spring and autumn ) when days and 
nights are equal, the meal should be taken just at 
the middle part of the day and night.* 

A meal should not be eaten before the appointed 
time, nor before the appetite has fully come. 
Similarly, over or insufficient eating should be equally 
refrained from. Eating at an improper time and before 
the system feels light and free brings on a large 
number of diseases, and may ultimately lead to death. A 
meal eaten at an hour long after the appoiiited time 
tends to aggravate the bodily Vayu, which affects thg 

" This rule holds good in the case of persons, who eat a single meal in 
the course of a day and night. Those, who are in the habit of eating two 
meals a day, should eat a light half meal at one and quarter Prahara in the 
morning and another between the third and the fourth Praharas in the 
afternoon (Panjikdkfira). According to Jejjada, the nieals should be 
between the third and ilie fourth Prahara both in the day and night. 



560 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chc>p. XLVI. 

digestive fire, and offers serious obstacles in the way of 
its digestion. The food thus digested with difficulty in 
the stomach creates discomforts and destroys all desire 
for a second meal. Insufficient diet gives but in- 
adequate^satisfaction, and tends to weaken the bod)'. 
Over eating, on the contrary, is attended with such dis- 
tressing symptoms, as languor, heaviness of the body, 
disinclination for movements, and distension of the 
stomach, accompanied by rumbling in the intestines, etc. 
Hence it behoves a man to take only as much food as 
he can easily digest, which should be well cooked and 
made to possess all the commendable (adequately 
nutritive) properties. Moderation in diet is the golden 
rule, besides taking into consideration the demerits of 
a particular food before partaking thereof and the 
nature of the time (day or night) it is eaten. 

Boiled rice food (Annam ) which is impure and dirty, 
infested with poison, or out of which another has 
eaten a portion as well as that which is full of weeds, 
pebbles, dust etc., which the mind instinctivel)^ repels, 
or cooked on the previous day or which has been 
kept standing over-night, as well as that which is 
insipid or emits a fetid smell, should be similarly 
rejected. Also food which has been cooked long ago, 
or has become cold and hard, and has been 
rewarmed or which has been imperfectly strained, or is 
burnt and insipid should also not serve as food. More 



Chap. XLVi. ] SUTRASTHANAM. 



561 



and more" palatable dishes should be successively taken 
in the course of a meal. During the course of a meal, 
the mouth should be frequently rinsed or gargled 
inasmuch as the palate thus constantly being cleansed 
becomes more susceptible to taste, and anythifig eaten 
thereafter is relished the better and gives all the 
pleasures of a first morsel. The palate affected with a 
sweet taste at the outset fails to appreciate the tastes of 
the successive dishes. Hence, the mouth should be 
washed at intervals during the meal. Sweet food eaten 
with a relish pleasurably affects the mind, brings joy, 
energy, strength, and happiness in its train, and 
contributes to the growth of the body ; whereas the 
one of a contrary character is attended with opposite 
effects. The food, which does not satiate a man even 
after repeated eating, should be considered as agree- 
able (Svddu) to him. After finishing a meal water 

» 
should be drunk in a quantity whij:h would be beneficial. 

Food adhering to the teeth should be gently drawn 

out by means of a tooth-pick, inasmuch as if not 

removed a kind of fetor is produced in the mouth. 

•I 
The Vayu is increased after the completion of 

digestion, the Pittam, during the continuance of 
the process, while the Kapham is increased immediately 
after the act of eating. Hence, the Kapham is to be 
subdued after the close of a meal, and the intelli- 
gent eater should attain that end by partaking fruit 
71 



562 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVi. 

of an astringent, pungent, or bitter taste, or by 
chewing a betel leaf prepared with broken areca nut, 
camphor, nutmeg, clove, etc., or by smoking, or by 
means of anything that instantaneously removes the 
viscidity Mn the cavity of the mouth, and permeates 
it with Its own essence. 

Then the eater should take rest, like a king, till 
the sense of drowsiness incidental to eating is removed. 
After this he should walk a hundred paces and lie down 
in a bed on his left side. After eating, a man should 
enjoy soft sounds, pleasant sights and tastes, sweet per- 
fumes, soft and velvety touch, in short anything that 
ravishes the soul and enwraps the mind with raptures 
of joy, since such pleasurable sensations greatly help 
the process of digestion. Sounds, which are harsh and 
grating, sights, M'hich are abominable, touches, that are 
hard and unpleasant, smells, which are fetid and dis- 
agreeable, encountered after a meal, or the eating of 
impure and execrable boiled rice, or a loud side- 
splitting laugh after a meal is followed by vomiting. 

The after-meal siesta should not be long and 
continuous ; basking before a fire, exposure to the 
sun, travelling, driving in a carriage, swimming, bathing 
etc., should be avoided just after the close of a full 
and hearty meal. A diet which abounds in fluid 
courses should be refrained from. Only a single taste 
should not be enjoyed in the course of a meal. 



Chap. XLV[. ] SUTFASTHA'NAM. 563 

Cooked potherbs, boiled rice of inferior quality, and 
a course of diet abounding in acid taste should be 
avoided. Articles of one taste should not be eaten 
in large quantities at a time, nor articles of various 
tastes should be constantly indulged in. A second 
meal should not be eaten on the same da}' in the event 
of the appetite having become dulled by a previous meal. 
Eating with a previous meal only partially digested 
seriously impairs the digestive functions. A man 
of dull or impaired appetite should refrain from eating 
heavy articles of food, as well as from partaking of 
large quantities of light substances. Cakes should never 
be eaten, and a double quantitiy of water should 
be taken if they are eaten at all out of hunger, 
by which their safe digestion would be ensured. 
Of drinks, lambatives and confectionary (solid food), 
each succeeding one is heavier than the one im- 
mediately preceding *it in the order of enumeration. 
Heavy articles of food should be taken in half measures 
only, while the lighter ones may be eaten till satiety. 
Liquid food, or that which abounds in liquid sub- 
stances should not be taken in large quantities. Dry 
articles of food taken in combination with a large 
number of other substances fail to do any injury 
to the stomach. Dry food (Annam) taken alone 
can not be completely digested. It is transformed 
into lumps in the stomach, is irregularly chymed, 
and produces deficient gastric digestion followed by 



364 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA [Chap. XLVI. 

a reactionary acidity. The injested food) whether 
of a character that stamps it as belonging to the 
Vidahi group or not, is but incompletely digested 
and gives rise to a reactionary acidity in the event 
of the Pittam being confined in the stomach, or in the 
intestines. Dry food (cakes, etc.\ incompatible food 
combinations (milk with fish and so on), and those, which 
are long retained in the stomach in an undigested state, 
tend to impair the digestive functions (Agni). 

The Kapham, Pittam, and Vayu respectively pro- 
duce the types of mucous indigestion of chvme 
(Amajirnam), acid indigestion (Vidagdhajirnam), and 
indigestion due to incarcerated fecal matter (Vish- 
tabdhajirnami. Certain authorities aver that there is a 
fourth class of indigestion, known as the indigestion 
of unassimilated chyle ( Rasa-shesha). Drinking of an 
abnormal quantity of water, irregular eating, voluntary 
suppression of any natural urging of the bodv, sleep 
in the day, keeping of late hours in the night, 
partaking of a light food with a strong appetite are 
the factors which interfere with the proper digestion 
of food and develop symptoms of indigestion. The 
food taken by a person under the influence of envv. 
passion, greed, or anger, etc., or by a man suffering 
from a chronic distemper, is not properly digested. 

Types of Indigestion :— A case of indi- 

s^estion in which the undis^ested food matter ac- 



l 



Chap. XLVI. ] 3UTRASTHAXAM. 



565 



quires a sWeet taste is called chymous (or mucous; 
indigestion (Amajirnam), that in which the undi- 
gested food acquires an acid taste in the stomach 
is called Vidagdha indigestion. The form in which 
the food matter brought down into the stomach 
is partially or irregularly digested (one portion* being 
digested, the other being not) followed by a pricking 
or piercing pain in the stomach and entire suppres- 
sion of the flatus, is called Vishtabdha indigestion. 
The type known as indigestion of unassimilated chyle 
is characterised by the absence of any acid or sour 
eructations, but the patient feels no inclination for food 
inspite of the normal character of the eructations, if any. 
The type is further characterised by pain about the 
region of the heart, and water-brash. The unfavourable 
symptoms of indigestion are sudden loss of conscious- 
ness, delirium, vomiting, water-brash, languor with a 
gone-feeling in the limbs, and v^tigo, etc., which may 
end in death. 

Fasting is beneficial in a case of Amajirnam indiges- 
tion. Ejection of the contents of the stomach giv^s relief 

in a case of Vidagdha indigestion. Fomentation will 

• 

alleviate a case of Vishtavdha indigestion, while in an 
indigestion of unassimilated chyle, the patient should 
be confined to bed and fomentations and digestive 
medicines should be administered as well. In a case of 
Vidagdha indigestion the patient should be made to 



566 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

vomit the contents of his stomach with the help of 
warm water saturated with salt, while in a case of 
chymous indigestion the patient should forego all food 
till he is restored to his natural condition. A patient 
suffering' from indigestion whose S5'stcm has been 
cleansed and lightened with the abovesaid appliances 
should go fasting till he is restored to his natural 
condition as regards the strength and humours of the 
body. 

The eating together of both wholesome and unwhole- 
some articles of food is called promiscuous eating 
(Samashanam). Over or insufficient eating at intervals 
and at improper seasons goes by the denomination 
of irregular eating (Visham^shanam). Eating before 
a former meal is thoroughly digested in the stomach is 
called Adhyashanam. These three kinds of eating are 
injurious, and speedily give rise tp a variety of diseases, 
or may be ultimately Attended with fatal consequences. 
The drinking of cold ^^ater helps the speedy digestion of 
a partially digested food, which has already been attend- 
ed with a reactionary acidity, inasmuch as the coldness 
of the imbibed water tends to subdue the deranged 
' Pittam, and the food thus moistened by the water 
naturally gravitates into the intestines. 

The man, who complains of a burning sensation in 
the stomach, throat or heart, shall find rehef by licking 
a paste made of honey and powdered Haritaki, or of 



Chap. XLVI. ] SUTRASTHAN M. ,5. 

pulverised Haritaki and Draksha. The man, \\ho, though 
strong and effulgent with the glow .1 health, ap.-.rehen 
an attack of indigestion in the ivorning, :'\iv 
partake of a wholesome mid-day meal after 
taken powdered Abhaya and Shunti. Appeti^L. 
be experienced even in a state of indigestion, v.h 
chyle or food matter, accumulated in the stoni< 
pressed upon by the deranged humours, is confineti ► 
corner of the viscus without obstructing the passage c 
heat of the local fire. This vicarious appetite kills 
its duped victims with the swiftness of a poison. 

Specific properties of matter: -Xow 

we shall deal with the actions of several properties of 
matter, and fiom them should be inferred the nature of 
the properties which are inherent in variou'.> kinds 
of matter. 

Coldness — is pleasurable, exercises styptic 
virtues, alleviates epileptic fits, thirst and a burning sen- 
sation of the body, and arrests perspiration. Heat is the 
reverse in its action to coldness. It greatly helps to set 
in the process of suppuration in boils and abscesses. 
Oleaginousness imparts a gloss or oiliness, and acts as 
an emollient tonic, and cosmetic. Parchedness is the 
opposite of oleaginousness ; it produces stypsis and makes 
a thing rough to tactual perception. Sliminess is 
vitalising, tonic, heavy as regards digestion, and tends* 
to produce Kaphani, and brings about the adhesion 



r,58 I'HE : ;^i-iKU'i-^ ^A^iHITA. [ Chap. XLVI. 

of fr Aured bunes. Il-.c quality of absorpti'on (Vishad) 

I J opposite of sliniiness. It absorbs or soaks up 

^..> secretions and helps the process of heahng 

' or ulcer. Keenness or sharpness begets 

g and suppun-^^ion, and arrests secretions. 

;ss or softness is the oppOvSite of sharpness. 

... ./. less produces languor, increases excrements, and 

y-jr conic, pleasing and flesh- buiMing. Lightness is the 

opposite of heaviness. It acts as a liquefacient and 

healing agent. The ten a irtues v."ith their actions 

have now been described. 

Now hear me describe the other ten properties of 
matter with their specific actions. Fluidity is moisten- 
ing. Compactness is thickening and obstructive. 
Humidity is like shminesS. Roughness is like absorp- 
tion. Odoriferousness is pleasurable, subtile, mild and 
relishing. Fetidness [s the opposite of -odoriferousness, 
produces nausea, and brings on a non-rehsh for food. 
Laxativeness restores the normal condition of the 
humours. Narcotism changes the condition of 
vitality. Expansiveness (like that of wine) is the 
property in virtue of which a drug or a substance 
instantaneously permeates the whole organism and is 
subsequently digested. Evolution or Emanativeness is 
somewhat identical in its virtue with expansiveness 
with the exception that it permeates the organism 
in its undigested state, aud tends to disintegrate the 



J 



Chap. XLVL] SUTRASTHANAM. 569 

root prfhciples of the body. Instantaneoiisness, 
like the expansion of a drop of oil cast into a bowl of 
water, helps to permeate the whole organism 
simultaneously with the use of a drug. Subtility is the 
quality in virtue of which a thing can penetrate into the 
smallest capillaries and channels of the body.» These 
twenty qualities or virtues have been described as 
they are. 

Now we shall describe the transformations which the 
food stuffs undergo in the organism. This animated 
organism is composed of the five fundamental material 
principles, and the food of a living organic being 
necessarily partakes of the character of its corporeal 
components. The food, which consists of live funda- 
mental material principles (elements), is digested, in 
its turn, by the five elemental heat or fire, and each 
of its constituent principles goes to augment its own 
kindred in the human organism.^ 

The food, which is followed by a sweet, digestive 
reaction, goes to increase the quantity of Pittam, while 
the one, which is completely digested, contributes 
towards the augmentation of the bodily Vayu (nerv^e 
force). The stool and the urine are the excreted 
portion of the well-digested food, the lymph chyle is 
the substance drawn from the well- matured chyle, 
(as has been described in the chapter on the description 
of Blood, Chap. XIV. of the present work). The 



570 THE SUSHRUTA SAMHITA. [Chap. XLVl. 

lymph chyle carried a\vay by the vital Vayu known 
as Vyana tends to strengthen all the fundamental 
pnnciples of the body. 

Kaphftm is the excreted portion of the lymph 
chyle, the Pittam is that of the blood, the waxy 
impurities found in the tympanum, etc., are the 
excreted portions of flesh. Perspiration is the 
excreted matter of fat. Nails and hair are the 
excreted portions of the bones. The waxy deposits 
found in the corners of the e3'es, and the oily secretions 
which sometimes mark the skin are the excreted por- 
tions of marrow. With the dawn of day a man wakes 
from sleep, and his heart unfolds like a lotus flower, 
and so remains till sleep folds up his eyelids. Hence, 
the root principles of the body continue non- 
humid during the state of waking. Accordingly, a 
man may partake of a meal ac night, even if the 
food eaten in the day continues till then undigested, 
without the fear of committing the physical sin of 
Adhyashanam (super-eating). But the reverse is the 
case in respect of a similar conduct in the night 
when man has recourse to sleep and his heart 
Remains constricted in a state of unconsciousness, 
and the root principles of his body become loose 
and charged with humidity. Hence, it is beneficial to 
fast on the following day in the event of the food taken 
overnight being found to be not properly digested. 



Chap. XLV. SUTR.ASTHANAM. 57 1 

He, who carefully peruses lliese rules regarding 
the regimen of diet as approved of by the holy^sage 
Dh^nvantari, the greatest of all the Rajarshis ( royal 
aermits), becomes great in wisdom, and is sure to be 
glorified with the proud distinction of being the medical 
adviser of his king or his nobles. 

Thus ends the forty-sixth Chapter of the SutrasthSnam in the Sushruta 
SamhilA which treats of Food and Drink. 



Here ends the Sutrastharnam. 



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